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Full text of "The Cambridge modern history"

I'Taf* 



Ex Libris W. P. M. KENNEDY 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/cannbridgemodernhOOcannb 



THE 

CAMBRIDGE 
MODERN HISTORY 

ATLAS 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

Hontion: FETTER LANE, E.G. 

C. F. CLAY, Manager 




(ZHjinburgf) : loo, PRINCES STREET 

38crlm: A. ASHER AND CO. 

ILetpjig: F. A. BROCKHAUS 

i^efaj gork: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

©omliaB anU (JTalcutta; MACMILLAN AND CO.. Ltd. 



All rights reserved 



THE 



CAMBRIDGE 
MODERN HISTORY 

ATLAS 



EDITED BY 

A. W. WARD LiTT.D., P.B.A. 

G. W. PROTHERO Litt.D., F.B.A. 

STANLEY LEATHES M.A., CB. 

ASSISTED BY 
E. A. BENIANS M.A. 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

191 2 




699 Co 






CambrttigE: 

PRINTED KY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



PKEFACE. 

THE arrangement of the Maps contained in The Cambridge Modern 
History Atlas, the publication of which has been retarded by 
unforeseen circumstances, is explained in the ensuing Introduction. 
This arrangement follows so far as is possible the order of the narrative 
in The Cambridge Modern History, and an endeavour has been made to 
insert all the place names that occur in it. 

At the same time, the entire series is designed to stand by itself as 
an Atlas of Modern History. The general idea of the Atlas is to 
illustrate, in a series of maps of Europe and of its different countries, 
as well as of other parts of the world associated with the progress of 
European History, the course of events by which the Europe of the 
fifteenth century has been transformed into the Europe of the present 
day. Some of the maps are designed to illustrate political divisions, 
others territorial changes, wars by land or sea, the growth of particular 
States, the course of religious changes, and the history of colonial 
expansion. 

The Introduction has been written by Mr E. A. Benians, Fellow 
and Lecturer of St John's College, who was entrusted by the Editors 
with the general work of constructing the maps and revising them 
during reproduction, and who has carried out this work under their 
supervision. They desire to place on record their sense of the great 
ability and unremitting care with which he has executed his laborious 
and responsible task, spread over more than four years. During the 
greater part of the present year he has been assisted in the revision of 
certain of the maps and of the Introduction by Mr H. F. Russell-Smith, 
of St John's College, Allen Scholar of the University, who has also 
compiled the Indexes to the Introduction. 

In a historical atlas of this kind it is manifestly impossible to 
enumerate all the materials which have been used in the drawing of 

a3 



vi Preface. 

the several maps. In the present instance constant reference has been 
made, as a matter of course, to the great historical atlas of Spruner ; 
and the more recent atlases of Droysen and Poole (The Oxford 
Historical Atlas) have also been of much service, together with those 
of Vidal de La Blache, Schrader and Hertslet. 

The Editors desire to return their thanks for much valuable aid of 
various kinds received in the course of the preparation of the Atlas, 
from contributors to The Cambridge Modern History and from other 
scholars. Among the former are Mr E. Armstrong (Vice-Provost of 
Queen's College, Oxford), Professor J. B. Bury, Mr F. A. Kirkpatrick, 
Sir William Lee- Warner, G.C.S.I., Professor Pares, Dr Tanner, 
Mr H. W. V. Temperley, Mrs K. D. Vernon ; among the latter. 
Professor Marczali (Budapest), Mr R. S. Rait (Fellow and Tutor of New 
College, Oxford), Mr A. E. A. W. Smyth (Librarian of the House of 
Commons), and Dr Williams (Research Fellow of the School of Russian 
Studies, Liverpool). Mr R. Dunlop, one of our contributors, made 
Maps 27, 37, 38 and 47, and is responsible for them. Mr P. E. Roberts, 
also a contributor, revised the spelling of the Indian names in Maps 64, 
99, and 122-125. 

Liberal use has been made in the construction of Maps 113 and 114 
of Mr E. Porritfs Unreformed House of Commons^ 1903, and of the map 
in that work. 

In addition, the thanks of the Editors are due to the Government 
of the United States for permission to base Map 76 on Plate XVII 
(Population Volume, Tenth Census of' United States^ 1880) and Map 77 
on Plate VIII (Part I, Population, Volume i. Twelfth Census of United 
States^ 1900) ; and to the Clarendon Press and Messrs W. & A. K. 
Johnston for permission to base Map 27 on Map XXXI of The Oxford 
Historical Atlas of Modern Europe^ edited by Mr R. L. Poole. 

The Maps in this Atlas have been executed by Messrs Stanford, to 
whom, as well as to Mr John Bolton, the Editors desire to express their 
obligation for the care and attention given to the work at its successive 
stages. 

A. AV. W. 
G. W. P. 

S. L. 

November y 1911, 



Vll 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Preface .....,..='••• ^ 

Corrigenda ............ ^^ 

Introduction .........••• 1 

I. Europe in the Fifteenth Century ...... 7 

II. The Age of Habsburg Power and of the Reformation . 31 

III. The Rise of France and Sweden ...... 49 

IV. The Formation of the Great Powers of the Eighteenth 

Century .......... 61 

V. The Age of the Revolution and of Napoleon ... 78 
VI. Since 1815 92 

Indexes to Introduction : 

(1) Maps described .......... 119 

(2) Local Names 121 

Maps: 

1. Europe, 1490 a.d. 

2. The Age of Discovery. 

3. The Ottoman Advance in Europe and Asia Minor. 

4. Italy, c. 1490. With inset Valley of the Po. 

6. The Empire, showing the Division into Circles. 

6. The Burgundian Lands. 

7. The Iberian Peninsula in the time of Ferdinand and Isabel. 

8. France under Louis XI. 

9. Universities of Europe. 

10. Dominions of the House of Habsburg in Europe at the Abdication of 

Charles V. 

11. Eastern Frontier of France. Wars of ^France and the Empire, 1521-59. 

12. Germany at the Accession of Charles V. 

13. Southern Germany and England. The Peasant Movements of the 

Sixteenth and early Seventeenth Centuries. 

14. Germany. The Schmalkaldic War, 

15. The Swiss Confederation. 

16. England and Wales under the Tudors. 

17. Scandinavia in the time of Gustavus Vasa. 

18. Western and Central Europe. The Progress of the Reformation to 1560„ 

19. France. The Religious Wars. With inset The Neighbourhood of Paris. 

D 
.C 3 



viii Contents. 

Maps, continued 

20. Poland and Lithuania. The Union of Lublin, 1569. 

21. Hungary at the end of the Sixteenth Century. 

22. The Netherlands. The Wars of Independence. 

23. Scotland in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. 

24. North-eastern Atlantic. The Elizabethan Naval War. 

25. Savoy in 1601. 

26. Italy at the end of the Sixteenth Century. 

27. Ireland at the beginning of the Sixteenth Century. 

28. Germany. Religious Divisions, c. 1610. 

29. Germany. The Thirty Years' War, 1619-29. Campaigns in Bohemia, 

the Palatinate, Lower Saxony, and Denmark. 
80. The Grisons (Graubiinden) and the Valtelline. 

31. Germany. The Edict of Restitution, 1629. 

32. Eastern Baltic and Northern Poland. Wars of Sweden with Poland 

and Russia, 1560-1661. 

33. Germany. The Thirty Years' War, 1630-48. The Swedish Campaigns. 

34. England and Wales at the outbreak of the Civil War. 

35. England and Wales after the Campaigns of 1644. 

36. England and Wales. The Civil War. 

37. Ireland, 1558-1652. 

38. Ireland. According to the Act of Settlement, September 26, 1653, and 

subsequent Orders. 

39. The Thirty Years' War. The French War, 1635-48, and the Dutch 

War with Spain, 1620-48. 

40. Germany. The Peace of Westphalia. 

41. Europe in 1648. 

42. North Sea and English Channel. The Anglo-Dutch Wars of the Seven- 

teenth Century. 

43. The Eastern World. Portuguese, Dutch, and English Possessions^ 

c. 1650. 

44. Eastern Spain and Western Italy. The Franco-Spanish War, 1635-59. 

45. The Netherlands and Western Germany. The Wars of 1648 1715. 

46. Eastern France. Territorial Acquisitions during the reign of Louis XIV. 

47. Ireland, 1660-1800. 

48. South-eastern Europe. Wars of Turkey with the Empire, Venice, and 

Poland, 1648-1739. 

49. Northern Italy. Wars of the Eighteenth Century, 1701-63. 

50. West European Waters. Anglo-French Naval Wars, 1689-1763. 

51. Europe in 1721, after the Treaties of Utrecht and Nystad. 

52. Russia in 1725. 

53. The Baltic Lands, 1661. 

54. Scandinavia, Russia, and Poland. The Northern War, 1700-21. With 

inset Schleswig-Holstein. 

55. Brandenburg-Prussia. Expansion, 1525-1648. 

56. Scotland and Northern England. Campaigns of the Pretenders. 

57. Central Europe. Wars of Frederick the Great. 

58. Poland. The Partitions. 

69. Prussia. Territorial Expansion, 1648-1795. 



Contents. ix 

Maps, continued 

60. The Austrian Empire, exclusive of Italian Possessions and the Austrian 

Netherlands. Territorial Changes, 1648-1795. 

61. Russia. Territorial Expansion, 1725-95. 

62. The Empire and the Netherlands, c. 1792. 

63. Europe in 1792. 

64. India. The Beginnings of British Dominion. 

65. Africa in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. With inset The 

Gold and Slave Coasts. 

66. North America. European Colonisation to 1700. 

67. North America. French Expansion and British Conquests to 1763. 

68. The Thirteen Colonies at the end of the Colonial Period. 

69. West Indies in 1763. 

70. Eastern North America in 1812. The War of Independence and the 

War of 1812-4. With inset Boston and Neighbourhood. 

71. Mexico and Texas, 1845-8. 

72. United States. Territorial Expansions. 

73. United States. The Secession. 

74. United States. The Civil War. 

75. The West Indies and the Philippine Islands. Tlie Spanish- American 

War. 

76. United States. Distribution of Population and Railways in 1850. 

77. United States. Distribution of Population and Principal Railways in 

1900. 

78. United States. Economic Regions. 

79. France before the Revolution. 

80. Paris during the Revolution. 

81. Eastern Frontier of France. Revolutionary Campaigns, 1792-5. 

82. Britanny and Vendee. 

83. Northern Italy. Bonaparte's Campaign, 1796-7. 

84. Central Europe after the Peace of Basel and of Campo Formio. 

85. Egypt and Syria. The Egyptian Expedition, 1798-1801. 

86. Italy in 1799. The War with Naples, 1798-9. 

87. European Waters. Naval Wars, 1792-1815. With inset Part of the 

French and Flemish Coast. 

88. South-west Germany and North Italy. The War of the Second 

Coalition, 1798-1801. 

89. Central Europe, 1803, after the Peace of Luneville, 1801, and the 

Secularisations, 1803. 

90. Switzerland under the Act of Mediation, 1803. 

91. North Atlantic. Naval War, 1803-5. 

92. Central Europe. Wars of the Third Coalition, 1805-7. With inset 

The Neighbourhood of Austerlitz. 

93. Central Europe. The Austrian War, 1809. With inset The Neighbour- 

hood of Vienna. 

94. The French Empire and Central Europe, 1811. Political Divisions. 

95. Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular War and other Wars of the 

Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. 

96. Central Russia. The War of 1812. 



X Contents. 

Maps, continued 

97- Germany and Eastern France. The War of Liberation_, 1813-4. With 
insets The Neighbourhood of Paris and the Neighbourhood of 
Leipzig. 

98. North-eastern Frontier of France. The Waterloo Campaign, 1815. 

With inset The Neighbourhood of Waterloo. 

99. India in 1804. The Mysore and Maratha Wars, 1792-1804. 

100. The Eastern World. European Colonies and Dependencies, 1815. 

101. The Western World. European Colonies and Dependencies, 1815. 

102. Europe after the Congress of Vienna. 
108. France since 1814. 

104. Italy since 1815. The Struggle for Unity. With inset Stages in the 

Union of Italy, 1859-70. 

105. Ottoman Empire in Europe, 1792-1870. 

106. America. Spanish and Portuguese Settlements. With inset Latin 

America after the Wars of Independence, 1825. 

107. The Germanic Confederation, 1815. 

108. Russia in Europe in the Nineteenth Century. With inset The Neighbour- 

hood of Warsaw. 

109. The Kingdom of the Netherlands to 1839. Holland and Belgium since 

1839. 

110. Ottoman Empire in Asia and Africa since 1792. 

111. The Austrian Dominions since 1815. 

112. Switzerland in the Nineteenth Century. The Sonderbund War. 

113. England and Wales. Parliamentary Representation in 1832 before the 

Reform Bill. 

114. England and Wales. Parliamentary Representation in 1832 after the 

Reform Bill. 

115. The Black Sea. The Crimean War. With inset South-west Crimea. 

116. Denmark and the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The War of 

1864. 

117. Central Europe. The War of 1866. With inset North-east Bohemia. 

118. Eastern France. The Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1. With inset 

Neighbourhood of Metz. 

119. Ottoman Empire in Europe, 1870-8. 

120. The Balkan Peninsula, 1878-1910. 

121. England and Wales, 1649-1910. 

122. India in the Nineteenth Century. British Expansion, 1805-1910. 

123. Northern India. The Mutiny, 1857-9. 

124. India. The Western Frontier and Neiglibouring Countries. With 

inset Valley of the Kabul River. 

125. India. The Eastern Frontier and Neighbouring Countries. French 

and English Expansion, 1805-1907. 

126. The Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland. 

127. British North America, 1840-67, and the Alaska and Maine Boundary 

Disputes. 

128. The Australian Colonies in the Nineteenth Century. With inset 

Australia in 1851. The Early Settlements. 

129. The Dominion of New Zealand. With inset New Zealand in 1852. 

The Early Settlements. 



Contents, xi 

Maps, continued page 

130. Africa in 1910. With inset Africa in 1870. 

131. North-western Africa. French Colonisation. 

132. Egypt under British Protection and the Ang-lo-Egyptian Sudan. 

With inset Mouths of the Nile. 

183. South Africa since 1815. The Kaffir and Boer Wars. 

134. The West Indies and Central America in 1910. 

135. South America in 1910. 

136. Northern Asia. Russian Expansion in the Nineteenth Century. 

137. The Japanese Empire. The Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5. 

138. The Chinese Empire in 1910. With inset The Neighbourhood 

of Peking. 

139. The Pacific Ocean in 1910. 

140. The World. Colonial Possessions and Commercial Highways 

in 1910. 

141. Europe in 1910. 

Index to Maps ............ 145 



Xll 



CORRIGENDA. 

MAP 

1. The southern frontier of Hungary (1490) should be as in the more detailed 
map 21. 

3. Add to Reference: 

The course of the Ottoman conquest of the Venetian and Genoese posses- 
sions is not illustrated in the map; and only the more important of 
the island possessions of Venice and Genoa have been coloured. All 
the Aegean islands named and left white were for a long time in 
Venetian or Genoese possession^ with the exception of Rhodes which 
was held by the Knights of St John. 

6. Gelders and Zutphen were acquired, not inherited, by Charles the Bold. 

9. Lisbon should be in the same type as other towns. 

16. Monmouth should be shown as a Welsh county. 

28. Bremen and Verden should be coloured with Roman Catholic base 
colour and Lutheran bars. 

46. Philippeville and Marienburg should be coloured as French acquisitions. 

m. In Scale of Miles for 300 read 400. 

107. For LicHTENBERG read Lichtenberg. 

117. Burkersdorf should be inserted on 51 N lat. 16 E long. 

122. The small area to the south-east of Damaun, coloured green, should be 
coloured in the second shade of pink. 

126. For Reference read Reference to Canadian Railways. 

127. In the title /or *^in 1867' read ' \u 1866.' 

138. The places open to British trade in Tibet, viz. Gyantse, Yatung, Gartok, 
should have been indicated in the map. 

Spelling. In map 6 for Fonthieu read Ponthieu, map 12 (and Introduction, p. 81 
and Index) /or Eichstadt read Eichstedt,/or Weissenberg read Weissenburg, 
map 17 for Oster-gotland read East Gothland, for Gottland read Gothland, 
map 43 for Burhanpur read Burhampur, map 64 for Admednagar read 
Ahmadnagar, map 94: for G. of Lions read G. of Lyons, map 103 /or Maritime 
Alpes read Alpes Maritimes, map 105 ybr Arcanania read Acarnania. 



1 



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83. 


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89. 


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111. 


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120. 



CAMBRIDGE MODERN HISTORY 

VOL. XIII 
GENEALOGICAL TABLES AND LISTS 

ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 

For Elizabeth = Sir R. Preston (Visct. Gormanston) read Elizabeth = Sir 

Richard Preston (Lord Dingwall) E. of Desmond. 
For GuiDOBALDO expelled 1497 read 1502. 
1904 was the year of the death of Maria de las Mercedes, Princess of 

Asturias, and not that of her husband's. 
Add to Manuel 1908- 1911 dep. 
Add to Hsuan T'ung 1908- 1912 dep. 
The names of the following Generals should, for uniformity's sake, run 

thus: — 2. James Laynez, 5. Claud Aquaviva, 22. John Roothaan, 

23. Peter John Beckx, 24. Antony Anderledy, 25. Louis Martin, 
and there should be added :~26. 1906 Father Francis Xavier Wernz. 
For D. of Magenta, Marshal of France read D. of Magenta, Marshal 

of France, resigned. 
For Porfirio Diaz, 1885- read Porfirio Diaz, 1885-1911. 
Between 1889 E. of Zetland and 1895 E. Cadogan insert 1892 

Robert O. A. (Crewe-Milnes) Lord Houghton (E. of Crewe). 
After 1898 Sir Augustus Hemming read 

1904 Sir Alexander Swettenham, Capt.-Gen. and Gov. -in-Chief. 
1907 Sir Sydney Haldane Olivier. 
Add at bottom Robert Laird Borden, 1911. 
(1) Add at bottom 1911 Thomas (Denman) Lord Denman. 
(1) Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson's Governorship of Cape Colony 

terminated in 1910, and Sir Matthew Nathan's of Natal in 1909. 

I. After 1907 Sir Eldon Gorst read 
1911 Horatio Herbert (Kitchener) Visct. Kitchener of Khartum. 

II. The first entry should read: 
1896 Sir Horatio Herbert Kitchener (Visct. Kitchener). 

The first entry of M. of Salisbury should read: 

M. of Salisbury, First Lord 1886-7 ; Foreign Sec. 1887-92. 
The second and third entries should read : 

M. of Salisbury, Foreign Sec. 1895-1900. 
The same J Privy Seal 1900-2. 
140. Between C.-J.-E. Duclerc, 1882 and Jules Ferry, 1883 
insert Armand Fallieres, 1883 
and add at bottom of list : Joseph Caillaux, 1911. 
Read P. Chlodwig von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfiirst, 1894 {instead of 
1897)-1900; and 
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, 1909 {instead of 1908). 
Read at bottom Luigi Luzzatti, 1910-11 

G. Giolitti, 1911- 
For Arizona (Tuscon) read Arizona (Tucson). 

Note. The Tables and Lists were not originally intended, unless in exceptional 
instances, to go beyond 1910. They have now, where necessary, been brought up 
to 1911. 



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124, 


a 


125, 


a 


127 


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129. 


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131. 


ft 


132. 


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133. 


f} 


134, 


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139. 



i> 


148. 


a 


144. 


3i 


151. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The numbers of the maps described are placed in the margin — in blade type when the 
principal description of the map is being given, in ordinary type when an allusion only 
is made to a map. Indexes of the maps described and of the places mentioned are given 
at the end of the Introduction. 

Throughout the Middle Ages the various peoples who entered 
Europe in the declining years of the Roman Empire were uniting in 
definite groups and forming a number of separate States. This process 
of nation- and State-forming has no definite point of beginning or end. 
But during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it proceeded so fast 
that, before the end of the latter, it was evident that in western 
Europe new States had been formed which could assert both their in- 
dependence of the medieval Empire and their authority over local liberty 
and private right. Thus, though the Empire did not disappear at this 
time, its place was taken by a family of States, of which it was at once 
the oldest and the weakest member. In the course of a long and almost 
ceaseless conflict between these new States, the existing political system 
of Europe has been slowly shaped. It is the object of this Introduction 
to summarise the series of territorial changes by which this result has 
been brought about, and thus to trace the process of consolidation and 
expansion by which the States that were in being in the fifteenth century 
attained their present form, and the steps by which other States arose 
and divided with them the lands where no effective political consolidation 
had taken place during the Middle Ages. We have to observe how, in 
the course of modern history, the European political system, which in 
the fifteenth century included only western Europe, has been extended 
to include the whole of Europe, and how, as European societies have 
been planted in other continents, new lands have been drawn by 
commerce and political dependence into its political life until almost the 
whole known world forms a single political system. We have to see 
how the formation of this system has been modified by the idea of a 
Balance of Power, handed down from the precocious political experience 
of Italy, by the existence of the Holy Roman Empire, which, for the 

0. M. H. VOL. XIV, 1 



Introduction, 



States that formed themselves within its borders, provided a framework 
of law and order, bridling the worst manifestations of power, and 
preserving for a long time a multitude of small States which could not 
otherwise have maintained their independence, and, above all, by the 
forces of nationality and geography^stronger in the long run than 
diplomacy, however astute, and force, however great. 
1, 41 First, we may observe, in brief outline, the general course of the 
change that has taken place. At the end of the Middle Ages, France 
was the strongest monarchy in Europe and the process of change began 
with her expansion. On her eastern frontier, the Burgundian family 
had attempted to found a middle kingdom along the lower course of 
the Rhine, the establishment of which would have given a very different 
course to the history of Europe. With the failure of that attempt and 
the division of the Burgundian inheritance began that eastward 
expansion of France which was for a long time one great trend of 
modern territorial change. At the other extremity also of the ancient 
kingdom of Lotharingia, in Italy, France sought to extend her dominion — 
in this direction, outside of her natural frontiers. Here, the issue 
was soon decided. In the first thirty years of the sixteenth century, 
Italy passed indeed under a foreign, but not under a French, yoke, and 
her political form and place were fixed substantially as they were to 
remain, until, in the nineteenth century, the movement for unity made 
her for the first time in her history a single and a great Power, and 
changed altogether her relations to the other countries of Europe. 

A check was placed on the rise of France by the formation of the 

Habsburg Empire. In the early years of the sixteenth century, by 

fortunate marriages, inheritances, and conquests, a mighty State came 

into being which stretched from the plains of the Danube across Germany 

to the North Sea and the English Channel, included most of the Iberian 

peninsula, controlled Italy, and exploited America. This unwieldy 

conglomeration of territories was rapidly formed, and, though, in the 

middle of the sixteenth century, it divided into two parts, it was able 

for a century to exercise a dominant influence on the European political 

system. Two forces modified the influence which the Habsburg Empire 

might otherwise have exerted — the one, a great religious movement, 

the Reformation, which weakened its power in Germany, and accelerated 

the process by which the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved into a group 

of States — the other, the intrusion into the European polity of the 

Ottoman Turks. By pressing on the frontiers of the Habsburg Empire 

in south-eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, the Turks not only 

extended their own conquests, but they weakened the resistance of the 

Habsburgs to French expansion and to the disruptive tendencies apparent 

in Germany. Nevertheless, in western Europe the Habsburg Empire 

was the controlling factor. Its formation, its losses to France and 

the Turks, its influence on political tendencies in Germany, and the 



Introduction, 



outgrowth from it of two new States — the Swiss Confederation and 
the United Netherlands — comprise the principal territorial changes 
of the sixteenth century. The two new States that were formed, the 
one in the first quarter, the other in the last quarter, of the sixteenth 
century, were defensive leagues which became States in the course of a 
struggle against the political or religious oppression of the Habsburgs. 
With different careers both have guarded their independence and the 
integrity of their territory down to the present day. 

In the early years of the seventeenth century, the Empire, divided by 41, 51 
the Reformation into hostile camps, was plunged into a religious civil 
war. At the same time the power of the Spanish Habsburgs began to 
wane and they lost their dominion in European politics. These two 
changes concurred to favour the expansion of France. The Thirty Years' 
War exposed Germany to her attack and thus made easier her eastward 
advance ; the existence of Holland and Switzerland provided her with 
natural allies ; the decline of Spain removed the greatest check on her 
ambition. Thus, in the seventeenth century, France continually increased 
her power in the debatable lands on her eastern frontier. Her advance 
was further aided by the results of these long wars on the Empire, for 
its multitude of constituent States gained independence in all but name, 
and were thus the more easily exposed to her influence. Another Power 
also, Sweden, found her profit in the misfortunes of Germany. North- 
eastern Europe had its own political problems. Round the Baltic raged 
a struggle for trade and dominion from which Sweden emerged trium- 
phant over Russia, Denmark, and Poland. In the troubles of Germany 
she found a new advantage, and, preying on the north of Germany as 
France did on the west, was able to complete her dominion over the 
Baltic. The two rising Powers, cooperating in Germany, drew the 
political problems of Eastern and Western Europe, for the first time, 
into conjunction. The rise of Sweden was temporary, the power of 
France lasting. Sweden had not sufficient natural opportunities, and 
her dominion was contrary to the real balance of material strength. 
Strong enemies rose to contest it with her. In the confusion of Germany 
the Electors of Brandenburg formed a powerful State; while, on her 
eastern frontier, Russia gained unity and independence. At the end of 
the seventeenth century, turning from east to west, from an Asiatic to 
an European career, Russia planted herself on the Baltic and the Black 
Sea. Her advance against the Ottoman empire was premature and was 
arrested for a while ; but Austria at this time finally turned the tables on 
her ancient foe. The Ottoman empire reached its zenith in 1672, 
Decline followed swiftly; before the end of the seventeenth century, 
Hungary and Transylvania were secured by Austria, and some temporary 
victories over the Turks in the Morea illumined the decay of the 
Venetian State with a ray of its old glory. In the early eighteenth 
century disaster still beset the retreating Ottoman empire. 

1—2 



Introduction, 



While these changes took place in Europe, England turned her 
energies to rich fields of opportunity east and west, hitherto monopolised 
by Spain and Portugal, and began the building of Greater Britain. 
Holland did likewise, but more for commerce than for empire. Both 
were deeply concerned when, towards the end of the seventeenth century, 
there appeared the possibility of a mighty political transformation in 
Europe by the union of the dominions of France and Spain, and by the 
addition to the already overwhelming power of the French monarchy of 
the wealth of the Spanish colonial empire. That transformation they 
prevented, and in the course of the struggle England, now become Great 
Britain, gained substantial advantages in the colonial world. Extensive 
changes in Europe also followed. The expansion of France was checked, 
and the Austrian branch of the Habsburgs took the place of the Spanish 
in the Netherlands and Italy, while Savoy was strengthened as a buffer 
State between France and Austria on the Italian frontier. 

51, 63 Between the Peace of Utrecht and the French Revolution there was 
little change in western Europe. France and England fought a long duel; 
but, though it had great results in the expulsion of France from America 
and India, it did not affect the political form of Europe. In Germany 
and eastern Europe, however, great changes were worked out. A 
powerful kingdom of Prussia was formed, whose rise, at the expense of 
Austria and Sweden, to be almost the strongest military Power in Europe 
was the chief feature of the period. Russia entered the European circle 
definitely and decisively, advancing against Sweden and Turkey. Austria 
gained some compensation for her declining influence in Germany out 
of the decaying empire of the Turks. Suddenly, these three Powers 
agreed to divide the helpless kingdom of Poland, which thenceforth 
disappeared from history. As the eighteenth century worked itself out 
it left Spain in decay ; Great Britain deprived of most of Greater Britain 
by a political cataclysm, the herald of a great change in the colonial 
world ; France on the verge of revolution ; Prussia and Russia two new 
great Powers, conterminous, Prussia stretching across Germany with a 
foothold on the Rhine, a foothold in South Germany, but the bulk of 
her territories in the north, Russia planted securely on the Baltic and 
the Black Sea ; Austria strong in south-eastern Europe, but weak beyond 
— in all, a Europe of half-a-dozen Great Powers, whose balance, slowly 
worked out by continual readjustment, was to be suddenly overturned 
by the Revolutionary Wars and the genius of Napoleon. 

63, 94 In 1795 began twenty years of territorial change, in the course of 
which the political system of Europe was subjected to continual recon- 
struction. The impetus of the Revolution carried the French to the 
Rhine ; the genius of Napoleon carried them to the conquest of central 
and southern Europe. In Italy, Napoleon swept away Sardinia, Genoa, 
Venice, the States of the Church, and the Austrian dominion, added 
a large area to the French empire, and formed of the remainder, first, 



Introduction, 



a group of republics, and then a group of kingdoms and principalities 
under his own influence. In Germany, he swept away the ecclesiastical 
principalities, the Holy Roman Empire, and the great majority of the 
small States, cut down the territory and power of Austria and Prussia, 
and formed out of the multitude of small States a group of larger States, 
which he reorganised as the Confederation of the Rhine. He began the 
reconstruction of the kingdom of Poland in the grand duchy of Warsaw. 
These changes at last raised a resistance before which he succumbed; 
and an attempt was then made to restore the political order of the 
later eighteenth century. 

The great resettlement of 1815 curbed the dangerous power of 102,141 
France, gave back to Austria and Prussia their old positions, and 
restored that balance of power which Napoleon had destroyed. The 
German States were formed into a vast but feeble Confederation under 
the joint but unequalised leadership of Austria and Prussia, and Italy 
was placed again under the heel of Austria. Neither of these settle- 
ments was destined to be lasting. The expansion of Russia at the 
expense of Sweden, Prussia, and Turkey, by the addition of Finland, 
new parts of the old kingdom of Poland, and Bessarabia, promised and 
secured greater permanence. The nineteenth century saw great changes. 
Italy freed herself from Austrian rule, and, gaining unity, entered as 
a great State into the political system of Europe. The Germanic 
Confederation was rent asunder by the rivalry of Austria and Prussia, 
Austria was expelled, and a new State, a German empire under the 
hegemony of Prussia, took the place of the old Confederation, and 
enlarged its boundaries at the expense of France by acquiring the 
long-disputed middle lands of Alsace and Lorraine. In the Balkan 
peninsula there was continual change. Austria and Russia gained 
territory at the expense of the Ottoman empire, and the subject nationali- 
ties, one by one, rose against Ottoman rule and gained their independence. 
The Balkan peninsula thus broke up into a group of small States, of 
which the Ottoman empire, with its receding frontiers in Europe and its 
larger dominions in Asia Minor and Syria, remains the most important. 

Outside of Europe, there has been an even greater transformation. IQO 
In the old fields of colonisation nations had been gradually forming, and, 101, 140 
following the example of the English American colonies, they asserted 
their independence. In Central and South America a group of Spanish 
and Portuguese republics now attests the success of Spanish and 
Portuguese colonisation. The United States of America expanded across 
the continent and commenced to conquer dominions beyond the seas. 
But this contraction of European political dominion in other continents 
proved only temporary. In the early years of the nineteenth century, 
the Russian empire in Asia and the British empire, expanding by 
colonisation and conquest in Australia, Africa, North America, and Asia,; 
represented the only considerable European forces in other ^nljiiients. '"^' 






\ 



■\... 




6 Introduction. 



Both of these empires continued to grow unceasingly. A mighty dominion 
in India, vast dependencies in Africa, and a group of Anglo-Saxon 
nations in Africa, America, and Australia, and many smaller possessions, 
represent the unexhausted results of British colonial activity. But other 
European Powers also once again entered the colonial field. They 
divided Africa and the Pacific Islands between them, and gained spheres 
of influence in eastern Asia. While Spain hsis virtually withdrawn 
from the colonial field, France is once more a great colonial Power, the 
Dutch have held their own, and the German empire has acquired exten- 
sive possessions. In eastern Asia Japan now competes with Europe 
and resists the advance of Russia. Along such lines as these, the 
political system of fifteenth century Europe, with its promise of States 
and nations forming and preparing to dispute for dominion and power, 
has been transformed into the compacter political system of twentieth 
century Europe, with its military empires, republics, and monarchies, 
its unstable balance of power, and its worldwide field of competition 
and contest. 



SECTION I 

EUROPE IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 

Our first endeavour must be to present a picture of the European 1 
political system in the later fifteenth century. In western and central 
Europe the principal States were the Holy Roman Empire — a loose 
federation of some four hundred duchies, counties, and towns, over which 
the Dukes of Austria, with their extensive though scattered dominions, 
exercised the Imperial power — France, England — with its dependency, 
Ireland — Scotland, the States of the Iberian peninsula, and the States 
of Italy; in northern and eastern Europe, the Scandinavian Union, the 
group of Russian principalities under the Tartar yoke, Poland, Lithuania, 
Bohemia, Hungary, and the Ottoman empire. Of these large States, 
France had perhaps the greatest degree of unity. In France, a process S 
of internal consolidation had been proceeding for several centuries. The 
power of the Crown had been steadily extended along the great river 
valleys — the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, and the Rhone — and, one by 
one, the great fiefs were being transformed into royal domain. During 
the later thirteenth and the early fourteenth century, Champagne, 
Chartres, the Dauphine, and Guyenne were all acquired. Of the great 
fiefs which remained to disintegrate the kingdom at the accession of 
Louis XI in 1461, the most important were the duchies of Burgundy 
and Britanny and the county of Anjou. Burgundy was seized by 
Louis XI in 1477, on the death of Charles the Bold. Britanny was a 
single province and not, like Burgundy or Anjou, one of a large group of 
territories. But it was more sharply severed by race than was Burgundy 
from the remainder of France. By the marriage, first of Charles VIII in 
1491, and then of Louis XII in 1498, with Anne, the heiress of Britanny, 
this important province was firmly united to the French kingdom. It 
was the last fief which bore the character of a separate sovereignty, though 
its independence was not as dangerous to the unity of France as the 
possession of Burgundy by a foreign Power had been. The Duke of 
Anjou held not only Anjou, but also the counties of Provence and 
Maine, within France, as well as the duchy of Lorraine without, and 
he had, in addition, a claim to the throne of Naples. In 1480, all the 



8 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 

possessions of Anjou except Lorraine reverted to the Crown of France. 
The acquisition of Provence, never before counted part of France, was 
most important. It brought the French frontiers to the Alps. The 
duchy of Orleans was another great appanage. It was united to the 
Crown on the accession of Louis XII, in 1498, and with it the county 
of Blois. Thus, at the end of the fifteenth century, France was definitely 
passing from the feudal to the monarchical regime. The consolidation 
of the kingdom was assured, though the process was not complete. One 
by one, during the sixteenth century, the other great fiefs were effectively 
absorbed : the viscounty of Narbonne in 1507, the county of Angouleme 
in 1515, the duchy of Alen9on in 1525, the duchy of Bourbon and the 
county of La Marche in 1527, the county of Forez in 1531, the counties 
of Armagnac, Foix, Perigord, and Vendome in 1589, and the viscounty 
of Beam in 1607. 

The external expansion of France was closely connected with this 
process of consolidation. It was a natural preliminary to expansion 
that France should free herself from foreign dominion. A political 
connexion of centuries between France and England was all but severed 
when, in 1453, the English were finally expelled from all their French 
possessions save Calais. In 1462, Louis XI temporarily acquired Rous- 
sillon and Cerdagne and brought the French frontier at this point to a 
natural boundary. The struggle between France and Burgundy not only 
prevented the foundation of a separate power on the Rhine, a middle 
kingdom between France and Germany, pressing on the vulnerable side 
of France, but yielded for the growth of the French kingdom a part of 
the Burgundian lands. In 1477 Louis XI laid hold of Picardy and 
the Somme towns as well as the duchy of Burgundy, and put forward 
claims to Artois, Franche Comte, and Charolais (Charolles). The 
annexation of Provence in 1486 was a natural addition to France, and 
carried her frontiers from the Rhone to the Alps. Thus France grew 
to south and east. Both political and geographical conditions marked 
these out for her as natural directions of expansion. To make sure of 
Roussillon and the French part of the kingdom of Navarre, to add 
Artois and Franche Comte, to annex the north-western provinces of 
Savoy, and to complete the expulsion of the English by the acquisition 
of Calais, seemed the things most needed to complete her geographical 
unity and her power of self-protection. 

The Iberian peninsula, cut off from the rest of Europe by the Pyrenees, 
forms geographically a distinct area. Of the various Christian States 
that had grown up in the course of the long struggle for the expulsion 
of the Moors, four only remained in the fifteenth century. Of these, 
the largest and strongest was Castile, which occupied the great centre 
of the peninsula, holding the whole Biscay coast, with an outlet to 
the Atlantic in the plain of the Guadalquivir and another to the 
Mediterranean in the plain of the Segura. Descending thus to sea 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 9 

and ocean, it completely surrounded, on the land side, the kingdom 
of Granada, the last fortress in Europe of the retreating Moorish Power, 
and cut off its fellow Christian Powers from any further opportunity of 
expansion at the expense of the common enemy. Second in size to 
Castile was the kingdom of Portugal, lying along the Atlantic side of the 
peninsula, with frontiers to the east which have not shifted in modern 
history, though the whole kingdom at one time suffered a temporary 
absorption into the Spanish monarchy (1580-1640). On the eastern side 
of Castile, rather smaller than Portugal, and with its base on the 
Mediterranean, was the triangular kingdom of Aragon, which, together 
with Castile, had absorbed all the smaller Christian kingdoms except 
Navarre. Aragon, however, was more than a peninsular Power. On the 
north-east frontier she overlapped the Pyrenees, and included the counties 
of Roussillon and Cerdagne, till Louis XI acquired them temporarily 
in 1462. Stretching across the western Mediterranean, she held the 
Balearic Isles, Sardinia, finally gained in 1428, and Sicily, conquered in 
1282, and incorporated in 1409. On the throne of Naples, also, sat an 
Aragonese prince. The fourth State was the little kingdom of Navarre, 
still preserving its independence on the northern frontier of the peninsula. 
It lay astride the Pyrenees, partly in France and partly in Spain, and 
the king of Navarre held also the viscounty of Beam. 

The great question of the fifteenth century between the Iberian 
kingdoms was how far the process of consolidation would be carried, 
and whether it would be continued by the union of Castile with Portugal 
or with Aragon. Portugal had been gaining maritime and colonial 
interests, Aragon Mediterranean interests. In 1469 Isabel of Castile 
married Ferdinand of Aragon. Isabel became Queen of Castile in 1474, 
Ferdinand King of Aragon in 1479. The two kingdoms, though not 
consolidated, were united in 1506, and the future character of Spain 
was determined. The combined kingdoms conquered Granada in 1492, 
sweeping away thereby the last vestige of Moorish power in Europe, 
received back Roussillon and Cerdagne from France in 1493, and con- 
quered the southern half of Navarre in 1512 ; so that only two separate 
States then remained in the peninsula. This process of consolidation 
was of the utmost importance. Coupled with the expansion over-sea, 
which began with the voyages of Columbus, it gave Spain the internal 
strength and external opportunity which enabled her to contend with 
France for dominion in Italy and hegemony in Europe. With her 
Mediterranean possessions, Spain had a natural interest in Italian affairs 
which led on to great results. With a large Atlantic coast-line, good 
harbours in the north, and one great harbour, Cadiz, in the south, she 
was drawn naturally to those over-sea enterprises in which her American 
dominion began. In addition to these two natural directions of growth, 
she was suddenly drawn in a third direction, the most important of 
all. In 1496 Philip the Fair, the son of Maximilian of Austria, married 



10 /. Europe in the Fifteentk Century. 

Joanna, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. In 1498 Joanna became 
the heiress of the Spanish dominions. Thus was brought about in the 
course of time a union of Spain and Austria which made of the Spanish 
monarchy a gigantic political force. Spain ceased to be simply an 
Iberian, Mediterranean, and colonial Power and became part of a great 
Empire with interests in central and eastern Europe. Thus the activity 
of France first disturbed the European political system ; but the sudden 
expansion of Spain overturned it. 
•^Q In the British Isles there were two kingdoms — England with her 

23 dependencies, Wales and Ireland, of which the latter was but partially 
27 subdued, and Scotland, her hostile neighbour. Save that the possession 
of Berwick was disputed, the frontier between the two had remained 
unchanged since the reign of Henry II. Their union, though much 
sought, did not take place until the end of the Tudor period, 1603, 
when Scotland gave a king to Great Britain, and the complete incor- 
poration of the two kingdoms was not effected for more than another 
century, 1707. Ireland was conquered in the reign of Henry II ; but 
the actual English dominion was for a long time limited to the Pale, 
which, until the sixteenth century, fluctuated in extent, and outside of 
which the country belonged to the Irish. The conquest of the country 
was completed in the seventeenth century, and in 1800 it was incorporated 
in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Wales was con- 
quered by Edward I, but was not finally incorporated until 1535, when 
its division into shires was completed. Of the Welsh Marches, parts 
formed the new Welsh shires, and parts were added to the bordering 
English counties. Monmouthshire remained a Welsh county until the 
reign of Charles II. The Orkney and Shetland Islands had been Nor- 
wegian dependencies. They were pledged to Scotland in 1468 and 
incorporated in the process of time. The English county divisions 
underwent little change during the Tudor period. Hexhamshire was 
included in Northumberland in 1572, the franchises of Tynedale and 
Redesdale after the accession of James I, after which the English and 
Scottish Marches were called the Middle Shires. During Henry VIIFs 
reign a change was made in the ecclesiastical divisions by the creation of 
the six new sees of Peterborough, Oxford, Chester, Gloucester, Bristol, 
and Westminster, of which the last-named had a life of ten years only. 
From this time the dioceses remained unchanged till the reign of Queen 
Victoria ^ 

Ever since the conquest of England by Normandy, the kings of Eng- 
land had held some of the great fiefs of France. In the fifteenth century 
everything was lost, save the seaport town of Calais. England ceased 
to be a partly insular and partly continental Power, and became wholly 

^ In the map the counties are shown as they were at the completion of the county 
organisation, the dioceses as they were after Henry VIIl's creation of the new sees, 
except that Westminster is not shown. 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, ll 

insular. Her geographical position would have allowed of her concen- 
trating on insular interests ; but, by long tradition and the possession of 
a gate of entrance into France, she was drawn towards continental politics. 
At the end of the fifteenth century, it was a doubtful question whether 
she would seek the natural development of an insular State, over-sea, 
following where Portugal and Castile had led, or whether she would 
take up again her continental ambitions. While commerce had its 
centre in the Mediterranean, her position did not favour maritime 
expansion. The discovery of the New World changed the situation, 
since England was very favourably situated for American enterprise 
and Atlantic trade. The voyages of Cabot and the discovery of New- 
foundland were the starting-point of Greater Britain ; but England's 
connexion with the Continent during the first half of the sixteenth 
century remained very close, and reached a climax in her temporary 
inclusion in the Habsburg Empire on the marriage of Mary Tudor 
with Philip II of Spain (1554-8). One result of this marriage was 
the loss of Calais to France in 1558, after 211 years of English occu- 
pation. The complete severance from the Continent was followed by 
the greater maritime enterprise of the later sixteenth century in which 
the British empire has its origins. 

Stretching across central Europe and including all the German 5, 12 
States, the Netherlands except Flanders and Artois, the Swiss 
Confederation, and the North Italian States except Venice, was the 
Holy Roman Empire. Flanders and Artois, fiefs of France in the 
fifteenth century, were added in 1526. The Empire was a very loose 
confederation, and for practical purposes included only the German 
States and the Netherlands. Outside of these the Imperial authority 
was scarcely more than nominal. The independence of the Swiss Con- 
federation was virtually recognised in 1499. Only the German part of 
the Empire had any real unity, and that unity was provided more by 
common language and tradition than by political institutions or common 
policy. But, though the Empire as a whole was a weak political force, 
it was full of life in its various members. The multitude of States of 
which it was composed ranged in power and importance from great 
principalities like that of the Dukes of Austria to the territory of a 
small free town or the manor of an Imperial knight. 

The foremost of the princely families of Germany was the House 
of Habsburg. With it the Imperial crown rested, without inter- 
ruption, from 1438 to 1740, and again from 1745 until the dissolution 
of the Empire in 1806. At the beginning of the fifteenth century the 
Habsburg lands consisted of the archduchy of Austria, divided into 
Upper and Lower Austria, the duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, 
some possessions in Istria and Friuli, Trieste, the county of Tyrol, the 
lordship of Vorarlberg, and a group of possessions known as Vorder- 
oesterreich, which included the Austrian Breisgau, the margravate of 



12 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 

Burgau, the landgravate of Nellenburg, the county of Hohenberg, the 
five Danube towns, and the landgravate of Lower and Upper Elsass. 
The duchies and the county of Tyrol formed a compact territory, well 
suited to become a base of expansion north and south. They were, and 
have remained, the nucleus of Habsburg power. Frederick III began 
the greatness of his House by acquiring the Imperial crown and by 
reuniting nearly all the hereditary possessions which had been distri- 
buted among various members of the family. He lost ground in 
Switzerland, where, after the surrender of the Thurgau to Zurich in 
1460, the Habsburgs retained nothing save the Forest Towns of Walds- 
hut, Sackingen, Laufenburg, and Rheinfelden. And, for a time, he was 
an exile from his capital ; for Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, 
conquered Vienna and a part of Austria in 1485, and held it till his 
death in 1490. But, in 1477, Frederick married his son Maximilian to 
Mary of Burgundy, daughter and heiress of Charles the Bold, and thus 
obtained so much of the Burgundian inheritance as Louis XI did not 
seize. Maximilian, who had thus become lord of the Netherlands, 
Luxemburg, and Franche Comte, acquired Tyrol in 1492; and, 
when, in the following year, he inherited his father's dominions, all the 
Habsburg lands were gathered together in his hands. Of these he had 
a real hold; of the Burgundian inheritance he was but the guardian for 
his son Philip. Thus, during the fifteenth century, the House of Austria, 
which had been only a leading princely family, had, by its possession of 
the Empire and the fortunate amassing of territories, raised itself to a 
position of equality with the great States of Europe. Other marriages 
were not only to increase its power to an inordinate extent but also to 
change its character. 
6 The territories acquired by Austria in 1477 as her share of the 
Burgundian inheritance were a part of the extensive, if heterogeneous, 
dominions which the Dukes of Burgundy had been amassing for more 
than a century. In 1363 King John of France granted the duchy of 
Burgundy as an appanage to his son Philip the Bold. By an astute 
and enterprising policy the Burgundian family proceeded to build up 
on the eastern frontier of France a great dominion which Charles the 
Bold all but raised to the position of a Middle Kingdom between France 
and Germany. Most of the provinces were acquired by the fortune of 
marriage or inheritance, some by purchase or force of arms ; and a settled 
policy continuously directed the process of acquisition. In 1384, as a 
result of his marriage with Margaret of Flanders, the richest heiress in 
Europe, Duke Philip the Good added the county of Flanders with its 
great centres of Bruges, Ghent, and Ypres, the county of Artois, and 
the counties of Burgundy (Franche Comte), Rethel, and Nevers besides 
several seigneuries. To the duchy of Burgundy he added, in 1390, the 
barony of Charolais. Philip the Good purchased the county of Namur 
in 1430, and in the same year inherited from a cousin the duchies of 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century. 13 



Brabant and Limburg and the marquisate of Antwerp. In 1433 he 
added the county of Hainault, which completed his possessions of the 
southern Netherlands, and the counties of Holland and Zeeland, with 
a nominal suzerainty over Friesland, which began the expansion of the 
Burgundian lands into the northern provinces. Holland included Am- 
sterdam, the first seaport in Europe. In 1435, at the Treaty of Arras 
the King of France pledged to the Duke of Burgundy the towns of Picardy 
— a series of towns along the Somme from St Quentin to St Valery at 
the mouth of the river — which much strengthened the southern frontier 
of the Burgundian possessions, and also left him in possession of certain 
territories previously granted by the King of England, including the 
county of Boulogne, Bar-sur-Seine, and the counties of Macon and 
Auxerre. The Somme towns were redeemed by Louis XI in 1463, but 
recovered by Charles the Bold in 1465. Their possession was vital to 
the security of either Power. The last of Duke Philip's acquisitions, 
made in 1441, was the duchy of Luxemburg, a sparsely peopled land 
with a fortress capital. Charles the Bold continued his father's work, 
and pursued with even greater eagerness and success his project of 
uniting the Burgundian and Netherland parts of his inheritance. He 
conquered the duchy of Gelderland and the county of Zutphen in 
1473, and asserted his authority in the ecclesiastical territories which 
broke the unity of his dominions. Since 1456, the great see of Utrecht, 
which included the provinces of Overyssel and Drenthe (the Upper see) 22 
and Groningen and Utrecht (the Lower see), had passed entirely under 
the ducal influence, and Charles, in addition, made the Burgundian 
Dukes the hereditary protectors of the bishopric of Liege. From 1469 
to 1474 he held the landgravate of Upper Elsass (Sundgau) and the 
Breisgau, and in 1475 he took possession of the duchy of Lorraine. 
Death frustrated his ambition of a kingdom of Burgundy or Lorraine 
on the eve of its realisation. 

The desire of the Dukes of Burgundy to link up and consolidate 
this group of provinces, and to form them into a separate State, arose 
very naturally out of their position. As vassals of two masters, they 
were under no effective control. Their possessions were middle regions, 
which might have formed then, as parts of them have formed since, 
a State, or States, distinct from France or Germany. They lay on the 
borderlands of both these realms, where the authority of their overlords 
would naturally be weakest. And, while they offered in some respects 
a strange aggregation of various nationalities and diverse institutions, 
they possessed a sufficient geographical unity to make their political 
union feasible. The death of Charles the Bold dissolved the idea of 
a strong middle kingdom, and his dominions have never since owned a 
common sovereign. Louis XI laid hold of the duchy of Burgundy, the 
Somme towns, Bar-sur-Seine, Auxerre, Macon, Franche Comte, Artois 
and Charolais — of all those provinces which were nearest and most 



14 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century. 

important to the strength of the French monarchy. The remainder passed 
to Austria when Maximilian married Mary of Burgundy. France was 
not able to retain all she had acquired. Though Louis, at the Treaty 
of Arras, 1482, maintained his claims on Franche Comte, Artois, and 
Charolais, Charles VIII, in the Treaty of Senlis, 1493, renounced these 
provinces. Thus, the bulk of the Burgundian inheritance passed into 
the German world, though its history had hitherto been more closely 
bound up with that of France. The ecclesiastical territories of Liege 
and Utrecht recovered their independence, as also did Gelderland, 
while Lorraine went back to its Duke. 
12 This description of the Austrian and Burgundian lands may serve 
to illustrate the character of the political geography of Germany and 
the manner in which new States could be formed within its borders. 
The medieval duchies had broken up into a multiplicity of princi- 
palities and lordships, which were continually being subdivided, reunited, 
and regrouped. After the Emperor, the most important Princes were 
the Electors. By the Golden Bull of 1356 their number had been fixed 
at seven and their territories declared to be inalienable and indivisible. 
Three of them were ecclesiastics — the Archbishops of Mainz, Cologne, 
and Trier — and four laymen — the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine 
of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony, and the Margrave of Brandenburg. 
The territories of the ecclesiastical Electors lay on the western frontier 
of Germany. Trier was a compact State, almost entirely in the valley 
of the Moselle ; Cologne lay along the Rhine from Wesel to Rhein- 
berg, but included also the duchy of Westphalia; Mainz lay principally 
on the Main, but had in addition the dependencies of Eichsfeld, east of 
the Werra, and Erfurt in Thuringia. 

The kingdom of Bohemia was a Slavonic Power, brought under 
German dominion in the tenth century, and always a member of the 
Empire, though it never lost its separate nationality. The margravate 
of Moravia had become its dependency in the tenth century, the mar- 
gravate of Lusatia and the duchy of Silesia in the fourteenth. During 
the later Middle Ages the two kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary and 
the duchy of Austria were on several occasions united either by con- 
quest on the part of one or the other, or by marriage unions ; but, in the 
last half of the fifteenth century, Bohemia had become once more 
1 separate under the rule of George Podiebrad (1458-71). For a brief 
period (1477-90), it lost the greater part of its three dependencies to 
the conquering arms of Matthias Corvinus. In 1490, on the death of 
Matthias Corvinus, the crown of Hungary was offered to Podiebrad's 
successor, Ladislas the Pole, and Bohemia and Hungary became again 
united. But Ladislas was forced, in 1492, to restore to Austria the 
conquests of his predecessor on the Hungarian throne in Austria, Styria, 
and Carinthia ; and it was further arranged that, on the extinction of 
the male line, his territories should pass to the Habsbui'gs. Brandenburg 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century. 15 



scarcely as yet showed promise of a great future. The possessions of 55 
the family consisted of the Mark of Brandenburg on the Elbe and Oder, 
and of the principalities of Ansbach and Baireuth in southern Germany. 
In 1415 Frederick, Burgrave of Niirnberg, and lord of Ansbach and 
Baireuth, had been invested with the Electoral Mark, which included 
Altmark, Priegnitz, Mittelmark, and Uckermark. In addition, the 
lordships of Cottbus and Peitz in Lower Lusatia were in 1445 acquired 
from Bohemia. In 1454 the Neumark, pledged to the German Order 
in 1402, returned to the Hohenzollerns, and the claims of the German 
Order were finally renounced in 1517. In 1473 the Elector Albert 
Achilles by his will forbade the partition of the Hohenzollern do- 
minions into more than three parts — Brandenburg, Baireuth, and 
Ansbach — and declared the Electoral Mark indivisible — a provision 
which was the indispensable condition of future greatness. The par- 
tition of 1473 gave the Mark of Brandenburg, to which the Electorate 
was attached, to the elder line, and Ansbach and Baireuth to the two 
younger. Ansbach and Baireuth, united to each other in 1557, were 59 
not reunited to the rest of the Hohenzollern dominions until 1791, and 
have consequently not much influenced the history of Brandenburg. 
Meanwhile the Mark had begun to grow. Between 1470 and 1486 
certain parts of Silesia were acquired, and in 1472 the investiture with 
Pomerania-Stettin. By treaties of 1493, 1529 and 1571 the right of 
suzerainty over Pomerania-Stettin was renounced for that of the suc- 
cession. In 1472, the conquests made by Brandenburg in the Uckermark 
were confirmed to her, and the frontier between Pomerania and Branden- 
burg was thus fixed. There followed a series of small additions to the 
Electoral Mark, the duchy of Krossen in 1482, the lordship of Zossen 
in 1490, and the county of Ruppin in 1524. 

The Rhenish Palatinate was one of the much divided possessions of 
the House of Wittelsbach. Together with the Upper Palatinate, and 
the principalities of Neuburg and Sulzbach, it was held by one branch 
of the family, while the duchy of Bavaria was held by another. In 
1410 the Palatinate inheritance was divided, and, at the end of the 
fifteenth century, three branches of the family were still ruling in it. 
In 1559 the Electoral line died out, and the Simmern line inherited the 
Palatinate. 

The Electorate of Saxony was a part of the new Saxony which had 
grown up in the later Middle Ages on the middle course of the Elbe 
with its capital at Wittenberg. On the extinction of the Wittenberg 
line in 1422, Frederick V, of the House of Wettin, received the Electoral 
dignity. In 1485, the Saxon territories were divided between his two 
grandchildren, Albert and Ernest, who founded two historical lines, the 
Albertine and the Ernestine. Ernest received the duchy of Saxony 
together with the Electoral dignity, southern Thuringia, the north of 
Meissen, the Vogtland, the Franconian territories, and Coburg ; Albert, 



16 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century. 

the south of Meissen and northern Thuringia ; the ecclesiastical territories 
of Naumburg-Zeitz, Meissen, and Merseburg, the Osterland, and the 
Pleissnerland were divided. 

Of the Princes of the Empire who had seats in the Princely Chamber 
of the Diet there were about eighty, rather more laymen than eccle- 
siastics. Amongst the most important was the Duke of Bavaria. In 
the later fifteenth century, the Bavarian territories were divided between 
two lines, ruling at Munich and at Landshut. In 1503 the latter died 
out, and the Munich line united the Bavarian territories, though giving 
(1507) Sulzbach and Neuburg to the son of the Elector Palatine as a 
satisfaction of his claims on the Landshut inheritance. The Brunswick 
family possessed a compact mass of territory lying between the middle 
course of the Elbe and the Oder. But it had suffered much division. 
The main line had divided in 1373 into the two lines of Liineburg and 
Wolfenbiittel. Wolfenbuttel carried with it the ducal title and the 
city of Brunswick; Liineburg was destined to become the electorate, 
and afterwards the kingdom, of Hanover. In 1495 Wolfenbiittel divided 
into Wolfenbiittel and Calenberg, in 1569 Liineburg into New Liineburg 
and Dannenberg. In addition there was the Grubenhagen line. In 1584 
Wolfenbuttel and Calenberg were reunited, and in 1596 Wolfenbiittel 
absorbed Grubenhagen. Hesse was divided into two lines in 1458 — 
Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Marburg — the latter of which inherited Katzenel- 
lenbogen in 1479. The family territories were reunited in 1500, to be 
redivided in 1567 amongst four lines, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Marburg, 
Hesse-Rheinfels, and Hesse-Darmstadt, of which last Hesse-Homburg 
was a branch-line. Other important princely territories were Baden, 
Anhalt, Wiirtemberg and Nassau. Baden lay east of the Upper Rhine, 
and in 1535 was divided into Baden-Baden and Baden-Pforzheim, or, as 
it was afterwards called, Baden-Durlach. Anhalt had already divided into 
several lines of which the Bernburg line died out in 1468, though others 
remained at Zerbst, Kothen, and Dessau, until all the Anhalt territories 
were reunited in 1570, only to be redivided in 1603-6 into the same 
four lines. The county of Wiirtemberg was declared indivisible in 
1482, and in 1495 Count Eberhard was made a Duke. In 1519 Duke 
Ulrich was expelled, and the duchy was pledged to Austria, and, 
though the Duke was reinstated in 1534, his territory remained under 
Austrian suzerainty until 1599. Nassau possessed scattered territories 
in Westphalia and the Upper Rhenish Circle, divided amongst several 
branches of the family, to which the House of Nassau-Orange was added 
in 1530. Two groups of territories on the Lower Rhine — the one, the 
duchy of Cleve and the county of Mark, united in 1392, the other, the 
duchies of Jiilich and Berg and the county of Ravensberg, united in 
1434 — were by marriage brought together in 1521. Other princes of 
importance were the Count of Oldenburg, who acquired Delmenhorst in 
1526 and Jever in 1575, the Duke ot Lorraine who in 1473 had 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 17 

acquired the duchy of Bar in France, and the Dukes of Mecklenburg 
and Pomerania. Pomerania had in 1295 been divided between two 
lines ruling at Wolgast and at Stettin, but was reunited in the Stettin 
line in 1464, to be divided again between Stettin and Wolgast in 1531. 
The position of Holstein requires some special elucidation. The county 
of Holstein, made a duchy by Imperial grant in 1474, was a member of 
the Empire. In 1460 it entered into an indissoluble union with the 
duchy of Schleswig, a fief of the kingdom of Denmark. In the same 
year the King of Denmark, who was a member of the House of Olden- 
burg, elected King of Denmark in 1448, was elected Duke of Schleswig 
and Count of Holstein, so that Holstein stood in a special and different 
relation to three other States — the Empire, the kingdom of Denmark, 
and the duchy of Schleswig. On the west of Holstein was the free 
republic of Ditmarschen. 

A large part of the Empire was under the rule of ecclesiastical Princes, 
and particularly was this the case with the Rhenish lands. In addition to 
the electoral territories already mentioned, there were the archbishopric of 
Salzburg in the south-east of the Empire, almost enclosed in Habsburg 
territory ; the Franconian bishoprics of Wiirzburg and Bamberg, that 
rivalled the Rhenish archbishoprics ; the Netherland bishoprics of 
Utrecht and Liege, the former large, the latter rich ; the huge bishoprics 
of Miinster, Osnabriick, and Paderbom, and the smaller see of Minden, 
which included between them most of the north-western comer of the 
Empire ; the bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, lying between the 
mouths of the Ems and the Elbe ; the archbishopric of Magdeburg and 
the bishoprics of Hildesheim and Halberstadt south of Brandenburg 
and Brunswick ; Schwerin and Ratzeburg in Mecklenburg ; Liibeck in 
Holstein; Cammin in Pomerania; Naumburg-Zeitz, Meissen, and Merse- 
burg in Saxony; Metz, Toul, and Verdun in Lorraine; Speier, Strass- 
burg, Basel, and Constance, on the Upper Rhine ; Augsburg, Eichstadt, 
Ratisbon, and Passau on the frontiers of Bavaria ; Freising, Brixen, and 
Trent in the Habsburg territories. The bishoprics of Brandenburg, 
Havelberg, and Lebus were too much under the control of the Electors 
of Brandenburg to be counted as separate States. Amongst the great 
abbeys those of Fulda, the largest and most famous ot German houses, 
and Hersfeld, both south of Hesse, and Ellwangen in Suabia call for 
special mention. 

After the princely States came the Free Imperial towns. Of these, 
there were in the later fifteenth century about eighty. They ranged 
in importance from great commercial towns possessing considerable 
territories, such as Hamburg, Bremen, and Niirnberg, to the little towns 
of Suabia. The great majority were situated in southern or western 
Germany. Amongst them were Aachen, Dortmund, Cologne, Metz, 
Toul, Verdun, Weissenburg (Alsace), Hagenau, Strassburg, OfFenburg, 
Schlettstadt, Colmar, Freiburg, Miilhausen (Alsace), Besan^on, Worms, 

C. M. H. VOL. XIV. 2 



18 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 

Landau, Speier, Wimpfen, Heilbronn, Hail, Aalen, Esslingen, Gmiind, 
Nordlingen, Weissenburg (Nordgau), Niirnberg, Rottenburg, Windsheim, 
Augsburg, Donauworth, Memmingen, Biberach, Leutkirch, Kaufbeuren, 
Kempten, Isny, Wangen, Lindau, Ravensburg, Constance, Oberlingen, 
PfuUendorf, Rottweil, Ulm, Reutlingen, Weil, Frankfort, Schweinfurt, 
Friedberg, Wetzlar, Miihlhausen (Tliuringia), Nordhausen, Goslar, Liibeck, 
Hamburg, Bremen, Ratisbon. Weal<^est of all the independent rulers were 
the Imperial Knights. They had preserved their independence, for the 
most part, only in south-western Germany. Often they possessed little 
more than a village or two. They were organised in cantons, which 
were grouped in the three Circles of the Rhine, Franconia, and Suabia. 

Thus, Germany at the end of the fifteenth century formed a strange 
world of States. The medieval duchies had broken up into princi- 
palities, lordships, and communes too numerous to mention. In this 
chaos there was a liability to political change and room for growth. 
Yet, of the States that were to arise within the Empire — some to make 
themselves free of its authority, others to remain nominally dependent — 
of Holland, Switzerland, and Brandenburg, only Switzerland gave signs 
of the future towards which she was advancing. Austria, girdling 
Germany on the west, the south, and part of the east, stood out most 
conspicuously. It was still an open question whether she might not be 
powerful enough to unite the Empire more closely, and form of it a 
strong State, capable of playing a part in the politics of Europe by 
the side of the new monarchies of France and Spain. Maximilian I 
made an attempt to improve the machinery of government, and for this 
purpose divided the Empire into a number of Circles. Not every part 
was included. Bohemia and her dependencies, Switzerland, and the Italian 
States, with the exception of Savoy, remained outside the new organisa- 
tion. Six of the Circles were formed in 1500, viz. (1) Bavaria, embracing 
Bavaria and Salzburg, (2) Suabia — Wiirtemberg, Baden, the bishopric 
of Augsburg and many Imperial cities, (3) Franconia — Wiirzburg, 
Bamberg, Ansbach, and Baireuth, (4) the Upper Rhine — Zweibrlicken, 
Lorraine, and part of Elsass, (5) Westphalia — Jiilich, Cleve, Berg, 
Mark, also Liege and other bishoprics, (6) Lower Saxony — Brunswick, 
Mecklenburg, Holstein, Bremen, Magdeburg, and some cities. In 1512, 
four more Circles were created to include the electoral and Habsburg 
territories, viz. (1) the Lower Rhine, embracing the four Rhenish 
electorates ; (2) Upper Saxony — the Electorate of Saxony and Branden- 
burg, and Pomerania; (3) Burgundy — the Austrian dominions of the 
Netherlands, Luxemburg and Franche Comte; (4) the Austrian — the 
remainder of the Austrian territory, with the bishoprics of Trent and 
Brixen. An eleventh was added for the immediate Imperial territory. 
In each Circle the governing authority was responsible for the police, 
and for administrative and military affairs. The organisation was got 
into working order in 1521, but was never very successful. The attempt 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 19 

to strengthen and unite the Empire by the improvement of Imperial 
machinery was doomed to failure. Germany did not follow the general 
tendency towards political consolidation which would have given her a 
definite and powerful policy and place in Europe. The rivalries of her 
component parts — of Emperor and Princes, of Princes and Towns and 
Knights, caused fatal disunion. Whether she would have overcome this 
political tendency is doubtful; but, while the matter was in debate, 
the Reformation spread through the country, and, allying with the 
separatist aspirations of the Princes, divided Germany irremediably and 
permanently against herself. 

Already in the fifteenth century, one part of the Empire was breaking 1 5 
away from the main body. The independence of the Swiss Confederation 
received a partial recognition in 1477 and in 1499, though it was never 
openly acknowledged. The Confederation had its origin in the league 
of three mountain communities for resisting the oppression of their 
Habsburg rulers. Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden formed the original 
political centre of the State, as they formed always its geographical 
centre. Neighbouring towns and territories joined them — Luzern in 
1332, Zurich in 1351, Glarus and Zug in 1352, Bern, with its own 
allies and subjects, in 1353 — making up the eight ancient cantons. Five 
more were afterwards added — Freiburg and Solothurn in 1481, Basel 
and Schaffhausen in 1501, Appenzell in 1513 — and at the number 
of thirteen the cantons remained until the changes made in the 
Revolutionary period. The Confederation, however, comprised not 
only cantons but also allies and subjects — who might be allies or 
subjects of one or more members of the Confederation or of the 
whole Confederation — with a consequent strange complexity of political 
relations. The allied districts were the Valais from 1416, the abbey 
of St Gallen with the county of Toggenburg from 1451, the town 
of St Gallen from 1454, the Grisons, which was itself a federation 
of three Leagues — the Upper League, the League of God's House, 
and the League of the Ten Jurisdictions — formed in 1471 on the 
eastern borders of Switzerland and attached to some of the Swiss 
cantons from 1497-8, the Imperial towns of Miilhausen from 1518 to 
1587, Rottweil from 1519 to 1632, the city of Geneva from 1526, the 
territory of Biel or Bienne from 1529, and the principality of Neufchatel 
from 1529 till its acquisition by Prussia in 1707. The more important 
of the subject lands were in the north. Aargau and Thurgau, and 
other districts, were conquered from the House of Austria by Bern 
and Zurich in 1415 and 1460 respectively, an acquisition which gave 
the Confederation for a time the Lake of Constance and the Rhine as 
its northern frontier. In 1441 Uri acquired the Val Levantina, and 
the Confederation made its first gains in Italian territory. More im- 
portant were the conquests of detached Savoyard territories north of 
Lake Geneva : such as Grandson, Morat, Orbe, and Aigle, which Bern 

2—2 



20 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 

and Freiburg, not at the time a member of the league, made in 
1475-6 during the war with Charles the Bold, and the gains, also from 
Savoy, made by the Valais, which, like the conquests of Freiburg, were 
afterwards added to the Confederation. In Italy, Bellinzona was acquired 
in 1500; and, in 1512, a considerable cession of Milanese territory, includ- 
ing the Val Maggia, Locarno and Lugano, was made to the Confederation 
as a reward for their services to Sforza; while the Grisons, in 1513, acquired 
the Valtelline, with Chiavenna and Bormio. Soon after, Bern, Freiburg, 
and the Valais expelled Savoy from all its territories north of the Lake 
of Geneva and from some of those to the south, and added Vaud, 
Chablais, and the bishopric of Lausanne, to Confederate territory. Not 
all of these last gains however were retained. In 1567, Chablais and 
Gex were restored to Savoy. The last acquisition before the Revolution 
was made in 1554, when Bern and Freiburg divided between them the 
county of Gruyeres (Greyerz). 

By this series of alliances and conquests a strange State was built 
up. Arising in an area where three countries met — France, Germany, 
and Italy — the Swiss Confederation bore a threefold character, and the 
contrast between the German east and the French west represents a 
division that is one of the most essential facts of Swiss history. More- 
over the frontiers of Switzerland were most anomalous and illustrated 
the piecemeal way in which the State was formed. At Schaffhausen it 
stretched beyond the Rhine, at Lugano it descended the Alps into the 
Italian plains. A union, as it was, of small communities for self-defence, 
no principle of nationality or geography governed its configuration ; 
and the limits of its expansion were fixed by the weakness of its own 
constitutional system and its consequent inability to grow great, rather 
than by the power of its neighbours or the barriers of nature. 

In Italy, as in the other western countries, a tendency to political 
consolidation had shown itself in the later Middle Ages. But there 
had been no such tendency to the union of Italy as a whole, as to the 
union of France, or of the Iberian peninsula, Italy was only "a geo- 
graphical expression "" ; but, within it, had grown up a group of States 
which formed a political system of their own. This was to some extent 
a result of geographical conditions. Parted from the rest of Europe 
by a formidable mountain barrier, it was able to have a separate 
political life ; and since it was internally much divided, political 
divisions tended to follow to some extent geographical. In the con- 
tinental north is the great plain of Lombardy, the seat of Milan, of 
the land power of Venice, and of the Italian dominions of Savoy. In 
the peninsula are three plains of importance, all on the western side, 
for the Apennines tend to follow the eastern coast — the plain of the 
Arno, where Florence grew up, the plain of the Tiber, where was Rome, 
the head of the Papal States, and the plain of Capua, the centre of 
the kingdom of Naples. Thus all the great States of Italy were formed 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century. 21 

in the great plains. Historical conditions also had been unfavourable 
to the idea of Italian unity. The Imperial traditions and connexions 
of Italy, as well as the spiritual power of the Papacy, had been 
destructive of the sense of national separateness and the temporal power 
of the Papacy had also been a powerful obstacle to unity. Moreover, 
the course of history had sundered the different parts of Italy from each 
other, created opposed interests, and led to wars of conquest and 
aggrandisement. Thus a group of separate Powers had been formed, 
whose boundaries corresponded neither to geographical features, nor 
historical territories, nor ecclesiastical divisions, but might be regarded 
at any particular moment as a result of the balance of rival military 
strength. 

At the end of the fifteenth century there were some half-dozen 
leading Powers — Savoy, Milan, Venice, Florence, the Papal States and 
Naples — which overshadowed all the others. In the middle of the Po 
valley the Visconti family had built up the State of Milan, annexing 
all the neighbouring small municipalities and principalities, and changing 
the city republic into a duchy. In 1490, their territories stretched 
across the Po from Pontremoli in the south to Bormio and the sources 
of the Adda in the north. They included No vara and Alessandria in 
the west, Parma and Piacenza in the east. The Milanese had no natural 
frontiers. Its expansion was checked by contact with other expanding 
States. Hence its conquests, though easy to make, proved difficult to 
hold. In Tuscany, Florence was caiTying out a consolidating work like 
that of Milan in Lombardy. Her territory grew continually during the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, though little increase was made under 
the rrde of the Medici 1433-94, as compared with the growth of Milan 
under the rule of the Visconti. Most of the northern cities of Tuscany, 
including Pisa, Volterra, Arezzo, and Pistoia, but not Lucca, had passed 
under her sway; in the south Piombino and Siena amongst other 
places had as yet escaped absorption. Though in fact a monarchy, 
Florence had not, like Milan, been transformed from a city State into 
a duchy. 

The Papal States stretched across the centre of the peninsula and 
northwards, on its western side, to the valley of the Po. They were an 
artificial aggregation of territories, without any sort of geographical 
unity, such as Milan and Florence possessed. They included Emilia, 
Romagna, the Marches of Ancona, Umbria, Sabina, Campagna, and 26 
the Patrimony of St Peter — a group of districts which no natural 
boundary enclosed. Politically, they exhibited the greatest diversity. 
Some districts were governed by powerful communes, others by great 
monasteries ; parts were held by powerful feudal lords, and papal vicars 
ruled in other places. In Emilia and the Romagna, the part of the valley 
of the Po which lay within the Papal States, the Pope had no authority. 
Flourishing communes, such as Bologna and Imola, divided the country 



22 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 

among themselves. Here and in the Marches the tyrants or papal 
vicars were especially powerful. A branch of the family of Malatesta 

26 at one time held many of these towns. Urbino, the chief town of 
the Montefeltro family, became a separate duchy in 1478, a fief of 
the Papal States, but distinct. In 1513 it fell to the Rovere family, 
and was not annexed to the Papal States until 1631. Similarly, 
Ferrara was held as a papal fief by the House of Este. In Umbria, 
the greater part of the land was subject to large communes, of which 
the most important was Perugia, which possessed a sort of suzerainty 
over the other Umbrian towns. Other important towns were Spoleto, 
and Orvieto. In the Campagna and the Patrimony of St Peter the 
great feudal lords predominated. The most famous of these were the 
Colonna, Orsini, Savelli, and Gaetani. Only in Rome did the Pope 
really rule, and Sixtus IV was the first Pope of whom this can be 

S6 truly asserted. Two enclaves of ecclesiastical territory, Ponte Corvo 
and Benevento, lay within the kingdom of Naples. Thus the Papal 
States were a collection of States of varying degrees of independence, 
and the papal rule, though not a recent growth like that of the 
Visconti and Medici, could not compare with theirs for strength and 
solidity. Nominally the sovereign of a considerable territory, the Pope 
saw his possessions really in the hands of independent communes and 
a lawless baronage. 

The kingdom of Naples at the southern extremity of the peninsula 
was the largest of the Italian States. Cut off from the active politics 
of the north, and not rich enough to be great, it played only a secondary 
part in the affairs of Italy. Almost surrounded by the sea, and not a 
maritime Power, it had been easy of access to the foreign invader. 
Together with Sicily, it had been conquered by the Normans in the 
eleventh century and made a dependency of the Holy See. Two cen- 
turies later, it was conquered by the Angevins, who, however, lost Sicily, 
in 1282, to the House of Aragon. In 1435 Naples itself passed to Aragon, 
and it was handed over to a branch of that House in 1458. In spite 
of the frequent change of rulers, Naples had preserved its frontiers 
unchanged, while the other great States of Italy had been rising and 
falling. Thus, at the end of the fifteenth century, it was closely 
connected with, though not, like Sicily since 1282, and Sardinia since 
1420, a part of, the kingdom of Aragon. 
S Venice and Genoa, both city States, and both Imperial cities, suggest 
a contrast and a parallel. Both held possessions in the eastern Medi- 
terranean. The dominion of Genoa was in the Black Sea and the Aegean, 
that of Venice in the Adriatic, the Levant, and the Aegean. In the Black 
Sea Genoa held Amastris and Caffa, besides Galata by Constantinople, 
and the large Aegean islands Chios and Lesbos. But, like Venice, she 
had fallen back before the Ottoman advance. She lost Lesbos in 
the Aegean in 1462, though she retained Chios until 1566. On the 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 23 

mainland, enclosed by mountains, she never had quite the same oppor- 
tunity of or necessity for acquiring dominion as Venice. But she had 
naturally laid hold of the island of Corsica, which, in the hands of 
a hostile Power, would have been dangerous to the security of her 
trade. The land dominion of Venice had been acquired during the 
fifteenth century for the protection of the city and of the overland 
trade routes to northern Europe, of which one passed through the 
Ampezzo valley to Innsbruck and Munich, and another up the Po to 
Bergamo, the Spliigen, and Constance. It was essential to Venice to 
check the expansion of Milan over Lombardy and to command the 
rivers and land northwards to the Alps. Between 1408 and 1454, 
by wars with Milan, she conquered Brescia and Bergamo as well as 
Padua, Verona, and Vicenza, and brought her frontiers to the river 
Adda. In 1420, she conquered Friuli and extended her territory north- 
west to the Carnic Alps ; in 1441, Ravenna, the ancient capital of 
the Eastern Empire in Italy ; and, in 1480, in a war with Ferrara, she 
acquired Rovigo on the Adige and the Polesine and brought her frontiers 
to the Po. Thus she held a great part of Lombardy, from Bergamo 
and Crema in the west to Friuli and Aquileia in the east, though 
the bishopric of Trent, Lake Garda, and the marquisate of Mantua 
almost divided her territory into two parts. But the chief interests of 
Venice were outside of Italy. Her mainland territories were not the 
original nucleus of her empire, but a late appendage. Venice was a great 3 
maritime State, whose field of dominion lay in the Adriatic and eastern 
Mediterranean. Her over-sea possessions were of a character natural to 
a commercial and maritime Power — islands, strips of coast, and strategic 
points of the mainland. Extending down the Adriatic, round the Morea, 
through the Aegean and the Levant, they gave her control of these seas 
and of the trade routes between western Europe and Egypt, Syria, and 
Constantinople. Trieste was a Habsburg possession, and thus Venetian 
territory did not extend uninterruptedly round the head of the Adriatic; 
but Istria, with Pola, was Venetian, as also were most of the islands off 
the coast immediately to the south, but not any of the mainland, for in 
these parts, Hungary came down to the sea. A little to the south, near 
Zara, began Venetian Dalmatia. On the Dalmatian coast, Venice and 
Hungary struggled for mastery during the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, and Venice acquired a nearly continuous control of the coast 
from Trieste to Albania. The independent republic of Ragusa, at one 
time a rival, broke the continuity of her dominions on the Dalmatian 
coast ; but Cattaro with its deep harbour was Venetian. On the Albanian 
coast, she held Antivari and Durazzo, among other places. Of the Ionian 
islands, she acquired Corfu in 1386 and others in 1449. In the Aegean, 
after the Fourth Crusade, she had made great gains, which included 
Lemnos, Negropont, occupied in 1390, and other islands. In the 
Levant, she acquired Candia in 1208 ; and Cyprus, which came under 



24 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century. 

her immediate influence in 1473, she finally annexed in 1488. In 
addition to the islands and ports which she possessed, she had treaty 
rights in many eastern towns — in Salonika, Constantinople, Tana, CafFa, 
Trebizond, Alexandria, Cairo, Tyre, Sidon, Tripoli, Damascus, and 
Jerusalem. 

The growth of Venice belongs to medieval history. At the end of the 
fifteenth century she had reached the zenith of her power. Already she 
was beginning to lose ground to the Turks, who were advancing in the 
Aegean and the Balkan peninsula. Negropont was lost to them in 1470, 
and, when Venice made peace in 1479, she sacrificed in addition Skutari, 
Brazzo, and various places which the Turks had occupied in the Morea. 
On the mainland, too, her position was precarious. Her continual 
expansion, induced by her want of natural frontiers, made her seem an 
ambitious Power, and had drawn on her the suspicion of the other 
Italian States. 
g5 Savoy hardly belonged to the Italian political system. In the 
fifteenth century she was a middle State, as much Burgundian as Italian. 
But her direction of growth was towards Italy ; and, in the long run, it 
was Savoy, not Venice, Milan, Florence, or Naples which brought about 
the unity of Italy. Savoy lay astride of the Alps, as Navarre of the 
Pyrenees, and was strong enough to gain importance from the geo- 
graphical advantage of a strategic position commanding most of the 
Alpine passes between France and Italy. Her territories fell into two 
parts. North of the Alps were the duchy of Savoy, the controlling centre 
of the whole, Bresse, Bugey, Valromey, and Gex, lying between the Rhone 
and the Saone, and, bordering the Lake of Geneva for the most part to 
the north, Vaud and the Lower Valais. In Italy, her principal possessions 
were in Piedmont, where she had gained a footing in the eleventh century 
and had steadily increased her power at the expense of Milan, Saluzzo, 
Provence, and Montferrat, reaching the Mediterranean at Nice, and re- 
ducing Saluzzo, Montferrat, and Tenda to the position of dependencies. 
The Savoyard territories had thus no natural unity, and were very 
decisively divided by the Alps. Savoy had several possible directions of 
expansion ; but the consolidation of France on her western frontier, and 
the growth of the Swiss Confederation, which took from her Grandson, 
Morat, Orbe, Echallens, Aigle, and the Lower Valais in 1475-6, were 
already forcing her to find her future field of growth on the Italian side 
of the Alps where the political conditions offered a more favourable 
opportunity. 

Of the minor States, the Este, who held Modena and Reggio of the 
Emperor, and Ferrara of the Pope, had a considerable territory in the 
valley of the Po ; the Gonzagas, who held Mantua, had an important 
strategic position ; Lucca, though suffering at the hands of the Este 
and Medici, remained a distinct commonwealth ; Siena still held a large 
part of Tuscany; Piombino was under the protection of Florence. 



1 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century. 25 

Thus Italy formed a political world in herself, with her own great and 
small States — the great States intent on maintaining a balance of power. 
No prospect of voluntary union appeared. The equal strength of Milan, 
Venice, Florence, and Naples prevented any gathering of the States round 
a common centre, which alone could form in Italy a political power equal 
to that of the new States rising around her. 

In the south-eastern comer of Europe, the political position had been 
steadily changing during the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. A new Power, the Ottoman Turks, Mongolian in race and 
Mohammadan in religion, had entered Europe as the natural enemy of 
its Christian States. Advancing irresistibly westward, they swept away 
the kingdoms which had been formed in the later Middle Ages on the 
ruins of the East Roman Empire. Their dominions centred round the 
Aegean and the Black Sea, whence they were expelling the Venetians 
and the Genoese. They subjected, but did not absorb, the Christian 
nations of the Balkan peninsula — Greeks, Servians, and Bulgarians. 
Though an Asiatic Power in origin, they were at the end of the 
fifteenth century firmly planted in Europe, and no limit could as yet 
be seen to their expansion. The order of their conquests had been 
as follows. Entering Europe in 1,354, they captured Adrianople, which 
they made their capital, in 1360. The Latin principalities speedily 
succumbed. In 1389, Servia was defeated and surrendered Macedonia, 
though she remained independent herself; Wallachia became dependent 
in 1391, Thessaly was annexed in 1393, Bulgaria conquered by 1398, 
while the duchy of Athens, the principality of Achaia, and the 
despotate of Mistra became vassal States. Thus, before the end of 
the fourteenth century, the Turks had annexed or reduced to de- 
pendence all the hinterland of the Balkan peninsula to the frontiers 
of Hungary, had hemmed in Constantinople, and even reached, on 
the south, the Gulf of Corinth. In the early fifteenth century they 
suffered some loss in Asia; but they made advances in Greek and 
Albanian lands which brought them to the Adriatic. The principalities 
of Achaia, northern Epirus, and Salonika were conquered by 1430, 
Acarnania, Aetolia, and Arta in 1449; Constantinople was captured 
in 1453 ; Moldavia became tributary in 1456 ; Servia, except Belgiade, 
was annexed in 1459, the duchy of Athens in 1460, most of Bosnia 
in 1463, and Herzegovina in 1483. Montenegro, which took shape 
as a separate State on the break-up of the Servian empire, succeeded 
in maintaining her independence. In Dalmatia, the Turks slowly 
acquired the Bosnian and Hungarian districts ; but Venice clung to the 
great coast towns. These conquests on the mainland were accompanied 
and followed by conquests in the islands and the Black Sea, and of 
Venetian posts in Dalmatia, Albania, and the Morea. In the northern 
Aegean Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace, and Thasos were acquired in 
1456-7; Trebizond, on the Black Sea littoral, in 1461; Lesbos in 1462; 



26 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century. 

Negropont in 1470. These losses, together with those of Skutari and 
Kroja and the Maina district in the Morea, were recognised by Venice at 
the Peace of 1479. In the same year, the Turks seized Zante, Cephalonia, 
and Santa Maura, and in 1481 crossed the Adriatic, occupied Otranto, 
and seemed about to begin in Italy what they had completed in the 
Balkan peninsula. But, after 1481, their advance in Europe halted for 
a time, and, in 1485, Venice recovered Zante. In 1499-1500, however, 
the Turks continued their advance, and though, in 1502, Venice re- 
covered Cephalonia and temporarily occupied Santa Maura, the latter 
was regained by them in the Peace of 1502, when they kept the places 
which they had conquered, and Lepanto on the Gulf of Corinth. Thus, 
at the end of the fifteenth century, no position of equilibrium had 
been reached in south-eastern Europe, and the line at which Venice on 
the south, and Hungary, now that she had lost Matthias Corvinus, in 
the north, could stay the advance of the Turks had still to be found. 
21 It is to Hungary that we must now turn our attention. The kingdom 
of Hungary was founded in the ninth century by the Magyars, who 
occupied the valleys of the Danube and Theiss, and thereby divided the 
northern Slavs of Bohemia and Poland from the southern Slavs of Servia, 
Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia. By accepting Christianity from Rome 
they entered the more easily into the western political system. The 
strongest Power on the mainland in south-eastern Europe, they made 
extensive conquests, though their possession of them was not continuous. 
By the end of the fourteenth century, they had added part of Dalmatia, 
Poland, Wallachia, and Moldavia, and had flanked their territories with 
protected areas in what are now Bosnia, Servia, and Roumania. Even 
beyond these marches lay a number of vassal States. In the fifteenth 
century, Hungary lost ground to Venice in Dalmatia, and to the Ottoman 
Turks in the Balkan peninsula, and pledged the county of Zips to Poland 
in 1412. Matthias Corvinus (1458-90) raised his kingdom once more to 
a dominant position in eastern Europe ; stemmed the tide of Ottoman 
invasion ; conquered parts of Bosnia and Servia in 1479 ; made Moldavia 
and Wallachia Hungarian dependencies in 1463; took Silesia, Lusatia, 
and Moravia from Bohemia in 1477, and Lower Austria, including Vienna, 
from the Emperor in 1485. He also so far strengthened the system of 
county government that Hungary tended to become a group of some 
fifty independent communities. But the greatness which Corvinus won 
for Hungary was destined to be brief. The Bohemian and Austrian 
conquests could not be maintained, with the Turk pressing on the 
southern frontier. At the end of the fifteenth century, Hungary was in 
a precarious position. 
1 North-eastern Europe almost formed a political system of its own, of 

which the Baltic, round whose shores all the North-Eastem Powers were 
grouped, and for whose control they contended, formed the centre. In 
the first half of the twelfth century, no Teutonic Power, German or 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 27 

Scandinavian, had any lasting hold of any part of the eastern Baltic. But 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries Sweden conquered Finland, and 
in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries two German religious Orders, 
which had united in 1237 — the Knights of the Sword and the Teutonic 
Order — conquered Prussia, Livonia, Esthonia, Courland, Semigallia, the 
islands of Dago and Osel, Pomerelia, Gottland for a time, and Samogitia, 
and built up a great dominion on the eastern and southern Baltic. In 
the fifteenth century, the power of the Orders was diminished. In 1410, 
by the First Peace of Thorn, Lithuania recovered Samogitia from the 
Sword Knights, and thus separated the Livonian and Prussian lands of 
the Orders. In 1466, by the Second Peace of Thorn, Poland gained 
from them West Prussia (Culm and Pomerelia with the cities of Danzig 
and Thorn) and Ermeland a part of East Prussia, while the remainder 
of East Prussia was retained by the Teutonic Order as a Polish fief. 
This expansion of Poland and Lithuania was a recovery of territory that 
had been lost in the preceding century. The kingdom of Poland, founded 20 
in the tenth century, had grown rapidly for a time, until weakened by 
division and cut off from the Baltic by the German Orders. The neigh- 
bouring State of Lithuania, a fellow sufferer at the hands of the Knights, 
had risen to importance in the thirteenth century. In the fourteenth 
century, Lithuania made gains at the expense of her Russian neighbours, 
while Poland lost Silesia to Bohemia in 1335, and Pomerelia to the 
German Order in 1343, though, like Lithuania, it grew in the south-east 
at the expense of Russia. Lithuania even extended as far south as the 
Black Sea, though her Black Sea territory was lost in 1474. In 1386 
the two States were united by the marriage of the Duke of Lithuania 
with the Queen of Poland. In the fifteenth century they recovered their 
position on the Baltic, and Poland continued to expand at the cost of 
Russia. In 1471 Ladislas of Poland was elected to the Crown of Bohemia 
and in 1491 to that of Hungary, so that at the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury Poland with Lithuania was the most formidable of the Baltic Powers. 
She had great possessions, vast size and continuity of territory ; but she 
was weak from the want of defensible frontiers and natural boundaries. 
Thus, during the fifteenth century, the balance of power on the Baltic 
had been decisively changed; but new developments in Russia and 
Scandinavia threatened new changes. The union of Poland and Lithu- 
ania, which was only personal at first and often interrupted, became from 
1501 continuous, and in 1569 the two States were incorporated by the 
Union of Lublin. 

Beyond Poland and Lithuania, in the great plains that stretch from 1 , 52 
northern Asia into the heart of Europe, there was in process of formation 
at this time a State destined later to take a foremost place in the 
European polity. The Muscovite empire was formed by a union of 
Slavonic principalities which had a certain cohesion in common race, 
language and religion, a common princely stock, a unity of historical 



28 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century. 

development, and the primacy of the Grand Princes at KiefF. The chief 
of these principalities were Novgorod the Great, KiefF, Smolensk and 
Moscow ; while others of importance were Tver, Viatka, PskofF, Jaroslavl 
and ChemigofF. In a land of plains like eastern Europe the rivers were 
of the greatest importance. On the great rivers of Russia were formed 
the original centres of her history, and they determined the character 
and direction of her growth. Novgorod the Great, on the Ilmen, near 
the Valdai plateau — a dominant point in the river system of Russia — 
commanded at once an inlet to the whole of Russia and an outlet to the sea 
through the network of streams which ends in the Neva. St Petersburg 
in the eighteenth century, like Novgorod in the ninth, took advantage of 
the commercial and political value of this position. KiefF was on the 
Dnieper, whose course drew it to the Black Sea and the Byzantine world. 
The fertility of the Black Land and the proximity to the Eastern Empire 
gave it supremacy over the other Russian principalities. Smolensk, also, 
was on the Dnieper, but further north and with a commanding central 
position, near to the source of the other great Russian rivers, the west- 
ward flowing Diina and the eastward flowing Volga. In the middle of 
the twelfth century, the Grand Princes moved their capital to the 
Moskowa, a tributary of the Oka, a sub-tributary of the Volga. A State 
centred at Moscow was far removed from the W^estern world. Moreover, 
it had no natural frontiers. It might advance in time over the southern 
steppes to the Black Sea : but its easiest direction of expansion would be 
down the Volga to the Caspian and endlessly northwards into northern 
Asia. Before the dawn of modern history, the loosely united Russian 
principalities suffered a threefold conquest. In the thirteenth century, 
the German Order conquered the north-western principalities, introduced 
German civilisation and planted a strong power between Russia and the 
Baltic. In the same century, the Mongols conquered the eastern group 
of principalities which formed Great Russia. In the early fourteenth 
century, the Lithuanians made considerable conquests in West and South 
Russia in the neighbourhood of KiefF. Thus Russia was divided into 
two parts — Great or Eastern Russia, with its centre in Moscow subject 
to the Tartars, and Little Russia, attached to Poland and Lithuania. 
In the process by which Russia has been built up we may observe the 
union of the principalities, the establishment of their independence, the 
recovery of conquered Russian land, and the ceaseless expansion of the 
Russian people. The shape and the extent of the Russian empire has 
been largely determined by geographical conditions. Russia is as closely 
connected with Asia as she is with Europe, for the gentle slopes of the 
Urals offer but the slightest barrier, and she is thus at once exposed to 
Asiatic invasion and invited to Asiatic expansion — both of which have 
played a large part in her history. In European Russia, all the moun- 
tain ranges lie on the frontiers. Between the Carpathians and the 
Urals, the Caucasus and the mountains of Finland, nature has left an 



1 



/. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 29 

immense area round which these ranges form a girdle. It was natural 
that this huge area should form a single State, and equally natural 
that Russia should advance over the open plains and forests of central 
and northern Asia to the Hindu Kush and the Pacific. And, further, the 
conditions imposed on the country certain political tendencies. So vast 
an inland demanded outlets, both in Europe and Asia. Hence, north, 
south, east, and west, Russia has advanced towards the sea. While 
political necessity has compelled her to seek a sure frontier, economic 
necessity has compelled her to find not only new areas for her ever- 
growing population, but also outlets for her trade and for a civilising 
intercourse with other nations. 

Russian unity was brought about by the Princes of Moscow, who 
gradually gathered the other States round Moscow. It was not a 
difficult task, as the principalities were but artificial divisions of one 
country and one race. Ivan III (146^1505) annexed in the north- 
west Novgorod the Great, the lord of Northern Russia to the Urals, 
in 1478, and Tver in 1485 ; in the north-east Viatka in 1489 ; in the 
north Jaroslavl and Rostoff ; in the south-west ChernigoflT. In 1480, he 
threw off the Tartar yoke and thus gave Russia independence as well 
as unity. The Golden Horde broke up into a number of smaller 
khanates — Kazan, Astrakhan, Crimea, and Siberia — the ruins of a great 
Power. Ivan's son Basil (1505-33) acquired Pskoff, Smolensk, and 
Novgorod Sieverski, thus uniting nearly all the Russian principalities. 
At his death the Muscovite empire extended from ChernigofF to the 
White Sea, and from the borders of Livonia to the river Kama. For 
the Russian land lost to Lithuania ceaseless wars were waged between 
Poland and Russia for 200 years, Russia alternately recovering and 
losing her western provinces. In 1484, the river Desna was fixed as 
the boundary ; in 1503, the river Sozh. Thus, at the end of the 
fifteenth century, Russia had just attained unity, and, throwing off her 
Asiatic conquerors, had become an independent State. Lying practically 
in the basin of the Volga, she had no outlets to the sea and no con- 
nexion with western Europe. Her great work of conquest and expansion 
had scarcely begun. 

Of the Scandinavian kingdoms little need be said at this point. 
At the close of the fifteenth century, they were united in a precarious 
and unsatisfactory union. This union, the Union of Calmar, had lasted 
since 1397. Before its formation, Denmark had been generally the most 
powerful of the three kingdoms, and more than once had almost acquired 
complete control of the Baltic. But the German Orders, which threatened 
her power in Esthonia, Sweden, which contested with her the possession of 
the southern provinces of Scandinavia, and the Hanse Towns, which consti- 
tuted a great political force, set limits to her greatness. In 1397, the three 
kingdoms had agreed to an irrevocable union under a common sovereign, 
each retaining its own laws and institutions. Norway, the poorest of 



30 /. Europe in the Fifteenth Century, 

the three, threw in her lot permanently with Denmark (1450), which 
alone gained by the union. Sweden, dissatisfied with her position, was 
from the middle of the fifteenth century generally under her own ad- 
ministrators. In 1448, a member of the House of Oldenburg was elected 
to the crown of the three kingdoms, and in 1460 he became in addition 
Count of Holstein and Duke of Schleswig, which two States in that year 
entered into an indissoluble union with each other. Round the Baltic 
the whole situation lacked stability. The division of territory between 
the three Scandinavian kingdoms followed no natural boundaries, and 
their union was straining asunder. The German Orders which held so 
much of the Baltic coast were declining, while behind them was Russia, 
rapidly consolidating, and Poland near to the zenith of her power. 



81 



SECTION 11. 

THE AGE OF HABSBURG POWER AND OF THE 

REFORMATION. 

A. EUROPE. 

Something must now be said of the formation of the Habsburg lO 
Empire. Great aggregations of power were a new feature in European 
history. By a strange and fortuitous sequence of events in the later 
fifteenth and early sixteenth century there was formed a mighty State, 
which, overshadowing at once western and eastern Europe, exercised for 
more than a century a dominant influence on the European political 
system. Spain drove France out of southern Italy ; but it was the 
Habsburg Empire which decided the political fate of Italy until the 
nineteenth century, and which put an end to French hopes of expansion 
south of the Alps. In Germany, the Habsburg Empire and the Re- 
formation were the chief forces that controlled the growth and form of 
the German States. In south-eastern Europe, the Habsburgs repre- 
sented the Western world against the Eastern, and divided political 
power with the Turk. By the balance of strength between the Habsburg 
and Ottoman Empires, the political division of south-eastern Europe 
and the western Mediterranean on the African littoral was determined. 
In the Netherlands, the religious policy of the Habsburgs provoked a 
revolt which, growing into a war of independence, resulted in the 
formation of the maritime State of the United Netherlands. So, too, 
by a reaction against their power England in self-defence was driven 
to the sea and began her transformation into Greater Britain. Thus 
the Habsburg Empire united Spain, settled the political system of 
Italy, checked the expansion of France, resisted the advance of the 
Turks, and played a part in the growth of Switzerland, the disintegra- 
tion of Germany, the formation of Holland, and the foundation of 
Greater Britain. Each of these developments is a stage in the shaping 
of Europe. 

The growth of the Habsburg Empire has already been traced 
through its earlier stages — to its rise to a great height as a German and 
Burgundian power. In 1490, the Habsburgs were exclusively a German 



32 II A. Habsburg Power and Reformation : Europe, 

Power. In 1496, Maximilian married his son Philip to Joanna of Spain, 
daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. In 1498, Joanna became the 
heiress of the Spanish monarchy. Philip died in 1506 ; but he left a 
son, Charles, who, on the death of Ferdinand of Spain in 1516, and of 
his grandfather Maximilian in 1519, inherited both the Spanish and 
Austrian dominions. In this union there was a certain homogeneity of 
race and civilisation between the Burgundian and Austrian lands; for 
both were chiefly German, nor were they very remote from each other ; 
but the addition of the Spanish dominions, including most of the Iberian 
peninsula and Roussillon, the Balearic Islands, Sardinia and Sicily in 
the Mediterranean, the recently conquered kingdom of Naples in Italy, 
and the rapidly expanding conquests in America, gave a new character 
to the Habsburg Empire, which, henceforward, appeared rather as an 
aggregation of territories than an organic State. One other marriage 
was of great importance. In 1521 Ferdinand, the brother of Charles, 
married Anne, the sister of Lewis, King of Hungary and Bohemia since 
1516. Anne was not at the time the heiress, but in 1526, at the battle 
of Mohacs, the male line of the Hungarian royal House was destroyed, 
and the two kingdoms were driven by necessity to elect Ferdinand as 
their ruler. Bohemia and its dependencies, Transylvania, and such 
part of Hungary as the Turks did not conquer, were thus added to 
the Habsburg dominions. It was not the first time that Austria, 
Hungary, and Bohemia had been brought together, but this time it 
was to be a lasting union. The Habsburg Empire now consisted of a 
group of kingdoms, duchies, and counties, drawn together by every 
process by which territory is gained, inhabited by diverse races, situated 
in various parts of Europe and America, and having no natural con- 
nexion with each other, in many cases no other tie save that of a common 
head. Other features combined to give this strange Empire its unique 
character. The possession of the Empire gave it a power over, and a 
responsibility for, the political system of Germany, as well as a duty 
with regard to the Catholic Church, while the distribution of its terri- 
tories drew it into Western and Eastern European problems. Austria 
thus became the centre of world politics. In the Colonial world, in the 
Mediterranean, in western, southern, and south-eastern Europe it had 
vital interests. Only from the contest for the Baltic did it at present 
stand aside. 
26 Ij^ the course of the sixteenth century the Italian dominions grew. 
In 1500, Maximilian acquired Aquileia on the north-east Adriatic, 
and thus strengthened the Habsburg power between the Venetian 
possessions in Istria and Lombardy. Ferdinand conquered Naples by 
1505. Charles added the duchy of Milan — diminished, indeed, by 
cessions to the Swiss in 1512 and 1513, and by the transference of 
Parma and Piacenza to the Pope in 1515 — and gave to Spain a pre- 
dominance in Italy. 



II A, Hahshiirg Power and Reformation: Europe. 33 

On the resignation of Charles in 1556, the Habsburg Empire 
divided into the Spanish and Austrian branches. Though the two 
branches worked together for a long time, the great collection of 
dominions no longer owned a common lord. To the Spanish branch 
went Spain, the Netherlands, Franche Comte, the Italian and Mediter- 
ranean possessions, and the New World — to Austria the remainder — 
the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia, the group of Austrian duchies, 
and the outlying possessions in Suabia and Elsass. 

With the division of the Empire the decline of the western branch 
began. In 1581, the northern provinces of the Netherlands renounced 
their allegiance. In 1580, Portugal was acquired and the political unity 
of the Spanish peninsula was established for sixty years. In the seven- 46 
teenth century, France took from Spain Roussillon, Franche Comte, 
Artois, and other frontier districts of the Netherlands, while France, 
England, and Holland challenged her colonial power. In the early 51 
eighteenth century, she was deprived of all her European possessions 
outside of the Spanish peninsula, save some of the Balearic Isles. 
Austria took her place in Italy and the Southern Netherlands, while 
England took Minorca for a time, and Gibraltar for good. By 1715, 
the western branch of the Habsburgs had sunk very low. The eastern 
branch was more fortunate. Though the power of the Empire, save 
for a brief interval, could not be revived, and definitely declined, and 
though France advanced in Elsass, and, for a time, the Turks in 
Hungary, yet, at the end of the seventeenth century, Austria was 
a great Power, capable not only of recovering her lost possessions 
from the Turks, but of a counter-advance into their dominions, and 
able, at the partition of the Spanish Empire in 1715, to secure Spanish 
Italy and the Spanish Netherlands. 

A rearrangement of Italy was amongst the first great political 26 
changes in the sixteenth century. From 1494 to 1530, the political 
conditions of Italy were in a continual flux; but, by 1530, a general 
settlement was reached, which remained substantially undisturbed until 
the Peace of Utrecht. The main result was the subjection of Italy, 
and the consequent destruction of the possibility of a united Italy 
taking her place by the side of the other great States of Europe. 
That subjection was almost complete, and continued far into the nine- 
teenth century, first to Spain, and then to Austria, which, after the War 
of the Spanish Succession, entered into the place of Spain. Venice, 
Savoy, the Papal States, and Genoa, preserved various degrees of 
independence. 

The expansion of France into Italy with which these changes began 
was but a temporary movement. In 1494-5 Charles VIII added the 
kingdom of Naples to the Crown of France. His possession of it was 
brief. In 1496 the dispossessed sovereign was restored. In 1499 the 
French conquered Milan. They rewarded their Swiss allies with some 

C. M. H. VOL. XIV. 3 



34 II A, Habsburg Power and Reformation : Europe. 

territory on the north of the Milanese and west of Lake Como, one 
of the keys of Italy, and their Venetian allies with Cremona and the 
Ghiara d'Adda. In 1500, by the Treaty of Granada, they agreed to 
partition Naples with Spain. The French share was to be the city of 
Naples and the northern districts, the Abruzzi and Terra di Lavoro; 
the Spanish, Apulia and Calabria. But Naples, never partitioned or 
dismembered, was not easy to divide. Hence arose a war, which resulted 
in the expulsion of the French and the annexation of the kingdom of 
Naples by Spain. In northern Italy the French enjoyed more success 
and penetrated into central Italy, Venetian Lombardy, and Genoa, 
only to be expelled in 1512 from all their Italian possessions. They 
recovered Milan again, in 1515, and Genoa; but, in 1521-2, they were 
expelled from both. The possession of Milan was an absolute necessity 
to Charles V, so long as he held Naples and the Netherlands. It was 
needed for the protection of Naples and of the line of communication 
from Italy to Germany. At the Peace of Cambray, in 1529, the 
French renounced their claims to dominion in Italy, and recognised 
the acquisition of Milan and Naples by Spain. Though France after- 
wards frequently sought to secure a gate of entrance into Italy, and 
political influence there, she did not again seek extensive Italian 
territories, until the question of the Spanish Succession arose; nor 
94 did she again acquire them until the conquests of Bonaparte re- 
volutionised the conditions of Italy. She held Saluzzo from 1548 
11, 46, to 1588, and Pinerolo from 1631 to 1696, and she acquired Corsica 
79 in 1768. But this island was the only extensive territory included 
in the Italian political system which passed permanently into French 
hands. 

The dominion sought by France was acquired by Spain. The 
political settlements of 1529-30 and 1559 left Spain in possession of 
Naples and Milan, as well as of Sicily, Sardinia, and parts of Tuscany, 
the Stato degli Presidi, and thus with virtual control of the whole 
peninsula. Milan was first granted as an Imperial fief to Francesca 
Sforza, but came into the direct possession of Spain in 1540, and 
51 remained in her hands till 1706. It was transferred to Austria in 
63 1715, and remained Austrian till 1796. By that time it was greatly 
15 reduced in size from the Milan of the later fifteenth century. In the 
north, parts were cut off and transferred to the Swiss Confederation in 
1500, and again in 1512 and 1513. Parma and Piacenza were given 
51 to the Pope in 1515. In the eighteenth century. Savoy encroached 
63 on the west in 1713, 1738, and 1745, until she reached the Ticino, 
which became henceforward the frontier between the two States. 
Naples, Sardinia, and Sicily remained Spanish until the War of the 
51 Spanish Succession. In 1713 Sicily was given to Savoy, in 1714 Sar- 
dinia and Naples to Austria. In 1718 Sardinia was exchanged by 
Austria for Sicily. The Stato degli Presidi, of which the chief towns 



II A, Habsburg Power and Reformation : Europe, 35 

were Orbitello, Telamoiie, and Porto Ercole, came from Siena to Spain 
in 1555, and passed to Austria in 1714, and to Naples in 1735. 

In the course of the Franco-Spanish struggle for dominion an im- 
portant political change took place in central Italy, where the Papal 
States were consolidated into a real temporal Power. First, Caesar 
Borgia made conquests for himself of the towns of the Romagna; 
then, Julius II gathered up these conquests for the Papacy; acquired 
Perugia and Bologna in 1506; recovered in 1508 the towns of Rimini 
and Faenza, which Venice had seized in 1503, and thus extended and 
consolidated papal rule in the Romagna and central Italy. The duchies 
of Parma and Piacenza were acquired in 1515, but they were granted 
out in 1545 as a duchy to a member of the Farnese family, and passed 
in 1731 to a branch of the Spanish Bourbons. By the middle of the 
sixteenth century, papal rule extended from the Po to Terracina, though 
the duchies of Ferrara and Urbino were only dependencies, and did not 
come under papal rule until 1598 and 1631 respectively. This consoli- 
dation of the Papal States was one of the outstanding results of the 
period we are considering. 

In a time of general change, the position of Venice excited envy 
and suspicion. Venice had made gains, in Lombardy from Milan, in 
1499 ; the eastern coast towns of Naples, including Otranto, during the 
Neapolitan Wars; and Rimini and Faenza in the Romagna, in 1503, 
on the downfall of Caesar Borgia. In 1508, the League of Cambray 
was formed to divide the possessions of Venice. France and the 
Emperor were to share Venetian Lombardy, and the Emperor was to 
obtain in addition Venetian territory in Istria and Dalmatia; Spain 
was to recover the Neapolitan towns; the Pope Ravenna and the 
towns of the Romagna ; Savoy to acquire Cyprus. Though the parti- 
tion was almost carried through, Venice in the end recovered the main 
body of her territory. But her recent acquisitions were pared away. 
The towns of the Romagna went back to the Papal States in 1508, 
and, at the settlement of Italy in 1530, Venice surrendered Ravenna 
to the Pope, and the Apulian ports to Charles V. But, while she 
lost these outlying possessions, she retained her continuous dominion 
on the mainland until her downfall. In Lombardy, she was left with 
her frontier on the Adda, and this remained her frontier to the end. 
But her expansion was over. She did not disappear, like Milan and 
Florence, because the mother-city was impregnable in her lagoons. But 
the situation in which she was left was difficult. The Austrian terri- 
tories touched her eastern and northern frontiers, the Papal States 
and Milan her southern and western. Had the Valtelline, the long 30 
valley of the Adda, reaching from the head of Lake Como to the 
Stelvio Pass and connecting Milan with Tyrol, ever fallen into Habs- 
burg hands, Venice would have lain in a circle of Habsburg and papal 
territory. 

S— 2 



36 II A. Hahsburg Power and Reformation : Europe. 

When the French were expelled from Italy, the Medici were restored 
to Florence. In 1530 Florence became a principality. In 1557 she 
annexed Siena, and in 1567 became a grand duchy, comprising all 
Tuscany except Lucca and the Stato degli Presidi. She passed under 
Spanish and, in the eighteenth century, under Austrian influence. When 

63 the Medici became extinct in 1737, the grand duchy was assigned to 

Duke Francis of Lorraine, afterwards Emperor Francis I. 
25 Savoy was the only native Italian State which showed much political 

activity and expansive power in the period of Italian subjection. She 
grew steadily, and grew in Italian territory. For losses to France and 
Switzerland she found compensation on the plains of Lombardy and the 
Mediterranean shore. Acquisitions of small principalities, cessions from 
Montferrat and Milan, enfeoffments by the Emperor, were the means of 
her increase. She gained Cocconato from Montferrat in 1503, and Asti, 
Cherasco, and Ceva in 1531, as a grant from the Emperor to Beatrice of 
Portugal, wife of Charles III. The purchase of Tenda in 1575, and 
of Oneglia later, extended her footing in Liguria. North of the Alps, 
meanwhile, she suffered losses. In 1536 Bern, Freiburg, and Valais took 
away all her possessions north of the Lake of Geneva and Chablais to the 
south of the lake. Some of these were recovered in 1567, when Bern 
gave back Gex and her conquests south of the lake, and Valais part of 
hers. In 1588 Savoy conquered Saluzzo, which France had held for 
forty years, but secured it at the Peace of Lyons, 1601, only by exchange 
for Bresse, Bugey, Valromey, and Gex. At the Peace of Chieri, 1631, she 
obtained the possessions of Montferrat north of the Po, and the greater 
part of those south of the Tanaro. At the Peace of Loretto (1696) 
she regained Pinerolo, which France had held since 1631, thus expelling 
the French from Piedmont, and revised her Alpine boundaries with 
France. In Italy, she acquired the remainder of the possessions of 
Montferrat, Alessandria and the neighbouring districts of Milan, and 
the island of Sicily, which was in 1718 exchanged for Sardinia. In 
1738, by the Peace of Vienna, she made further gains from Milan to 
the south and north-east, particularly Tortona and Novara; while, in 
1745, at the expense of the same State, the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 
carried her frontiers still further east to Lake Maggiore and the river 
Ticino. Thus, in the course of events. Savoy, driven more and more into 
Italy, consolidated her power in Piedmont, acquired western Lombardy, 
and planted herself firmly on the Ligurian coast. 

Of the smaller Italian States, the duchy of Mantua remained in the 
possession of the Gonzaga, until, in 1708, it became forfeit to the 
Emperor, whose possession of it was recognised in 1714. In 1536, 
Mantua had acquired the duchy of Montferrat ; but this, in 1713, passed 
finally into the hands of Savoy. The House of Este continued to hold 

26 Modena and Reggio of* the Emperor, and Ferrara of the Pope. In 
1598, Ferrara was annexed to the Papal States. Genoa preserved h^r 



I 



II A, Habshurg Power and Reformation : Europe. 37 

independence and her mainland possessions, but Corsica was in 1768 63 
taken from her by France. 

The formation of the Habsburg Power checked the expansion of 1 1 , 46, 
France in Italy and drove her to expand in the more natural direction 79 
which she had followed in the fifteenth century. Thus, unlike Spain, 
which grew by distant conquests and acquisitions, France grew within 
certain natural geographical limits on her eastern and southern frontiers. 
Acquiring temtories which were geographically continuous or connected 
with the French kingdom, and conquering them piecemeal, she was able 
thoroughly to incorporate her acquisitions and maintain her unity and 
strength ; and thus her conquests differed very much from the hetero- 
geneous collection of territories which were drawn into the Habsburg 
Empire, or from the scattered possessions which colonisation and con- 
quest added to the English Crown. French expansion was for the most 
part in those middle regions between France and Germany whose 
political future the Middle Ages handed down as a problem for the 
modern world to solve. With Spain and Austria France disputed and 
fought for the roads and wealth of this group of countries, and gradually 
partitioned them. She was driven to acquire dominion here, because of 
the defenceless character of her eastern frontier, particularly in the 
north, where her capital lay exposed ; and the need was the more impera- 
tive, inasmuch as a line of Habsburg possessions hemmed her in. When 
Spain was at the height of her power, her territories here were a menace 
to France, and when she declined they became a temptation. So were the 
Austrian, for the main portion of the Austrian territories lay at a con- 
siderable distance, and she would not easily hold the outlying parts ; so, 
too, were the parts of the Empire which relied on the Emperor for 
protection. 

The attempt of France to acquire dominion in Italy has been already 
discussed. The price of freedom to make that attempt she paid in the 
Treaty of Barcelona (1493), when Charles VIII restored Roussillon and 
Cerdagne to Aragon, and in the Treaty of Senlis (1493), when he resigned 
his claim on Artois, PVanche Comte, and Charolais. The Italian Wars 
developed into a struggle between Habsburg and Valois, which checked 
for a century the expansion of France. When, in 1529, at the Peace of 
Cambray, the first great settlement between the two combatants was 
made, France recognised the unquestioned supremacy of Spain in Italy, 
and surrendered her feudal suzerainty over Flanders and Artois ; but 
she retained her Burgundian acquisitions. In the last of her wars with 
Charles V, France abandoned the hope of recovering dominion in Italy 
and sought expansion on her eastern frontier. In 1550 she recovered 
Boulogne, lost to England in 1546, and, in 1558, Calais, after more 
than two hundred years of foreign occupation. In the meantime in 
1552 Henry II laid hold of the three Imperial bishoprics in Lorraine — 
Metz, Toul, and Verdun. The Peace of Cateau Cambresis, in 1559, 



38 II A, Habsburg Power and Reformation : Europe. 

brought a struggle of more than fifty years' duration to a close, and 
marked a definite stage in the formation of the European political 
system. Italy was left as she had been left in 1529. Savoy was re- 
established as a buffer State between France and Italy, though France 
retained Saluzzo, which she had conquered in 1548. The duchy of 
Burgundy passed, without doubt, into the French kingdom ; Flanders and 
Artois became with equal certainty parts of the Netherlands, and the 
partition of the Burgundian inheritance was made at last. England also 
lost finally her foothold in France. All these decisions were the termi- 
nation of long-standing disputes. One other — the retention by France 
of the three bishoprics acquired in 1552 — was the opening of a new. 
With this acquisition, France extended outside of the Burgundian in- 
heritance into a German State, to which she had no sort of claim. She 
acquired, moreover, patches of territory which were disconnected from 
each other and from the main body of the kingdom ; and such a conquest 
could only be a preliminary to further advances. The Habsburg Power 
had closed Italy to France, and driven her into Germany, now so much 
weakened and divided by the Reformation that a strong border State 
might hope to make gains out of its troubles. But no further advance 
was made by France during the sixteenth century. The Peace of 
Vervins, 1598, which ended another stage in the Habsburg- Valois duel, 
was a confirmation of the Peace of 1559, and left France still hemmed 
in by Habsburg territories. It was to be her work in the seventeenth 

25 century to free herself from this position. One important gain, however, 
was made by Henry IV. By the Treaty of Lyons, 1601, he obtained 
from Savoy Bresse, Bugey, Valromey, and Gex, in exchange for Saluzzo, 
which Savoy had reconquered in 1588, and thus brought the French 
frontier in this quarter to a more defensible natural boundary. 

18 It seems desirable now to turn attention to the political changes 
caused by the Reformation. Though primarily a religious movement, the 
Reformation exerted a great influence on the political system of Europe. 
It did not affect Italy, Spain, Portugal, south-eastern Europe, or even 
France very much from this point of view ; but it exerted a strong 
influence on the shaping of northern Europe in Scandinavia, Germany, 
the Netherlands and the British Isles. Its influence neither coincided 
with, nor cut across, that of the Habsburg Power, which was the principal 
force shaping the political system of Europe in the sixteenth century, 
but ran directly counter to it. The Reformation gradually divided 
Germany into two hostile camps; frustrated the attempts to achieve 
German unity and Imperial absolutism ; led to the growth of princely 
power and the progressive secularisation of ecclesiastical territory in 
the interests of the Princes, and so to the break-up of Germany into a 
group of States. In the British Isles, by assimilating the religions of 
England and Scotland, it drew the two countries together for mutual 
defence, and foreshadowed their future union, and, at the same time, it 



II A. Habsburg Power and Reformation: Europe. 39 

contributed to the expansion of England into Greater Britain. In 
Scandinavia, it sustained the strength of Swedish independence, and 
hastened the rise of Sweden to her dominant position on the Baltic. In 
the Netherlands it produced the division of the provinces, and inspired 
the independence of Holland. Switzerland it divided and paralysed, 
giving the Confederation a form which it retained until the French 
Revolution. In Poland, it inserted a divisive force into the heart of a 
weak State. It thus diminished the political, just as it broke the 
religious, unity of Europe. 

In Germany, the Reformation was rapidly adopted by the Princes 
and the Imperial towns. When, after the first trial of strength between 
the two religions, a settlement was made in the Peace of Augsburg, 
1555, the division of territories in Germany gave to Protestantism 
Holstein, Brunswick, Saxony (Electoral and Ducal), Hesse, the Palati- 
nate, Wiirtemberg, Baden, Mansfeld, Anhalt, Brandenburg, Pomerania, 
the bishopric of Verden and almost all the Imperial towns — to 
Catholicism the Habsburg lands, Bavaria, Mecklenburg, Nassau, Lor- 
raine and the ecclesiastical States. None of these last had as yet been 
secularised, except such as lay within the territories of the Protestant 
States, Saxony, Brandenburg, and Pomerania. 

One important territorial change had resulted from the Schmalkaldic 1 4 
War. The division of Saxony between the Albertine and Ernestine 
lines has been already explained. The defeat of the Elector at Miihl- 
berg (1547) and the victory of Maurice were followed by a partition of 
the Ernestine territories. The electorate and the Ernestine part of 
the Osterland were handed over to the Albertine branch. The Vogtland 
was given to Bohemia, as also was Sagan, an Albertine possession. 
After the defeat of the Emperor and the death of Maurice, new changes 
were made in the Treaty of Naumburg, in 1554. Altenburg, Neustadt, 
and some other districts were restored to the Ernestine branch. Later 
changes gave Neustadt back to the Albertines, to whom also Vogtland 
returned in 1575. 

The principle of cujus regio ejus religio adopted in the Peace of 28 
Augsburg increased the power of the Princes, and the right of secu- 
larising ecclesiastical territory which the Protestants claimed opened the 
way to great territorial changes. The Electors of Brandenburg and 
Saxony and the Duke of Pomerania secularised the bishoprics whose 
extensive territories broke the unity of their States — Cammin in Pome- 
rania; Brandenburg, Havelberg, and Lebus in Brandenburg ; Meissen, 
Naumburg, and Merseburg in Saxony. For a few years after the 
Peace of Augsburg Protestantism continued to make advances. By 1566, 
all the northern bishoprics except Hildesheim were in Protestant hands. 
The Counter-reformation, however, retrieved much of the ground lost 
to Catholicism, particularly in the Rhine country. Thus, at the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth century, the division of States had somewhat 



40 II A. Habsburg Power and Reformation : Europe, 

changed. In 1610, the principal Roman Catholic States were the 
Austrian lands, Bavaria, Berg, Jiilich, Hesse-Darmstadt, and the ecclesi- 
astical States of Mainz, Trier, Cologne, Wiirzburg, Bamberg, Miinster, 
Osnabriick, Paderborn, Bremen, Verden, Minden, Hildesheim, Passau, 
Ratisbon, Salzburg, Speier, Strassburg, and Constance. The Protestant 
States were divided into Lutheran and Calvinist, of which the latter 
included Brandenburg, Baireuth, Ansbach, Cleve, Mark, the Rhenish 
Palatinate, the Upper Palatinate, Zweibrlicken, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, 
Anhalt, Pomerania, and the former Brunswick-Liineburg, Brunswick- 
Wolfenblittel, East Friesland, Holstein, Mecklenburg, Wiirtemberg, 
Neuburg, Baden, Saxony, and Saxe-Lauenburg, with the archbishopric 
of Magdeburg and the bishoprics of Halberstadt, Lubeck, Schwerin, 
Ratzeburg, and Worms, in addition to the bishoprics of Brandenburg, 
Saxony, and Pomerania previously mentioned. The great majority of 
the Imperial towns remained Protestant, and adherents of the reformed 
creeds were numerous in Austria, Bohemia and its dependencies, and 
in some of the Catholic States of north-western Germany. 

In the first years of the war, 1620-4, Protestantism was finally 
suppressed in the Austrian dominions and in Bavaria; and, after his 
successes in 1626-8, the Emperor endeavoured to put into force in 
northern Germany the policy of restitution which he had carried 

31^ through in southern Germany. By the Edict of Restitution, 1629, all 
ecclesiastical lands and property secularised by Protestants since 1552 
were to be restored. This threatened the Protestant possession of the 
sees of Ratzeburg, Schwerin, Bremen, Verden, Minden, Magdeburg, 
Halberstadt, Lubeck, Cammin, Havelberg, Brandenburg, Lebus, Naum- 
burg, Merseburg, and Meissen, and in the first seven of the above the 
restitution was either carried through or begun. It was also carried 
through in some twenty-three towns, chiefly Imperial, and applied to 
much property in Elsass, Franconia, Lower Saxony, and Suabia. The 
resistance of the local authorities, and the course of events after 1630, 
eventually rendered it a dead letter. In the Peace of Prague, which 
was concluded between the Emperor and most of the German Princes in 
1635, the date of 1627 was accepted as the basis of agreement as to the 
possession of ecclesiastical property and territory — a decision which 
deprived the Protestants of the bishopric of Halberstadt, but left them 
in possession of a great number of the northern bishoprics. 

18 The Reformation made headway in Switzerland from two centres, 
Zurich and Geneva; but it never gained the whole country. Uri, 
Schwyz, Unterwalden, Luzern, Freiburg, Zug, the Valais, and the 
Valtelline remained Catholic. In 1586, the Catholic cantons formed the 
Borromean League for the maintenance of the Catholic faith. This 
crystallised the division of the Confederation into two parts, and almost 

^ Map ol is based on a map in Tupetz, T., Der Streit um die geistlichen Outer 
und das Restitutionsedikt (Vienna, 1883). 



II A, Habshurg Power and Reformation : Europe, 41 



dissolved the old federal constitution. From the struggles of the 
Reformation there thus emerged two Switzerlands — the one Protestant 
the other Catholic — the one embracing the industrial plains of the west, 
the other the pastoral mountainous regions of the east — each with its 
own Diet, its own interests, its own policy — the two united in a Con- 
federation which lacked the essential power of action. 

The Reformation entered France in the reign of Francis I, and, 19^ 18 
though persecution restrained its outward manifestation, its adherents 
gradually spread, first in the large towns, then in the Dauphine and the 
Vivarais, and up the waterways of the great rivers. In the fifties, it 
gained organisation, and, in 156^, it received legal recognition. The 
strength of the Huguenots was concentrated in the area between the 
Loire, the Pyrenees and the Rhone. They had outposts in the Dauphine 
and Normandy, were strongest in the Gironde, and weakest in the east 
and north-east. As a result of a long series of civil wars, they estab- 
lished themselves as a State within a State, with an organisation of 
their own and a guarantee of their position in a number of places de 
surete^. One reason for the inactivity of France between 1559 and 
1598, and for the precarious position in which she stood at the beginning 1 

of the seventeenth century, is to be sought in the internal division I 

which the Reformation thus created within her borders. It was left to 1 

Richelieu to break the political power of the Huguenots, in 16S2-8. |! 

In Scandinavia, the vast extent of ecclesiastical property was a strong 1 8 ll 

predisposing cause of the Reformation. The King of Denmark embraced j 

Lutheranism in 1525 ; the conversion of the country and the seculari- 
sation of church property rapidly followed. In Sweden, the Reformation 

began in 1527, and was definitely carried through ; but it had not the ; 

same sweeping success as in Denmark. ; 

In England, the authority of the Pope was first repudiated in 1534, i 

and a form of the reformed faith was adopted finally in 1559 ; in Scotland, I 

the change to the Calvinistic faith was authoritatively made in 1560-1. j 

Various forms of the reformed faith were introduced into Poland, and, ' 

with religious liberty, made rapid headway. By 1572, the Protestant 

sects were widespread. The divisions between Lutherans, Calvinists, i 

and A nti -Trinitarians enabled the Counter-reformation to recover the i 

country. In the confusion of Hungary, and under the tolerant 
Turkish rule, the reformed faith found favourable conditions of growth. 
Calvinism spread through the great central plain into Transylvania, 
where in 1557 both religions were tolerated. The tolerant spirit of the 
Ottoman Government contributed to prolong its rule ; for the Protestant 
Magyar noblemen dreaded the persecuting Habsburg Government. In 
Italy, the reformed faith gained adherents in Venice, Ferrara, Modena, 
Naples, and Lucca ; but it was rapidly and completely suppressed. In 

^ So far as regards the places de sureti, map 19 is based on the map contained in 
Anquez, L., Histoire des Assemblees Folitiques des Reformes de France (Paris^ 1859). 



I 



42 II A. Habsburg Power and Reformation : Europe. 

Spain, it never had much vitality, except in Seville and Valladolid, where 

it was easily stamped out by the Inquisition. 

22 Under the combined influence of Habsburg rule and the Reformation, 

great changes came about in the Netherlands. Out of the group of 

lordships, counties, towns, and ecclesiastical territories which the Biu*- 

gundian Dukes had gathered together, arose a new State, destined to 

play a most important part in the political system of Europe, which, as 

the United Provinces, the kingdom of the Netherlands, or the kingdom 

of Holland, has guarded its independence and the integrity of its 

territory down to the present day, and, as a maritime and colonial 

Power, gained and still holds a large dominion beyond the seas. In 

spite of losses to the kingdom of France, the Burgundian lands formed 

a very considerable inheritance when they passed into the possession of 

the future Emperor Charles V. It was his work to enlarge and define 

their area and to give them a much greater degree of unity than they 

had previously possessed. Their frontiers with France had always been 

shifting and uncertain. As a result of the struggle between Francis and 

Charles they were at last determined. By the Treaties of Madrid (1526) 

and Cambray (1529) Francis resigned his suzerainty over Flanders and 

Artois, and Charles V his claim to the Somme towns. In the subsequent 

wars Charles maintained this settlement, and the Peace of Cateau 

Cambresis (1559) confirmed that of Cambray, and recognised the organic 

unity of the Netherlands. At the same time Charles extended and 

consolidated his territories. He added Tournay in 1521 ; Friesland, 

after a long war, in 1523 ; the temporal sovereignty of Utrecht in 1527 ; 

Gelderland and Zutphen, finally, in 1543, and Cambray in the same year. 

The seventeen provinces held by him were the duchies of Brabant, 

Limburg, Luxemburg and Gelderland; the counties of Flanders, Artois, 

Hainault, Namur, Zeeland, Holland, and Zutphen ; the lordships of 

Friesland, Groningen, Overyssel, Utrecht, and Mechlin ; and the mar- 

quisate of Antwerp. In addition, he gave to the Netherlands a separate 

organisation and a centralised government, and declared them to be 

a single and indivisible inheritance. Save that they were joined with 

Franche Comte and Luxemburg in the Burgundian Circle of the Empire, 

they were treated as much as possible as a separate unit. In 1548, 

their relations to the Empire were reconsidered, and they were declared 

to be not subject to its laws; and Charles proposed to revise their 

ecclesiastical organisation so that no part of the provinces should be 

within an external see. Thus, the Netherlands tended to form a compact 

as well as a most important part of Charles' scattered dominions. Only 

the bishopric of Liege broke their geographical unity, and Charles drew 

that see more and more under his influence. Philip II, to whom in the 

division of Habsburg power (1556) these provinces passed, continued 

his father's work of consolidation; but his religious policy provoked 

a rebellion. In the southern provinces this was suppressed, but the 



II A, Habsburg Power and Reformation : Europe, 43 

northern provinces of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, the northern part of 
Gelderland (with Zutphen), Overyssel, Friesland, and Groningen formed 
in 1579 the Union of Utrecht, and in 1581 abjured the sovereignty of 
Philip. In 1609 Spain virtually recognised their independence, which 
was also allowed by the Empire at the Peace of Westphalia, 1648. In 41 
the course of long wars, the United Provinces conquered parts of the 
southern Netherlands — the northern parts of Flanders, including Sluys 
and Hulst, and of Brabant, including Breda and Bergen, and the 
Overmaaslands, viz. parts of Gelders and Limburg, including Maestricht. 
These lands, known as Generaliteitsland, were governed sis common 
lands, and were confirmed to the United Provinces in the treaties of 
1648 and 1661. Being possessed of them the Dutch were enabled 
to control the mouths of the Scheldt, Meuse, and Rhine, and to ruin 
the trade of Antwerp. 

A great change was produced in the position on the Baltic by the 1 7 
dissolution of the Union of Calmar. That union had been straining 
asunder since the middle of the fifteenth century. In 15S0, the Swedes 
revolted, and Sweden definitely released herself from the dominion of 
Denmark. At that moment Sweden was small and poor. She held not 
a half of the Scandinavian peninsula. The Danes retained Norway 
which included the provinces of Jemteland and Herjedalen, on the 
eastern side of the Scandinavian Alps, and the coastal strip of the 
south-eastern corner of the peninsula, the fertile provinces of Skaane, 
Bleking, and Halland. In addition, Bohus was Norwegian; and Sweden 
thus reached the sea in the south-west only at one precarious outlet, 
Elfborg, at the mouth of the river Gota. Of the islands, Sweden held 
Oland only. Even Gottland, the stepping-stone across the Baltic, was 
a fief of the Danish Crown. East of the Baltic, however, Finland, up 
to Viborg, was Swedish. The centre of the kingdom lay in the region 
of low plains stretching from the Cattegat to the lower end of the Gulf 
of Bothnia, which interrupts with a broad depression the great ^orest- 
clad plateau that occupies the north and is continued in Smdland to 
the south. Geographical conditions marked out the destinies of Sweden. 
She would need to reach the open sea by acquiring the southern provinces 
held by Denmark, to reach the mountain frontier of the west by acquir- 
ing the Norwegian provinces that overlapped it ; and, if she were to be 
great, to extend her dominion round the Baltic, for little profit could 
be made by conquering Norway and reaching the North Sea. Hence, 
round the Baltic was the sphere of Swedish expansion. But the story 
of this is best told in another connexion. 

The dissolution of the Union did Denmark little injury. Throughout 
the sixteenth century, she remained more powerful than she had been 
before, dominant in the Baltic. The waters of the Sound were the 
centre of her dominion. On the east lay the southern provinces of 
Scandinavia, and further east the islands of Bornholm, Gottlandr-and" "^^ 







44 II A, Habsburg Power and Reformation : Europe, 

Osel. To the north was Norway, scantily peopled and poor. West 
lay the group of islands which linked up the southern end of Scandi- 
navia with the mainland of Europe and the outreaching peninsula, 
where was the province of Jutland ; to the south were the two duchies 
of Schleswig and Holstein. These two duchies, united to each other 
indissolubly, became a separate possession of the Danish royal House in 
1460, and in 1533 joined Denmark in a federal alliance on almost equal 
terms. In 1544 they were partitioned between the King of Denmark 
and his two brothers, so that three lines ruled in them. For Holstein 
the three did homage to the Emperor ; in Schleswig two of the brothers 
resisted the claim of the third, the King of Denmark, to feudal suzerainty. 
54 In the course of time, by the extinction of families, the two duchies 
were divided between the King of Denmark and the Duke of Holstein- 
Gottorp, their possessions being scattered over both duchies. Since, in 
Schleswig, the King of Denmark was suzerain of the Duke, and, in 
Holstein, both were vassals of the Empire, and since Schleswig was 
indissolubly united to Holstein, and both together were united to the 
kingdom of Denmark, the relations between the kingdom and the duchies 
were most complicated. On the west of Holstein was the district of 
Ditmarschen, where a kind of peasant republic existed. In 1559, it 
was conquered by the combined efforts of King and Duke, and became 
part of the royal share of Holstein. 

3 While in western Europe the political settlement and the division 
of disputed territory depended on the balance of power between the 
kingdom of France and the Habsburg Empire, in south-eastern Europe 
the Ottoman Turk divided dominion with the Habsburg Empire and 
the Venetian Republic. In western Europe the scene of struggle slowly 
shifted from Italy to the eastern frontier of the Empire, in south-eastern 
Europe it centred in the Aegean by sea, and by land in the hitherto 
undivided kingdom of Hungary, which was now partitioned between 
Ottoman and Habsburg along a frontier that, though continually 
changing, changed over but a small area for a century and a half. 

When the advance of the Turks was resumed in the early sixteenth 
century, it was in Asia and Africa that they at first made conquests. 
From Persia they took parts of Armenia, Kurdistan, and Upper Meso- 
potamia by 1515; they acquired Syria, Egypt, and Arabia in 1515-17, 
conquered Algeria in 1519, and Tunis in 1534. In northern Africa, as 
7 in eastern Europe, they came in contact with the Habsburgs. Between 
1494 and 1516 Spain, following the Moors into Africa, had acquired 
a number of coast towns, including Melilla, Oran, Mers-el-Kebir, 
Bugia, and Tripoli. In the struggle that ensued some of these 
were lost. But Charles V conquered Tunis and Goletta in 1535, and 
Spanish influence was maintained in Tunis, until Spain withdrew from 
Goletta in 1574 ; while Oran was not lost until 1708 and ^^^as again 

65 recovered. With the exception of the unconquered Spanish towns, 



II A, Habsburg Power and Reformation : Europe, 45 

northern Africa, to the borders of Morocco, passed by 1540 under Turkish 
rule, which was not seriously threatened by any European Power until 
the French began their colonial expansion in Algiers in the early nine- 
teenth century. 

Meanwhile the Ottoman arms were advancing on the mainland by 21 
the land route up the Danube. In 1521 Belgrade was taken, and in 
1526 the medieval kingdom of Hungary was overthrown at the battle 
of Mohacs. Hungary consists of three mountainous regions girdling 
a great plain — in the south the Dalmatian Alps, in the north the 
Western Carpathians, in the east the Eastern Carpathians. As a result 
of a series of wars, the Turks gradually made themselves masters of the 
central part of Hungary — the flat fertile and well- watered plains through 
which the Danube and the Theiss flow in their passage from Western to 
Eastern Carpathians. They took Buda in 1529, and, extending their 
conquests east and west, they had, when the truce of 1547 was arranged, 10 
brought Szegedin, Gran, Wischegrad, and Stuhlweissenburg under their 
rule. The Treaty of Sitvatorok, 1606, which formed the basis of a more 
lasting settlement, gave them in addition Tata, Eger, Szolnok, Veszprem, 
and the Banat of Temesvar. Other conquests were made in the third 48 
quarter of the seventeenth century. In 1658, they gained a part of the 
possessions of Transylvania, including Grosswardein and Debreczen, and 
in 1664, by the Treaty of Vasvar, a considerable extent of territory west 
of Lake Balaton and north of the bend of the Danube ; but their retreat 
was then near at hand. 

Thus, from the middle of the sixteenth until nearly the end of the 
seventeenth century, Hungary remained partitioned, and the Ottoman 
and Habsburg Powers swayed backwards and forwards on a fluctuating 
frontier. Austria managed to retain the mountainous strip of Hungary 
which flanked the eastern borders of her hereditary possessions, and 
included Agram, most of Croatia, Upper Slavonia, and part of north- 
western Hungary. The central river valleys and the mountainous south, 
that is, most of the Magyar part of Hungary, were governed by the Turks 
from Buda, and divided into the three vilayets of Bosnia, Buda, and 
Temesvar. In the dissolution of the old order the principality of 
Transylvania broke away from Hungary. It laid hold of a group of 
counties in north-eastern Hungary, known as Partes Adnexae Regni Hun- 
gariae. The extent of this area fluctuated during the period of Turkish 
rule — for sometimes the Turks, and sometimes Transylvania, were in 
possession of parts of it. The relations of Transylvania itself to Ottoman 
and Habsburg also fluctuated ; but the principality was generally under 
Ottoman influence. Austria acquired it in 1600, but was compelled to 
acknowledge its independence again in 1606. The two contending 
Powers, Ottoman and Habsburg, divided its allegiance, as they divided 
Hungary, in unequal shares for many years. Such was the great northern 
sweep of Turkish power. Central Hungary was acquired, Wallachia, 



46 II B, Habsburg Power and Reformation: Greater Europe, 

Moldavia, and Transylvania, enlarged by its conquests, became depen- 
dencies. Even Austrian Hungary at times paid tribute, and a last effort 
before its decline gave to the Ottoman empire a momentary possession 
of Podolia, in 1672-6. 

Meantime, in the Aegean, the Morea, and Dalmatia, the Ottoman 
empire grew at the expense of Venice. Dalmatia, except the cities, 
was conquered by 1540. In the same year, at the peace signed at 
Constantinople, Urana, Nadin, and other places on the Dalmatian coast, 
and the Aegean Islands, Skyros, Paros, Patmos, Aegina, Stampalia, 
and Nios were formally ceded to Solyman. The duchy of Naxos, 
a Latin State formed by a Venetian in 1207 and including many 
Aegean islands, was practically absorbed by 1537 ; but Naxos itself 
did not pass under Turkish rule till 1566. Antivari in Albania, 
and the great island of Cyprus, were acquired by the Turks in 1571 
in spite of their defeat at Lepanto. Rhodes had capitulated in 1522. 
Then came a long pause in their acquisitions, until the prolonged 
48 struggle (1641-69) which gave them possession of Crete. The contest 
was not ended, for, at the end of the seventeenth century, in 1685-99, 
Venice reconquered Aegina and most of the Peloponnese, only to lose 
them again finally in 1718 at the Peace of Passarowitz, and with them 
the two fortresses of Spinalonga and Suda which she had retained in 
Crete in 1669, and the islands of Tinos and Mykonos. This gave to 
the Ottoman empire complete control of the Aegean, and confined 
Venice to the Adriatic, where she had been more fortunate, recovering 
Santa Maura and Butrinto and gaining Prevesa. 

B. GREATER EUROPE. 

2 Portugal, with her favourable position on the Atlantic and her 
proximity to Africa, led the way for the expansion of Europe into 
other continents. Castile followed in her footsteps. The desire of the 
West for the trade of the East was the strongest original motive in 
this new movement, for Ottoman conquests closed the familiar over- 
land means of communication between the two. In the century between 
1450 and 1550, an immense work was done and the arena of European 
energy wonderfully enlarged. Portuguese navigators and generals built 
for Portugal an empire in the East; Castilian explorers and captains 
founded the immense over-sea dominion of Spain. 

The colonial enterprise of the Portuguese grew out of their Moorish 
wars. Following the Moors to Africa they founded a dominion, 1415-71, 
which they retained until 1578. In a series of naval expeditions they 
discovered Madeira in 1419, the Azores in 1448, the Cape Verde Islands 
1449, and, following the coast of Africa, they reached the Cape of Good 
Hope in 1486. Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape in 1498, and, making 
his way to India, formed the first eastern settlement of the Portuguese 



II jB. Habsburg Power and Reformation: Greater Europe. 4tl 

at Cochin on the Malabar coast, thus bringing Portugal into touch with 
the rich civilisation of the East. Moving further east, the Portuguese 
discovered Ceylon in 1506, Malacca in 1509, the Spice Islands in 1511, 
and in time reached New Guinea, China and Japan. Meantime, in 
1500, another navigator, Cabral, drifted across the Atlantic to the coast 
of Brazil, and began Portuguese dominion in the New World. 

Castilian ships followed the Portuguese in these earlier discoveries ; 
and, in 1479, the Canaries were, by treaty, assigned to Castile. But 
America was to be the field of Spain. In 1492, Columbus, in the service 
of Ferdinand and Isabella, crossed the Atlantic and discovered the 
Bahamas, Cuba, and Hispaniola ; on a second voyage, in 1493, Jamaica ; 
on a third, in 1498, Trinidad and the mouth of the Orinoco, and in a 
final voyage he reached Honduras. Other explorers speedily amplified 
his work. 

Of the new-found territories the Papacy claimed to be the disposer, 
and in 1493 it fixed the meridian 100 leagues west of the Azores as the 
line of division between the spheres of the two competing nations. By 
the Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal, in 1494, the line 
was changed to one 375 leagues from the islands, and, in 1506, the Pope 
confirmed the arrangement. But new discoveries raised new problems. 
The Moluccas and Banda Islands in the east fell into dispute. So, in 
1529, by the Treaty of Saragossa, the meridian 17 degrees east of the 
Moluccas was agreed upon as a second line of demarcation. It was 
provided, however, that Portugal should keep Brazil, and Spain the 
Philippine Islands, and that Spain should receive a sum of money for 
her right to the Moluccas. 

Spanish explorers following Columbus increased European knowledge 
of Central and South America. Possession was taken of Cuba, Porto 
Rico, and Jamaica in 1508-10; the Pacific Ocean was discovered in 
1513 ; Florida in the same year ; Mexico in 1518, and, in a search for the 
westward route to the East, Magellan rounded Cape Horn in 1520, 
sailing through the straits to which he gave his name, and reached the 
Philippines in 1521, to perish at Zebu, Conquest followed in the wake 
of exploration. Mexico was conquered in 1519-21, Peru in 1531, Terra 
Firma in 1532, Chile in 1535, New Granada in 1536. The southern 
continent was traversed by way of the Amazon in 1541, while in the 
north-west the Spaniards, proceeding through Lower California in 
1534-5, reached Cape Mendocino by 1542, and, in the south-east, 
planted their first settlement at Buenos Aires in 1535. 

The Portuguese, seeking commerce rather than the precious metals, 
and for the most part in a different hemisphere, never gained, except 
in Brazil, the extensive territorial dominions of the Spaniards. The 
Portuguese empire was a maritime empire — a series of islands, ports, 
small settlements, and protected coasts, stretching from Portugal round 
Africa, east and west, Arabia, and India to the distant islands of the 



48 II B. Habsburg Power and Reformation: Greater Europe, 

Malay archipelago. The foundations of their dominion were laid by a 
great Viceroy, Alburquerque, 1509-15. He planted the capital at Goa, 
in 1510; reduced Malacca in 1511, and Hormuz in 1515, to get the 
trade of Persia, and established the Portuguese at Temate and Tidor 
in the Moluccas, where the Spanish rights were bought out in 1529. 
In 1517, the Portuguese occupied Colombo, and gradually acquired the 
trade of Ceylon ; in the same year they opened trade with China, and 
they settled at Macao in 1520, where their sovereignty was recognised 
in 1587. They captured Diu in 1535, and formed a connexion in 1542 
with Japan, where they planted a factory in 1548. The central point 
of their eastern dominions was Goa. In addition they had Diu and 
Damaun in the Deccan, Cochin and other places on the Malabar coast, 
Negapatam on the Coromandel coast, Malacca in the Malacca peninsula, 
Ceylon, and settlements in the Spice Islands, Java, and New Guinea. 
On the Persian Gulf they had Muscat and Hormuz. In eastern Africa, 
where they did not attempt dominion but sought only halting-places, 
they established themselves from the Zambesi to Delagoa Bay, and built 
forts at Sofala in 1505 and Mozambique in 1507. They were the only 
European Power established on the west coast of Africa, where they 
held points so far south as Cape Negro, and all the islands off the coast, 
including the Azores, except the Canaries. The colonisation of Brazil 
was seriously begun in 1531, and the coastal regions were divided into 
a number of captaincies. Save for the Spaniards, who opposed them in 
the extreme east, their principal enemy had been the Arabs, whom they 
had displaced from the great trading centres of the East. Other 
European Powers, England and France, were not quite inactive while 
this great work of colonisation was going forward, but their labours, 
less happily directed, produced little result. In the search for a north- 
west passage to the East they played a part. The voyages of Cabot, 
in 1497-8, unfolded the existence of Labrador, Newfoundland, and the 
north-eastern coast of North America. Ven*azzano, in the service of 
Erancis I, sailing due west, further explored the eastern coast of North 
America; and Jacques Cartier, in 1534-6 and in 1542, made his way 
up the St Lawrence, where Roberval made an unsuccessful attempt 
to found a French colony in 1540. Thus the great discoveries were 
made, and the way was prepared for the later work of colonisation. 



1 



49 




SECTION III. 

THE RISE OF FRANCE AND SWEDEN. 

A. EUROPE. 

For a large part of the seventeenth century, France in western 41 
Europe, and Sweden in north-eastern Europe, were the Powers which 
exerted the greatest influence in the shaping of the European system. 
Apart from the temporary advance of the Habsburg Power at the 
beginning of the Thirty Years' War, the rise of France and of Sweden 
forms the principal feature in the change of political power during this 
period. Their united efforts prevented a restoration of the Empire under 
the Habsburgs as a reality; and, while France broke the power of Spain, 
Sweden confined Austria to south-eastern Europe. The result of long 
wars was an expansion of France, a Swedish dominion round the Baltic, 
a further disintegration of Germany, and at the same time the transfer- 
ence of colonial power to the new maritime nations. 

At the end of the sixteenth century, France was in a weak position, 46, 10 
owing to the line of Habsburg territories which flanked her eastern 
frontier, and to the tradition of cooperation between the two branches 
of this great family. Henry IV, however, strengthened this frontier 25 
by one important acquisition. By the Treaty of Lyons, 1601, he made 
an exchange with Savoy of Saluzzo for the territories of Bresse, Bugey, 
Valromey, and Gex, which, lying between the Rhone and the Saone, 
connected Savoy with Franche Comte, and carried her frontiers perilously 
into the exposed east of France. In the opening years of the struggle 
in Germany Spain increased very greatly her power on that frontier. She 
came to terms with Savoy in 1614 ; occupied the Valtelline, the important ^0 
link of communication between Milan and Tyrol, in 1622, and temporarily 
occupied the Rhenish Palatinate in the same year. It was Richelieu's 
work to dislodge Spain from the Valtelline, to close the passes, to occupy 
Pinerolo in 1631, and to begin a war with Spain and Austria, which, 
lasting in the latter case till 1648, in the former till 1659, yielded to France 
a harvest of acquisitions. At the Peace of Westphalia France gained 40 
the formal recognition of her sovereignty over the three bishoprics — 
Metz, Toul, and Verdun — which she had held since 1552, and with the 

C. M. H. VOL. XIV. 4 



50 III A. Rise of France and Sweden: Europe. 

bishoprics was included Moyenvic. She took Austria's place in Elsass, 
entering into Austria's possessions and rights there. The cession was 
vague. It was described as the landgravate of both Elsasses. Elsass 
consisted of two main parts, Upper and Lower. In Upper Elsass, Austria 
had a feudal suzerainty over four-fifths of the land. In Lower Elsass, 
there was no landgravate over the whole territory. Austria had only an 
administrative authority over the ten Imperial towns, Landau, Weissen- 
burg, Hagenau, Rosheim, Oberehenheim, Schlettstadt, Colmar, Kaisers- 
berg, Tiirkheim, Miinster, and some villages. She had no authority 
over either the bishopric or town of Strassburg. Both were immediate 
possessions of the Empire. The vagueness of the cession, for which 
both parties shared the responsibility, made it possible for France, later, 
deliberately to misinterpret the clause and to annex the whole of Elsass. 
In addition, the great town of Breisach was made over to France, and she 
was permitted to place a garrison in the strong fortress of Philippsburg, 
46 thus acquiring two points of entrance into southern Germany. She 
secured a similar position in Italy where she retained Pinerolo, ceded 
to her by Savoy, which enabled her to watch the movements of this 
important buffer State. When, in 1659, after a quarter of a century of 
war, France came to terms with Spain in the Peace of the Pyrenees, she 
much increased her gains. On the south, by the cession of Roussillon, 
with part of Cerdagne and Conflans on the French side of the Pyrenees, 
she gained the Pyrenees for her frontier. In the north-east she received 
parts of the Spanish Netherlands — in Artois, all the towns and baili- 
wicks except Aire and St Omer, which included Arras, Hesdin, and such 
important places as Gravelines, Landrecies and Thionville in Flanders, 
Hainault and Luxemburg; as well as Marienburg and Philippeville, 
thus strengthening the delTence of Paris by a line of northern fortresses. 
At the same time, she temporarily (1659-61) withheld the duchy of Bar 
from the Duke of Lorraine, while restoring Lorraine. 
32^ 53 To the expansion of Sweden there were certain natural opponents — 
Russia, the German Orders, Poland, and Denmark. Her first advance 
was at the expense of the military Orders. In 1515, the two Orders, 
united since 1237, separated. A Brandenburg prince became Grand 
Master of the Prussian lands, and secularised his possessions as the duchy 
of Prussia in 1525, but remained the vassal of Poland. In 1558-61, the 
20 Order of the Sword collapsed. In the scramble for its dominions, Poland 
obtained Livonia — northern Livonia at once, southern Livonia in 1582, 
after a struggle with Russia, which was seeking an outlet on the Baltic. 
Courland and Semigallia became a hereditary duchy in the Grand 
Master's hands, who did homage for them to the Polish King. Denmark 
got Dago and Osel, her last conquests in the eastern Baltic, while 
Sweden's share was a large part of Esthonia — an acquisition which moved 
her frontiers forward south of the Gulf of Finland. This was the 
beginning of Sweden's new advance round the Baltic, and her first 



Ill A, Rise of France and Sweden: Europe. 51 

acquisition since the establishment of her independence. It involved her 
at once in long wars with the rival Powers of Russia and Poland, in the 
course of which her empire on the Baltic was much extended. 

The struggle with Russia was the first to be brought to a successful 
conclusion. At the Peace of Teusin, 1595, Russia recognised Sweden's 
right to Esthonia and her new conquest Narva, while Sweden retroceded 
Kexholm, the easternmost province of Finland, to Russia, and thus de- 
termined the boundaries of Finland, hitherto uncertain. Sweden, Norway, 
and Russia had claims on Finmark, and Russia now ceded to Sweden her 
part of Finmark, which lay between the Varanger and Malanger Fjords. 
A second struggle, in which Sweden captured Novgorod the Great, was 
terminated by the Peace of Stolbova, 1617. Sweden restored Novgorod, 
but received Kexholm, and Ingria between the mouths of the Narova 
and the Neva, which included Noteborg, the key of Finland. Russia 
renounced her claims on Esthonia and Livonia. This gave Sweden a 
strong natural frontier against a powerful neighbour, and proved to be 
her furthest advance to the east ; at the same time, it shut out Russia 
from her only access to the Baltic, Ingria — her only outlet indeed to an 
ice-free sea. It was an unstable settlement which placed a nation of 
one million as a barrier against another thirty times as large. The Peace 
of Kardis, in 1661, substantially reestablished the settlement of Stolbova; 
but a more definite demarcation was made of the frontier between Finland 
and Russia in the south. 

The other enemy in these parts was Poland. It was not certain in 20 
the sixteenth century whether Sweden or Poland had the greater future. 
Poland had been steadily rising in importance. The acquisition of 
Livonia and of suzerainty over Courland meant a considerable increase of 
power and prestige. With Courland and East Prussia as dependencies, 
Livonia, Samogitia, and West Prussia in her hands, Poland had command 
of the whole south-eastern Baltic. Meantime, she had been strengthened 
by complete union with Lithuania in 1569. At the height of her power, 
she had embarked on a struggle with Sweden for the possession of the 
Baltic littoral, as well as for dynastic and religious ends. The Truce of 
Alt mark, in 1629, allowed Sweden to retain possession of Livonia, which 
she had conquered, of part of the delta of the Vistula, Pillau, and Memel 
in East Prussia, with the right to levy tolls at Pillau, Memel, Danzig, 
and Labiau. Sweden was thus in possession of the principal places in 
both Ducal and Polish Prussia. By the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf, 1635, 
Sweden gave up the places which she held in Prussia, but retained 
Livonia. Poland proved henceforth able to protect her possessions, and 
the great settlement of the north made at the Peace of Oliva, in 1660, 
brought no further change, save that the Polish Vasa renounced their 
claim to the Swedish throne. Before this check, Sweden, by her inter- 
vention in Germany during the Thirty Years'* War, made a great advance 
to the south. At the Peace of Westphalia she received a "satisfaction"*' 40 

4—2 



62 111 A, Rise of France and Sweden: Europe. 

in northern Germany which gave her an indisputable preeminence on the 
Baltic. She had asked for Silesia, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Bremen, 
and Verden. Pomerania she wanted most as a security for her Baltic 
power. In the end she obtained Western Pomerania with the Isle of 
Riigen, the mouth of the Oder, Stettin, and the islands of Usedom and 
Wollin. Instead of Mecklenburg, she received the port of Wismar, 
Neukloster, and the Isle of Poel. In addition she received the arch- 
bishopric of Bremen and the bishopric of Verden to be held as secular 
duchies. These possessions were small and scattered; but they gave 
Sweden the control of the three principal rivers of northern Germany, 
the Oder, the Elbe, and the Weser; they planted her on the North 
Sea as well as on the Baltic, and made her a member of the German 
Empire. 

Throughout these struggles, Sweden's old partner Denmark had been 
surely, if intermittently, hostile. Against Denmark, Sweden fought for 
the recognition of her independence ; for a natural frontier in the 
Scandinavian peninsula as against Norway in the west and Denmark 
herself on the south, and for dominion on the eastern Baltic, as well as 

17 for commercial freedom. At the dissolution of the Union, Denmark 
held the southern provinces, which had been Swedish before the Union, 
though Danish during it, and the wealthy island of Gottland, and she 
had added Dago and Osel off the eastern Baltic coast, a menace to 
Sweden's new acquisitions in Esthonia, while Norway retained Bohus and 
the provinces of Herjedalen and Jemteland. Except that at the Peace 
of Knared, 1613, Sweden ceded to Norway her claims on Finmark, this 
position remained unchanged until the War of 1643. The Peace of 
Bromsebro, 1645, which ended that War, gave to Sweden Dago, Osel, 
and Gottland, thus expelling the Danes from the eastern Baltic, the 
two Norwegian provinces of Jemteland and Herjedalen, which gave 
Sweden a natural frontier, the great Kiolen range, against Norway, and 
Halland, pawned for thirty years, as well as freedom from the Sound 
tolls for all her dominions. Coupled with the Swedish successes in 
Germany, this Peace changed the balance of power in Scandinavia. 
Sweden became far stronger than Denmark, and the Baltic practically 
passed under her control. The great Baltic ports, except those of 
Prussia surrendered in 1635, and a large part of the Baltic coast were 
in her hands. It was the beginning also of Denmark's downfall — the 
first of a long series of treaties which pared away the Danish dominions. 
Thirteen years later, the Peace of Roeskilde, 1658, inflicted still more 
crushing losses on Denmark. She surrendered the three provinces 
Halland, Bleking and Skaane, with the island of Bornholm, while Norway 

54^ gave up Bohus and Trondhjem. The Danish King also renounced his 
sovereignty over the dominions of the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. By 
this Peace, Sweden expelled Denmark from the Scandinavian peninsula 
and gained a natural frontier to the south ; she cut Norway in two and 



I 



Ill A, Rise of France and Sweden: Murope, .58 

reached the North Sea in this quarter, and she established the Duke of 
Gottorp as a sovereign prince within the Danish kingdom. Not all of 
these acquisitions were to be retained. Another war and another peace, 
the Peace of Copenhagen, concluded in 1660, somewhat redressed the 
balance of power. Sweden restored Bornholm to Denmark and Trondhjem 
to Norway. She retained her natural frontiers ; but permitted Norway 
to exist again. By the three great Treaties of Copenhagen (1660), Oliva 
(1660), and Kardis (1661), in which Sweden came to terms with her 
enemies, Denmark, Poland, and Russia, a temporary equilibrium was 
established on the Baltic. The limits of Swedish expansion had been 
reached. She could hold Livonia against Poland, but could not conquer 
Prussia ; could gain her natural frontiers in the Scandinavian peninsula, 
but could not hold territory which, like Trondhjem, lay beyond them ; 
could expel Denmark from the eastern Baltic, but could not annex her 
entire. The empire which she had built up was, in structure, the strangest 
of European States. It consisted of a long seaboard with but little 
inland ground — an aggregation of commercial rights and commercial 
stations without natural unity, conquered and held together by force of 
arms. Between its scattered parts the Baltic formed a bond of union. 
All the Baltic islands were Swedish save Bornholm, and the estuaries of 
all the great rivers, except the Niemen and the Vistula, were in Swedish 
territory. Stockholm was its centre and capital, and Riga its second 
capital. Of this circle of possessions Sweden proper formed a core strong 
and united, which, in the course of the long struggle for a wider dominion, 
had gained natural boundaries and national unity ; so that, even if the 
external possessions were lost — and they had for the most part no unity 
of race or geography with Sweden or with each other, and strong foes in 
the rising Powers of Russia and Prussia — the heart of the empire might 
be regarded as sound. 

Sweden and France had grown largely at the expense of Germany, ^q 
While they were expanding the German Empire was weakening. The 
disintegration of Germany and the growth of the power of the Princes 
is a feature of the period only less important than the rise of France 
and Sweden. The great Peace of 1648 recognised the right of the 
Princes to form political alliances with foreign Powers, provided they 
were not directed against Empire or Emperor, and thus virtually 
assured complete independence to the three hundred odd States 
which made up the Empire. The enlargement of the powers of the 
Princes and the contraction of those of the Emperor finally handed 
over the destiny of Germany to the Princes. Among those Princes, 
some made substantial gains as a result of the Thirty Years' War. 
The method of aggrandisement was, in most cases, the secularisation 
of ecclesiastical territory, the Peace thus marking a further stage in the 
process by which ecclesiastical has given way to secular rule. Branden- 55 
burg, which had already secularised the sees of Brandenburg, Havelberg, 



54 III A. Rise of France and Sweden: Kurope, 

and Cammin (the last of these in Pomerania, which duchy had fallen by 
inheritance to Brandenburg in 1637, though Western Pomerania and 
part of Eastern had to be surrendered to Sweden), now obtained 
Halberstadt, Minden, and Magdeburg, the last-named to come in on 
the death of the reigning Administrator, which happened in 1680. 
Brandenburg thus made very substantial gains by the Peace and rose 
into the front rank amongst the principalities of Germany. In return 
for the sacrifice of Wismar and Neukloster to Sweden, Schwerin and 
Ratzeburg were returned to Mecklenburg-Schwerin, which ceded Mirow 
and Nemerow to Mecklenburg-Giistrow. Brunswick-Liineburg, which 
coveted Hildesheim, Minden, and Osnabriick, received only the abbey of 
Walkenried and the right of alternate appointment to the see of Osna- 
briick. Hesse-Cassel got the abbey of Hersfeld. Bavaria obtained the 
fifth electorship, which the Elector Palatine had forfeited, and the Upper 
Palatinate, including the county of Cham. The descendants of the 
ejected Elector Palatine were restored to the Rhenish Palatinate, and 
obtained a newly created eighth electorship. Saxony kept Upper and 
Lower Lusatia, which had been assigned to her as the price of peace in 
1635. The independence of Switzerland was formally recognised, and 
the connexion of the United Netherlands with the Empire was allowed 
to lapse. 
41 The Peace of Westphalia constituted a great European settlement, 

which rested on the fact that France and Sweden had taken the 
predominant influence in Europe that had belonged for so long a 
time to the two branches of the Habsburgs. The character of Germany 
was changed, and her relation to the political system of Europe. Her 
loose polity was still more loosened, and the way was opened for the 
growth of the minor States. At the same time, new Powers were 
introduced into her political life. Within Germany, one of the most con- 

60 spicuous results was the decline of Austrian power. Austria surrendered 
Elsass and Breisach to France, and Lusatia to Saxony. She consolidated 
her power by religious persecution and concentrated it by the sacrifice 
of distant possessions, still retaining a compact mass of territory in 

^b south-eastern Europe. Of the changes amongst the minor Powers, the 
advance of Brandenburg is the most striking. In 1618, Brandenburg 
had added Prussia, and the acquisitions of 1648 made her a great State, 
supreme in northern Germany as Austria was in southern. Her dominion 
stretched over scattered territories from the duchy of Prussia to the 
Rhine. Her natural tendency must be to seek expansion by uniting 
and linking up these territories. For the time, she was deprived of 
great maritime opportunities. But she had become a foe of Sweden 

53 on the Baltic, and a rival of Austria in Germany. In north-eastern 
Europe the greatest change was the rise of Sweden. Her gains from 
Russia, Poland, Denmark, and Germany had given her a position on 
the Baltic which had transformed that sea almost into a Swedish lake. 



Ill A, Rise of France and Sweden: Europe, 5iy 

Denmark had sunk from her former preeminence. She had lost parts 
of Norway to Sweden; but in 1648 she still overlapped into the Scanian 
peninsula, though she was evidently on the down grade. In Germany 
she had lost no territory, but she had forfeited prestige and position. 
Russia was passing through a period of trouble and depression. Her 
westward movement was temporarily stayed by the rise of Sweden, who 
had closed her only outlet to the Baltic; while, in the incessant struggle 
on her western frontier, she had been temporarily worsted, and Poland 
had regained Smolensk and ChernigofF, in 1618. Poland was still great. 
She was the feudal superior of Prussia, and had made gains from Russia, 
though her greatness was partly eclipsed by the rise of Sweden. 

In western Europe the rise of France is conspicuous. The three 46 
bishoprics, Bresse, Bugey, and Gex, Pinerolo, and Elsass were acquisi- 
tions that showed how strong was the power behind them. They were 
but a stage in the expansion of France. She was pressing into the 
Spanish Netherlands and the other Spanish possessions on her frontiers. 
In the British Isles Scotland and England were now under one Crown. 
But it was a period of political confusion, with Scotland and Ireland in 
revolt. A new State, the United Netherlands, a confederation of seven 22 
revolted provinces with their conquests, had appeared on the map, free 
of Spain and disconnected from the Empire, and had already become a 
great maritime Power. 

In Italy, Spain was still supreme. Her power, threatened in northern 
Europe, was here unshaken. Possessed of Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and the 
Stato degli Presidi, she dominated Italy. The Papal States were stronger 
than ever. Ferrara and Urbino, two semi-independent duchies, had been 
absorbed by them — Ferrara in 1598, Urbino in 1631. Venice had preserved 
her territory intact through a difficult period. Savoy had acquired a part 
of Montferrat, 1631, but had lost Pinerolo to the French, and was thus 
under French supervision. Mantua and Montferrat remained under the 
Gonzaga ; Modena under the Este ; Tuscany under the Medici ; Parma 
and Piacenza under the Farnese. In the Iberian peninsula, Portugal, 
which had been annexed by Spain in 1580, had freed herself again in 
1640. Spain, though she had not yet made the surrenders of 1659, was 
obviously sinking, €is a result of military disaster and the temporary 
depression of her allies, the Austrian Habsburgs. In south-eastern 
Europe the situation had undergone little change for three-quarters of 
a century. The Ottoman empire had not yet reached the limits of its 
expansion either in Hungary or on the eastern Mediterranean ; but 
internal weakness had for a time restrained its activities. Since the loss 
of Cyprus the Venetian empire had been almost confined to the Adriatic. 
Only Crete and two small Aegean islands remained of her more eastern 
possessions. 



66 III B, Rise of France and Sweden: Greater Europe, 



B. GREATER EUROPE. 

The change in the balance of power in Europe was accompanied by 
a transference of power in the colonial world. New nations entered into 
the competition of colonisation, and either ousted, or established them- 
selves by the side of, the old. The Dutch, English, and French became 
colonial Powers. The Portuguese empire fell to pieces in the East. 
In the West Spain lost some of her outlying possessions, and found her 
exclusive claims challenged. At the same time, Russia entered upon the 
great process which added half a continent to her empire. 
43 Before the end of the sixteenth century, both Dutch and English 
were sending out trading fleets to the East. In 1600 the English East 
India Company began its great career, in 1602 the Dutch. The 
operations of both companies were at first extended over a wide area. 
The English established a factory at Bantam in Java, in 1602 ; their first 
factory in India at Surat, in 1612; a factory in Japan at Firando, in 1613; 
and, by 1616, they also had factories at Ahmadabad, Burhampur, Ajmir, 
and Agra in the west of India, and Masulipatam and Petapoli on the 
east coast. The Dutch came to the Coromandel and Malabar coasts of 
India, to Ceylon and Java, rapidly spread their activities through the 
eastern archipelago, and northwards to China and Japan. They took 
Amboina from the Portuguese in 1605, discovered the northern coast 
of Australia 1606, and established themselves in the Banda Islands 
1609, in which year also they set up a factory at Firando in Japan, 
and, by 1615, they had a firm grip of the Moluccas. In Java they went 
first to Jacatra; but, in 1619, they established themselves at Batavia, 
which became the capital of the Dutch East Indies in place of Amboina. 
The Danish East India Company, established in 1614, also competed in 
the eastern trade, and in 1616 planted a fort at Tranquebar on the 
Coromandel coast and another in Bengal. Much of what was done 
at first was tentative; but, in time, the several Powers began to get 
more definite spheres of activity, and to find those positions which 
became the lasting seats of their power. The Dutch drove the English 
out of the eastern archipelago — from Pulo Run and Great Banda in 
1620, from Bantam in 1621, and from Amboina in 1623 ; and, though 
the English returned to Bantam in 1628, the eastern islands passed 
definitely into Dutch possession. The English concentrated on India. 
They made Surat their chief post in 1638, built Fort St George on the 
site now occupied by Madras in 1639, and gained permanent positions 
at Masulipatam on the east coast in 1632, and on the Hooghly river, 
64 1640. The Island of Bombay came into English possession as a part of 
the dowry of Catharine of Braganza. It was promised in 1661, though 
not actually handed over till 1665, and in 1668 was transferred by 
Charles II to the Company. Madras was made a presidency in 1653, 



IIIB, Rise of France and Sweden: Greater Europe, 57 

and Bombay in 1687, in lieu of Surat. The Dutch proceeded to extend 
their possessions by conquest from the Portuguese. In 1638, they 
conquered some of the Portuguese stations in Ceylon — Negumbo, Pointe 
de Galle, and Trincomalee ; in 1641, Malacca ; in 1642, Formosa, where 
they established Fort Zelandia, in the south-west corner of the island ; 
in 1653, Cannanor; in 1656, Calicut and Colombo; in 1658, JafFnapatam 
and Negapatam ; in 1661, Quilon ; in 1662, Cranganor and Cochin. In 
1661, the Portuguese recognised their losses. By 1664, the Dutch had 
posts in Bengal, Gujerat and on the Coromandel and Malabar coasts. 
Meanwhile, from Batavia they conquered Java and Celebes, they estab- 
lished factories in Pegu, at Ajudia in Siam, and in Sumatra and Borneo, 
while, in 1651, they occupied Table Bay in South Africa, to provide a 65 
halting-place on the road to the East. They divided their eastern 
dominions into the six governments of Java, Amboina, Ternate, Ceylon, 
Macassar, and the Cape of Good Hope, and made Batavia their capital. 
Thus the great Portuguese empire of the East, with its numerous exposed 
points, was easily broken up by the intrusion of the Teutonic Powers. 

In the New World, there was in this period a great extension of 66 
colonial activity, without much transference of colonial power. The 
incoming Powers, which included France, found an open field for their 
activity, and thus established themselves by the side of Spain and 
Portugal, founding important colonies, but not overthrowing those of 
the Latin Powers. In 1583 the English occupied Newfoundland, their 
first colony. In 1606 the London and Plymouth Companies were 
chartered, and the territory of Virginia, where the English had made at 
the end of the sixteenth century ineffectual attempts at colonisation, 
was divided between them. Jamestown in Virginia was founded in 
1608, and*the Bermudas were occupied in 1609-12. The settlements in 68 
New England began with New Plymouth 1620, those in New Hampshire 
1623 and 1627, at Massachusetts Bay 1628-9, in Maine 1632, in 
Connecticut 1635, at New Haven 1638, in Long Island 1640, and in 
Rhode Island 1643. In the south, the colonisation of Maryland was 
begun in 1634, of Carolina in 1663. Maine was united to Massachusetts 
in 1652 and 1668. New Jersey was formed in 1665, and Connecticut 
and New Haven united in the same year. In 1664, the Dutch colonies 
on the Hudson and Delaware, called the New Netherlands, which in- 
cluded the Swedish colonies on the Delaware conquered by the Dutch in 
1655, were conquered by the British and confirmed to them by the Peace 
of Breda 1667. The Dutch received Surinam in exchange. This trans- 
ference was confirmed in the Peace of Westminster 1674. It was of 
the greatest importance, as giving the British continuous possession of 
the Atlantic coast from the French settlements in Acadia to the Spanish 
in Florida. In the West Indies the British occupied Barbados and part 
of St Kitts in 1625, Nevis in 1628, Montserrat and Antigua in 1632, 
Surinam in 1640, Aiiguilla in 1650, Barbuda in 1661-2, New Providence 



58 III B, Rise of France and Sweden: Greater Europe, 

and Eleuthera Island in the BahamEis in 1666, the Virgin Islands in 
1672, and conquered Jamaica in 1655. 

The French followed the British to North America. In 1605 they 
made a settlement at Port Royal in Acadia; in 1608 they founded 
Quebec. Quebec was captured by the British in 1629 ; but, together 
with Acadia, was restored by the Peace of St Germain in 1632. The 
Peace of Breda, 1667, confirmed Acadia to France, and, in 1670, Maine 
east of the Penobscot was recognised as French. In the West Indies, 
the French occupied part of St Kitts in 1625, part of St Martin, 
Martinique, and Guadaloupe in 1636, part of Santo Domingo in 1664, 
and they made a settlement in Guiana, of which Cayenne became the 
capital, in 1624. 

The Dutch West India Company was founded in 1621. From 1623, 
they established settlements in the New Netherlands, where they con- 
quered the Swedish colonies on the Delaware 1655 ; but they lost all 
their possessions here to England in 1667, gaining in exchange Surinam. 
They made considerable conquests in Brazil, where for thirty years, from 
1624 to 1654, they held a large part of the Portuguese possessions. 
In the West Indies, they established factories on a few small islands, 
St Eustatius in 1632, Cura9oa in 1634, Saba in 1640, and St Martin, 
which they divided with the French, in 1649. 
65 All four of these Powers came also to Africa, to share in the 
slave-trade. In 1618, the English chartered their first West African 
Company, which planted one settlement on the Gambia, and another 
at Cormentine on the Gold Coast; while the French West African 
Company, formed in 1626, established a fort on the Senegal. The 
Dutch acquired Goree, an island off Cape Verde, in 1617, and in 1624 
built Fort Nassau at Mouree. Once established on the Gold Coast, 
they were not long in expelling the Portuguese. They captured 
Elmina in 1637, and Axim in 1642. In 1641, they proceeded further 
south and took Sao Paulo de Loanda, which the Portuguese had 
founded in 1578, and from which they had subjugated Congo and 
Angola. But the Portuguese recovered their position in Angola and 
succeeded in extending their influence further. Danish enterprise in 
Africa, also, dates from the middle of the seventeenth century. The 
Danes built forts near Accra at Christiansborg and Frederiksborg ; but 
they soon succumbed to the English in the latter place. The English 
lost Cormentine in 1667 after the naval wars with the Dutch, but they 
gained Cape Coast Castle, which became their most important possession 
on the Gold Coast. From this centre they extended their possessions 
considerably, building forts at Accra, Dixcove, and elsewhere on the 
Gold Coast, as well as at Whydah on the Slave Coast. Of greater 
importance than the struggle for the Gold Coast was the Dutch occupa- 
tion of Table Bay in 1651, followed in 1653 by the purchase from the 
Hottentots of a strip of land, which secured for them the peninsula of 



Ill B, Else of France afid Sweden: Greater Fur ope. 59 

the Cape of Good Hope. St Helena, which they had acquired in 1645 
as a place of call on the way east, they now abandoned, and in 1655 it 
was occupied by the English. 

Thus, in the third quarter of the seventeenth century, the Portuguese 43 
were being driven out of the East, where the Dutch had taken their 
place, almost alone in the Far East, and in conjunction with the English 
in India. They still had their stations in East and West Africa, but 
not on the Gold Coast, which the English and the Dutch divided; 
while, further to the north on the western coast, the French and English 
were predominant. 

In the Western world, the intrusion of the new colonising nations did 106 
not menace the extensive land dominions of the Latin Powers. The 
Dutch conquest of some of the finest provinces of Brazil, including 
Pernambuco and Bahia, lasted for only thirty years — from 1624 to 1654. 
Spain, indeed, lost ground in the West Indies ; but the establishment 
of the English on the Atlantic coast of the northern continent and 
of the French on the St Lawrence and in Acadia was an extension of 
European colonisation and involved no transfers of territory from the 
older colonising nations. These latter had, in the meantime, extended 
and consolidated their rule. The Portuguese, whose settlements were at 
first exclusively on the coast, gradually penetrated the vast interior and 
acquired a claim to the greater part of the Amazon basin. At the 
Peace of Utrecht, the French, who had established themselves in Guiana, 
recognised Portuguese sovereignty over both banks of the great river. 
At the other extremity of their dominion, their frontier with the 
Spanish possessions on the La Plata was in continual dispute. The 
dominion of Spain, which virtually reached its limits in the sixteenth 
century, extended through a great variety of countries, from California in 
the north, over Mexico and Central America, down the western half of 
South America to the frontiers of Patagonia and over the basin of the 
La Plata on the other side of the Andes. Outside of the two continents, 
it included the Philippines and the larger West India islands. It was 
divided into the two viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru, and a 
number of governments more or less dependent on the viceroyalties. 
The provinces nominally subject to New Spain were the Philippines, 
Guatemala, Yucatan, and New Biscay, and the two, or sometimes three, 
West India governments. Those subject to the Viceroy of Peru were 
Chile, Quito, New Granada, Terra Firma, Paraguay, Tucuman, and 
Buenos Aires. From 1718 to 1722, and permanently in 1739, a third 
viceroyalty of New Granada was established, which included New 
Granada and Quito. In 1731 Venezuela was made a separate govern- 
ment under a Captain-General, and in 1776 Buenos Aires was raised to 
the position of a viceroyalty. To it were added the province of Cuyo, 
from the captaincy-general of Chile, and, from Lima, the four provinces 
of Upper Peru as well as Paraguay, Cordoba, and Tucuman ; so that this 



60 III B, Rise of France and Sweden: Greater JEurope. 

fourth viceroyalty included all the Spanish temtory east of the Andes, 
from Lake Titicaca to Patagonia. 
136 While the Western Powers were struggling for colonial dominion 
beyond the seas, the geographical position of Russia enabled her to 
advance without rivalry or difficulty. The Russian colonial empire was J 
a natural expansion of European Russia across the forests and plains of 
northern Asia to the Pacific, and across the steppes of Central Asia to 
the mountain barriers of India. It never required or rested on maritime \ 
power. It was initiated by the military spirit of the Cossacks, and 
maintained by the expansive and nomadic tendencies of a great popula- 
tion. Russia discovered her new world somewhat later than the AVestern j 
Powers. In 1581, the Cossacks took Sibir the capital of the Tartar ' 
Khanate of Siberia, thus carrying Russia's territory beyond the Urals 
and founding her Asiatic dominion. By 1630, the Cossacks had reached 
the Lena ; in 1700, they conquered Kamschatka — so easy was Russia's 
advance to the Pacific. Her southward movement towards China paused 
at the Amur, from 1683 till 1846. Thus Russia took a place, which her 
geographical position assigned to her, as a great Asiatic Power. With 
the exception of the slopes of the Urals, too gentle to be formidable, 
nature had planted no barrier between the Pacific and the heart of 
eastern Europe ; and, in the circumstances, this vast area passed easily 
into a single State. 



61 



SECTION IV. 

THE FORMATION OF THE GREAT POWERS OF THE 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

A. EUROPE. 

Of the tendencies of which we have spoken as operating in the early 63 
seventeenth century, the expansion of France continued until it suffered 
a check in the great settlement of Utrecht 1713-5, which rested on a 
balance of power between France and Austria ; the expansion of Sweden 
ceased, and the dissolution of her empire, to the advantage of Branden* 
burg and Russia, quickly began; the disintegration of Germany con- 
tinued, and among the chief rising States appeared a strong kingdom 
of Prussia, which contested with Austria the hegemony of Germany ; in 
north and south, Russia advanced westwards at the expense of Sweden 
and the Ottoman empire ; Austria, instead of declining, took the place 
of Spain in the Netherlands and Italy, and advanced into south-eastern 
Europe ; Poland was swallowed up by Austria, Russia, and Prussia ; in 
the colonial world, Britain distanced all her rivals, after a long duel with 
France, in particular, for India and North America. So, in the eighteenth 
century there was worked out a balance of power between Great Britain, 
Russia, Prussia, Austria, and France. Much took shape in this period 
which has remained to the present day. Sweden was forced almost into 
her natural limits. Poland was destroyed. The Ottoman empire was 
driven back. Russia expanded, and Prussia was formed. 

We may consider first the expansion of France. The great advance 46 
which she had made into the Spanish Netherlands in 1659 was con- 
tinued. By the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1668, she made considerable 
gains which included Douai, Lille, and Courtrai. By the Treaty of 
Nymegen, 1678, she restored some towns and annexed others. Her 
frontier receded, but, on the other hand, it was strengthened, for she 
gained the remaining Spanish towns in Artois, and made advances in 
Hainault. The new places which she acquired included Valenciennes, 
Conde, Cambray, St Omer, and Maubeuge. In addition, she received 
Franche Comte, and Freiburg in the Breisgau, but gave up the right 
of garrisoning Philippsburg. By the " reunions " which followed she 



62 IV A, Great Powers of Eighteenth Century : Euj^ope, 

strengthened her hold of Alsace, and annexed Strassburg and Kehl — 
annexations which were recognised by the Treaty of Ratisbon, in 1684. 
The Treaty of Ryswyk, in 1697, left her frontier as in 1678 ; but she 
gave up Kehl and Freiburg, retaining Strassburg. The Treaty of 
Utrecht, 1713, made a lasting settlement of the north-eastern frontier. 
France gave up much ; but she retained a line of towns stretching from 
St Omer, through Lille, Conde, and Maubeuge, to Marienburg, which 
represented the substantial result of years of ambition and struggle. By 
the Treaty of Rastatt with the Empire, 1714, she received Landau also. 
By treaty with Savoy, in 1713, she rectified her south-east frontier, 
surrendering to Savoy a tongue of territory on the Italian side of the 
Alps, and receiving in exchange the valley of Barcelonette on her own 
side. In the same year, the little principality of Orange was annexed. 

79 The changes in the eighteenth century subsequent to those of Utrecht 
were few. In 1736 Lorraine was ceded to France, to be annexed on the 
death of the reigning Duke Stanislas, which happened in 1766. Two 
years later (in 1768) Corsica, the last acquisition before the Revolution, 
and the only large detached possession in Europe, was gained. The 
steady advance since the days of Louis XI had given France a strong 
north-eastern frontier, had brought her on the middle east to the Rhine, 
on the south-east comer to the Alps, and in the south to the Pyrenees. 
But she was still separated from her natural boundary, the Alps, in the 
south by the possessions of the King of Sardinia, Savoy and Nice ; and, 
between Franche Comte and Alsace, the county of Montbeliard, a 
possession of Wiirtemberg, made a breach in the continuity of her 
territory. In addition, there were various enclaves of foreign States 
within her territory, the most important of which were the principality 
of Avignon and the county of Venaissin, papal territory on the Rhone, 
the free city of Miilhausen, and some small possessions of various German 
States over which France was merely suzerain in Alsace, and some more 
extensive districts such as Nassau-Saarbrlicken, Nassau-Saarwerden, and 
the county of Salm, over which France was not even suzerain, in Lorraine. 
On the other hand, she held Landau within the borders of the Empire, 
and Philippeville and Marienburg in the Low Countries. 

54 While France advanced, her old ally Sweden held her own with 
difficulty, and, within a few years of the check which was placed on the 
expansion of France by the War of the Spanish Succession, a large part 
of Sweden's empire was wrested from her in the Northern War. At the 
59 Peace of Stockholm, 1719, Sweden handed over Bremen and Verden to 
Hanover, and lost her position on the North Sea; and in 1720, at a 
second Peace of Stockholm, she surrendered to Prussia Western Pome- 
rania as far as the river Peene, with the islands of Usedom and WoUin. 
Stettin was thus lost ; but Stralsund, Wolgast, and Rugen were retained. 
Thus, the Elbe and the Oder became again German rivers. A more crush- 
52 ing blow followed in 1721, when, at the Peace of Nystad, Russia took 



IV A, Great Powers of Eighteenth Ceiitury : Europe, 6 



*> 



Livonia, Esthonia, and the adjacent islands, and parts of the Finnish 
provinces of Kexholm and Viborg. Nor was this the end. In 1743, by 61 
the Peace of Abo, Russia made another advance into Finland, and 
gained the territory lying east of the river Kymmene. The remainder 
of her ultra-Scandinavian empire Sweden retained into the nineteenth 
century. Her losses were not surprising, for her empire lacked a sufficient 
basis of natural strength, and stronger forces than arms transferred her 
outlying provinces to the rising Powers of the eighteenth century. 

In the course of French expansion there arose the possibility of a 51 
change which might have overturned the whole political system of 
Europe and reared again an empire stronger than the undivided Habs- 
burg Power. The question of the Spanish Succession appeared on the 
political horizon as early as 1668, when the Emperor and Louis XIV 
made a secret and provisional arrangement for the partition of the 
Spanish possessions, by which France was to take the Spanish Nether- 
lands, Franche Comte, Naples, and Sicily, and the Emperor Spain and 
Spanish America. When the question became more urgent, the mari- 
time Powers insisted on a voice in so immense a territorial rearrangement. 
By the Partition Treaty of 1698, to which they gave their consent, 
France was to have Naples and Sicily, the Archduke Charles of Austria 
Milan, and a Bavarian Prince the remainder. On the death of the 
Bavarian Prince, a second agreement gave to Archduke Charles the 
mass of the inheritance, to France the two Sicilies and Lorraine, to the 
Duke of Lorraine Milan. In the end, the whole question was submitted 
to the arbitrament of war, and a settlement was finally made in a series 
of treaties, 1713-5, between the various Powers which had taken part in 
the war. The Spanish empire was dismembered. Spain retained her 
individuality and her colonies ; but she was cut off from her old con- 
nexion with the rest of Europe by the loss of her possessions in Italy 
and the Netherlands as well as of two positions in the Mediterranean. 
A check was placed on the expansion of France. She gained no share 
of the Spanish empire — none of the Spanish provinces in the Nether- 
lands and Italy for which she had waited so long, none of the Spanish 
colonies, nor the prospect of the union of the two kingdoms. Her 
frontiers with the Netherlands were readjusted without being weakened. 
She obtained Landau on the left bank of the Rhine, and she restored her 
conquests on the right bank — Alt-Breisach, Kehl, and Freiburg. England 
greatly increased her colonial power, and in the Mediterranean gained 
two important strategic positions, Minorca and Gibraltar. Her colonial 
gains are enumerated in another connexion. Austria received Naples and 
Milan in Italy, and the Spanish Netherlands, and thus became the first 
line of resistance to French expansion in this important quarter. Holland 
was given security against French ambition, inasmuch as Austria was 
placed between her and France ; and she obtained a strong barrier of 
towns, commanding all the rivers from the Me use to the sea, which she 



64 IV A. Great Powers of Eighteenth Century : Europe, 

was to garrison, in the Austrian Netherlands. Savoy received Sicily, 
Montferrat, and a part of the Milanese, and made some rearrangements 
of her Alpine frontier with France by mutual cession, which removed 
59 France from Piedmont. Prussia added to her west German possessions 
the bulk of Upper or Spanish Gelders, and her claim to Neufchatel was 
recognised. Thus, at Utrecht, a further stage was reached in the division 
of those middle lands lying on the western frontiers of Germany for the 
sake of which so many of the wars of modern times had been waged. 
These extensive changes, coupled with the expansion of Austria at the 
expense of the Ottoman empire, and of Russia and Prussia at the 
expense of Sweden, gave a new form to the political system of Europe, 
which, with some modifications, lasted until the French Revolution. 
62 In 1648 was consummated the disintegration of Germany. In the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the Princes had successfully resisted the 
forces that made for German unity. In 1559, they established their 
independence of Imperial authority in religion, and, when, in 1648, they 
secured virtual independence in foreign politics, they reduced the Empire 
60 to a political shell, enclosing not a single State but a system of States. 
Of these States Austria remained the chief. Though the Empire was of 
diminishing value to her, and in Germany she no longer remained 
without a rival, her territorial acquisitions were so much more extensive 
than her losses as to give her a European position counterbalancing that 
40 of France. At the Peace of Westphalia she suffered heavily in ceding 
Lusatia to Saxony, and Elsass to France, and during the remainder of 
the seventeenth century she lost a little more ground to France in 
southern Germany. In 1740 she further lost Silesia to Prussia. On the 
48 other hand, she drove the Turk out of Hungary and advanced into the 
Balkan peninsula, took Spain's place in the Netherlands and Italy, and 
58 shared in the partition of Poland. The surest direction of her expansion 
appeared to be eastwards. The strength of her dominion lay in the 
great mass of territory which she possessed in south-eastern Europe. 
Here, she consolidated as well as extended her dominion, always cherish- 
ing the hope of acquiring Bavaria, which her dominions half encircled, 
by annexation or exchange. A part of Bavaria, the Innviertel, she 
actually gained by the Peace of Teschen, 1777, as a settlement of her 
claim on the succession, and only the intervention of Frederick the Great 
in 1785 prevented the exchange of the Netherlands for the remainder. 
Nor was the idea definitively abandoned until 1813. 
48, 60 Austrian expansion during this period began in the south-east. After 
the Peace of Vasvar, 1664, she surrendered no more territory to the 
Ottoman. The tide turned, and in 1699, at the Peace of Carlowitz, she 
recovered Transylvania and Hungary, with the exception of the Banat 
of Temesvar between the Theiss and the Maros, and parts of Slavonia 
and Croatia. In 1718, at the Peace of Passarowitz, she made another 
great advance, recovering the remainder of Hungary and Slavonia, and 



IV A, Great Powers of Eighteenth Century : Europe, Q^ 



gaining parts of Bosnia and Servia, with Belgrade, and Lesser Wallachia. 
A corner only of Croatia remained to the Turk. But not all this could 
be retained, and, by the Peace of Belgrade, in 1739, Austria restored her 
acquisitions in Servia, Bosnia, and Wallachia, including Belgrade and 
Orsova. Along the frontier thus fixed, a position of equilibrium between 
the two empires was reached which held good for nearly a century and 
a half, except that, in 1777, Austria obtained the Bukowina, and in 
1789 captured Belgrade, to lose it again in 1791, and in 1790 Orsova. 
As she advanced south of Hungary, so also did she north. By taking 58 
a hand in the partition of Poland she gained temporarily a great mass 
of territory with which to flank her dominions on the north. In 1770, 
she appropriated the part of the county of Zips which had been pawned 
to Poland in 1412. In 1772, she took most of Red Russia and parts 
of Podolia and Little Poland; in 1795, Cracow, southern Masovia, a 
part of Podlachia and the remainder of Little Poland. Thus the mass 
of Austrian possessions in south-eastern Europe underwent considerable 
expansion in the eighteenth century. Inorganic collection of territories 
as it was, it was not at this time sundered by race divisions and 
jealousies. 

The part of the Spanish empire which Austria received in 1713-5 
extended her dominions greatly, without much increasing her strength. 
Rich and fertile though the Netherlands were, they were of little value 
to Austria. They had not Hungary's geographical proximity to the 
hereditary dominions. Their long subjection to Spain had destroyed 
their German connexion, and the tie with Austria proved very slight. 
Austria had little interest in this distant, burdensome, and unnatural 
possession, which increased the disunion of her Empire, and added to 
the frontiers she was charged to defend one peculiarly defenceless. 

Sardinia, Milan, and Naples, also acquired in 1714, were not less 51, 63 
difficult to absorb into the Austrian Empire. There was little inter- 
course between the Italian and the German possessions of Austria, and 
her position in Italy only excited the hostility of Spain. Nor did Austria 
retain possession of all these provinces. In 1718 she made an exchange 
with Savoy of Sardinia for Sicily, and in 1735, by the Peace of Vienna, 
another exchange, with the Bourbon Don Carlos, of the Two Sicilies 
and the Tuscan Presidi for the duchy of Parma which had passed to 
Don Carlos in 1731. Austria after these transactions was confined to 
northern Italy. The losses which Milan suffered to Savoy have been 
already indicated. On the other hand, Mantua fell to the Emperor 
by forfeit in 1708, and Duke Francis of Lorraine, who became the 
Emperor Francis I, received the grand duchy of Tuscany on the ex- 
tinction of the Medici, 1737 ; and, in 1771, Modena, which had in the 
process of time reached the sea between Lucca and Genoa, also came in. 

In the course of the eighteenth century, there arose in northern 55, 59 
Germany a Power that disputed with Austria hegemony in the Empire, 

C. M. H. VOL. XIV. a 



66 IV A. Great Powe7^s of Eighteenth Century : Europe. 

and that in the nineteenth century expelled her from the German worM 
in which she had for so many centuries played the first part Prussian 
expansion has this peculiarity, that it did not proceed from a single 
centre, but from three clearly marked areas which were gradually linked 
together. These areas were the Mark of Brandenburg, the duchy of 
Prussia, and the Prussian possessions on the Rhine. They were distinct 
in history, language, races, and institutions, and had each a separate 
course of development. Prussia did not grow, like France or England, 
by consolidation and acquisition along definite lines and according to 
a preconceived plan. It was a collection of dominions, formed, by 
war and chance, and consolidated by the arts of government. An open, 
poor and arid country, small, unprotected by natural defences, less in 
size than Scotland, Brandenburg became stronger than France and the 
foremost military Power in Europe. 

The early growth of Brandenburg has already been related. In 
1524 Ruppin was annexed, and in 1537 an agreement was made with 
the Duke of Wohlau, Liegnitz, and Brieg securing to Brandenburg the 
succession to these provinces. The Reformation made possible the 
secularisation of the three Brandenburg bishoprics of Brandenburg, 
Lebus (1553), and Havelberg (1555). In 1571, Beeskow and Storkow 
were gained. Meanwhile, Ansbach had bought the principality of 
Jagerndorf, Beuthen, and Oderberg in Silesia in 1523, acquired a 
reversionary interest in Oppeln in 1528, and inherited BaireuiJi on 
the extinction of the ruling line in 1557. In 1603, these Franconian 
possessions came in to Brandenburg; but in the same year they were 
granted out again — Ansbach and Baireuth to younger brothers, Jagern- 
dorf, which was lost to the Hohenzollerns in the Thirty Years'* War 
(1623), to another member of the family. In 1609, Brandenburg gained 
a footing on the Rhine. The Elector laid claim to the Cleve-Jiilich 
inheritance, and, in 1609, accepted joint rulership of the disputed 
territories with the other claimants. The Treaty of Xanten, however, in 
1614 made a partition of the territories which was confirmed in 1666 
and which gave to Brandenburg, finally, Cleve, Mark, Ravensberg, and 
Herford. In 1618, the duchy of Prussia, held by a Hohenzollern as a 
fief of Poland, came in to Brandenburg, and in 1657, by the Treaty 
of Wehlau, Poland renounced her suzerainty over the duchy, in return 
for the restitution of Ermeland which Brandenburg had seized in 1656. 
This renunciation was confirmed in the Peace of Oliva, 1660. Tauroggen 
and Serrey were added to the duchy in 1691. Both were given up 
in 1793, but Serrey was recovered in 1795. 
40 The Peace of Westphalia brought large additions to Brandenburg. 
Pomerania, according to an agreement between Brandenburg and the 
Dukes of Pomerania, should have come in to Brandenburg in 1637. 
But Sweden was in occupation, and in 1648 Brandenburg could get only 
East Pomerania — and this without Stettin and a two-mile strip on 



IF A. Great Powers of Eighteenth Century : Europe, 67 

the east of the Oder, which she ceded to Sweden in 1653. Ample 
compensation however was given her in the bishoprics of Cammin, 
Halberstadt, and Minden, the archbishopric of Magdeburg which she 
was to receive on the death of the existing Administrator, and various 
other places of less importance. Later acquisitions were Lauenburg and 
Butow in Pomerania, 1657, and, by the Peace of St Germain, 1679, the 
strip along the Oder, surrendered to Sweden in 1653, except Damm and 
Gollnow. In 1679 Schwiebus was taken in satisfaction of the Silesian 
claims, but was restored in 1694, and the claims were reasserted. The 
archbishopric of Magdeburg was acquired in 1680, and Burg in 1687. 

In the great wars at the beginning of the eighteenth century the 
Kings of Prussia, for such the Electors of Brandenburg became in 1701, 
fought to secure their possessions on the Rhine and to extend their 
dominions on the Baltic. At Utrecht Prussia received Upper Gelders, 51 
whence she could watch Austria in the Netherlands. This, with Mors 
and Lingen, obtained in 1702 on the extinction of the Nassau-Dillen- 
burg family, and Tecklenburg, obtained in 1707, went to increase 
her Rhineland territories. Neufchatel also was obtained in 1707, and 
Prussia's possession of it was recognised at Utrecht and was maintained 
till 1857 ; but it was a distant, detached possession, and never became a 
centre of expansion. The Peace of Stockholm in 1720 gave Prussia 54 
a part of Swedish Pomerania, including Stettin and district, the islands 
of Usedom and Wollin, and Damm and Gollnow. This territory, lying 
between the Oder and the Peene, secured to her control of one of the 
great commercial highways of northern Germany. 

The various acquisitions which the Hohenzollems had made, while 
they brought extensive territories under their rule, were so scattered 
that they needed to be linked up and consolidated, if Prussia was ever to 
form a strong State. To Frederick the Great the configuration of his 
kingdom was intolerable. He desired Saxony, West Prussia, and Swedish 
Pomerania. He gained Silesia, which he seized in 1740, and which 
Austria finally yielded at the Peace of Hubertusburg in 1763, together 
with Schwiebus and Glatz, though not Jagerndorf in the form in 
which Prussia had claimed it ; East Friesland, in 1744, which brought 
Prussia to the North Sea ; a part of Poland — West Prussia, Ermeland, 58 
Kulmerland and the Netze district, but not Danzig and Thorn — in 1772 ; 
and the county of Mansfeld in 1780. The Franconian possessions, 
Ansbach and Baireuth, came to Prussia in 1791 ; and in 1793 she 58 
acquired South Prussia together with Danzig — long the object of 
desire — and Thorn ; in 1795 New East Prussia, and New Silesia with 
Serrey. These extensive acquisitions from Poland linked up the Prussian 
territories and rounded them off, and, while they diminished the length of 
her frontiers, added to their strength. West Prussia united East Prussia 
and Brandenburg ; South Prussia, Silesia and Prussia ; while New East 
Prussia improved the eastern frontier. The last addition brought 

6—2 



68 IV A, Great Powers of Eighteenth Century : Europe, 

Prussia to her extreme eastern limits, and coincided with losses on the 

84 Rhine at the Peace of Basel, of which we shall speak later. Thus was 
built up, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the strangely 
shaped kingdom of Prussia, which stretched its great length across 
northern Germany from the Rhine to the Memel, with outposts in the 
Netherlands, Franconia, and on the Swiss frontier. 
62, 40 Austria's neighbour Bavaria had greatly increased her importance in 
the Thirty Years' War, and at the Peace of Westphalia had gained an 
Electorate and the Upper Palatinate with the county of Cham. In 
1742, the Elector of Bavaria was chosen Emperor, the one exception to 
the long line of Habsburg Emperors from the time of Frederick III. 
In 1777, the Bavarian territories passed to the Sulzbach line of the 
Wittelsbach family, which, since 1742, had been ruling the Rhenish 
Palatinate and the duchies of Jiilich and Berg, acquired by the Palatinate 
at the partition of the Jiilich-Cleve inheritance in 1614. Both Saxony 
and Austria had claims to parts of Bavaria. But the Saxon claims were 

60 bought off, and, on account of the Austrian, the Habsburgs received the 
Innviertel — the territory between the Inn, the Danube, the Salza, and the 
Austrian frontier. 

Saxony was too much weakened by partition to have the strength to 
which her population and natural richness entitled her. Thuringia was 
a maze of Saxon States. In 1648 the Ernestine line divided into two 
main branches — Saxe- Weimar and Saxe-Gotha — which afterwards split 
up into branches too many to enumerate, though Eisenach, Coburg, 
Meiningen, and Hildburghausen call for mention. The electoral line, 
which had received Lusatia in 1635, divided into four branches in 1656. 
Of these, the minor branches died out in the first half of the eighteenth 
century, and their territories were reunited to the electoral. From 1697 
to 1763 the Electors were also Kings of Poland. 

The Brunswick family, with their extensive, though barren, territories 
and their position on Elbe and Weser, might have contended with Branden- 

40 burg for the leadership of North Germany. But they gained little at the 
Peace of Westphalia, except the alternate right of appointment to the 
bishopric of Osnabriick, and, like Saxony, they were weakened by division. 
In 1689 the Liineburg line acquired Lauenburg, and in 1692 the ninth 
electorate. In 1705 the Liineburg and Calenberg possessions were united 
in the person of the Elector George Lewis, who, in 1714, succeeded to 

54, the Crown of Great Britain. Brunswick-Liineburg, or Hanover, under 
which name it is better known, acquired Bremen and Verden from 
Sweden, in 1720, Bentheim, and some other smaller possessions. Like 
Saxony, Hanover gained little advantage from its foreign connexion. 

40 The Wolfenbiittel line received Walkenried, in 1648, and made other 
small acquisitions in the seventeenth century. In 1735 its possessions 
passed to the younger line of Brunswick-Bevern, which had been estab- 
lished in 1666. 



IV A. Great Powers of Eightee7ith Century : Europe, 69 

Concerning the less important German Houses a summary statement 
may suffice. The Duke of Wiirtemberg was restored to his lands and 
title in 1648, except to Montbeliard, which passed to another branch of 
the family, to return to the main line in 1723. The Baden territories, 
divided since 1536 into two branches, were united in 1771 by the Baden- 
Durlach line. Of the four lines into which Hesse had been divided in 
1567, one died out in 1583 and another in 1604. Over the possessions 
of the latter, Hesse-Marburg, the remaining two, Hesse-Darmstadt and 
Hesse-Cassel, disputed until 1648, when the partition favoured Hesse- 
Cassel. In 1736 thev also shared Hanau. Anhalt in 1603 divided into 
four lines, ruling at Dessau, Bernburg, Zerbst, and Kothen, of which 
the Zerbst line died out in 1793, when its territories were partitioned 
amongst the other three. Of the two Mecklenburg lines of Schwerin 40 
and Giistrow, the Schwerin line in 1648, as noted above, recovered the 
bishoprics of Schwerin and Ratzeburg, transferring Nemerow and Mirow 
to the Giistrow line. The former line died out in 1692, the latter in 
1695. In 1701 the two lines of Schwerin and Strelitz took their places. 
In 1667 the ruling line in Oldenburg, Delmenhorst, and Jever died out, 
and, by an agreement of 1649, the King of Denmark and the Duke of 
Holstein-Gottorp jointly succeeded to these territories. Delmenhorst 
was pawned to Hanover in 1711 ; but the connexion of Oldenburg with 
Denmark lasted for more than a century, and its termination marks a 
stage in the history of Schleswig-Holstein. In 1658 the King of Den- 54 
mark had been compelled to surrender his sovereignty over the Gottorp 
possessions in the two duchies which left the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp 
an independent Power. In 1721 the Duke surrendered to the King his 
possessions in Schleswig. In 1773 the Gottorp possessions passed to 
Paul III of Russia. Paul renounced to Denmark his claims in Holstein, 
which was thus united again with Schleswig under Danish sovereignty, 
in exchange for Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, which he ceded to the 
Prince-Bishop of Liibeck. In 1777 Oldenburg and Delmenhorst were 
raised to the rank of a duchy. Of the Nassau family the main Orange 
line, Nassau-Dillenburg, died out in 1702. Its possessions were divided. 
Parts went to Prussia, the principality of Orange on the Rhone to 
France, and the remainder to the Nassau-Dietz line. In 1795 three 
branches of the family remained at Idstein, Weilburg, and Usingen. 
The territory under ecclesiastical rule was a good deal diminished in 
northern Germany by the secularisations of the Reformation and of 
1648 ; and the number of the Imperial cities also dwindled, fifty-one 
remaining in 1789. 

The expansion of Russia and her advance into western Europe is not 52 
less a feature of the years between 1648 and 1795 than is the rise of 
Prussia. It marks perhaps the most important change which the political 
system of Europe had undergone. It added to the system a State of 
immense potential strength, not divided from its European neighbours 



70 IV A. Great Powers of Eighteenth Century : Europe, 

by distinct geographical or ethnological boundaries, and, hence, ever 
pressing on their eastern frontiers. To understand its growth, we must 
retrace our steps. Russia was formed of a group of Slav principalities 
in the greatest plains of Europe — the valleys of the Volga, the Don, the 
Dnieper and the Diina, which rivers drew her to expand towards the 
Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Caspian. In the sixteenth century, she 
was cut off from all seas. Sweden and Poland cut her off from the 
Baltic, Poland and the Ottoman empire from the Black Sea, the 
Tartars from the Caspian. The natural increase of her population, 
their migratory habits, the search for a scientific frontier, and the desire 
for a civilising intercourse with other nations, impelled her to expansion 
seawards which her great strength enabled her to make and to sustain. 
Her first wars were with the Tartars ; they began a great landward ad- 
1 vance of Europe against Asia. When the Tartar empire broke up, there 
arose on its ruins the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Crimea. In 
1552, Russia annexed Kazan; in 1554, Astrakhan, which gave her com- 
mand of the Volga from source to mouth and brought her to the Caspian 
Sea. Persian Asia was thereby thrown open to penetration by Russia, 
and the Volga offered a southward route. Crimea passed to the Turks, 
61 and the Russian acquisition of it was postponed till the reign of 
Catharine. On the Dnieper, the Don, the Volga, and the Ural were 
Cossack communities, which protected the southern frontier of Russia 
and maintained, in some cases, a virtual independence till the eighteenth 
century. In 1577, Russia asserted her supremacy over the Don Cossacks, 
136 which brought her nearer to the Black Sea. Four years later, her 
colonisation in northern Asia began with the conquest of Sibir, the 
capital of the Tartar Khanate of Siberia, whence Russia gradually spread 
her power eastwards to the Pacific Ocean. In the north-east the enemies 
of Russian expansion were Sweden and Poland-Lithuania. Lithuania, 
with her Russian provinces, provided another centre round which the 
Slav race could group itself. Nature had placed no geographical 
barrier to divide the two States, and between the two there was constant 
war, with fluctuations of frontier. As Russia tended to expand westwards, 
so Lithuania tended to expand eastwards ; and the contact with the 
western world, and possession of the rich valley of the Dnieper, gave her 
a strength which overweighed the vaster extent of the Muscovite empire. 
In 1557-60 Russia conquered the greater part of Livonia from the Teu- 
tonic Knights and reached the Baltic ; but Poland-Lithuania took this 
territory away in 1582. From 1584, many years of unrest and civil strife 
checked the expansion of Russia and compelled her to make sacrifices on 
S2 her western frontier. At the Peace of Stolbova, 1617, she surrendered to 
Sweden Ingria and Carelia, and to Poland by the Truce of Deulino, in 
1618, and the Treaty of Polianovka, in 1634, Smolensk, Chernigoff, 
and Sieverski — a great slice off western Russia and the greater part of 
her Lithuanian conquests beyond the Dnieper. Not till the Peace of 



IV A. Great Powers of Eighteenth Century : Europe. 71 

Andrusovo in 1667 did Russia recover the lands thus surrendered to 
Poland, and then not all. But, from this time, she advanced again, and 
first in the south-west. On the Lower Dnieper the Cossack republic of 
Zaporogia, a territory in dispute between Turk, Tartar and Pole, had re- 
volted from Poland and transferred its allegiance to Russia — a loss to which 
Poland had consented at Andrusovo. In 1680, by the Treaty of Bakchi- 
serai, the Sultan also recognised the suzerainty of Russia in this territory. 
In 1686, Russia recovered KiefF, with its strong position on the Dnieper, 
once the ruling centre of Russia, and established her superiority over the 
Cossacks of the Ukraine. But she had not yet reached the Dwina and 
Dnieper, and beyond these streams there lay Russian land. In the 
eighteenth century, Russia advanced all along her western frontier, as 
well as southwards into the Caucasus and eastwards into Asia. It was 
the work of Peter the Great to establish her power on the Baltic, and 
to bring her decisively into western Europe, in spite of the inducement 
which her southward and eastward flowing streams offered to southward 
and eastward expansion. At the Peace of Nystad, in 1721, he took from 54 
Sweden the Baltic coast north of the Dwina — Livonia, Esthonia and the 
adjacent islands, Ingria, part of Carelia, and a small part of Finland 
including Viborg, and planted on the Baltic the capital of a new 
Russia, thus achieving what had, since the sixteenth century, been one of 
the chief objects of Russian policy. In 1743, by the Peace of Abo, 61 
another corner of Finland was taken, and the Russian frontier advanced 
to the river Kymmene. In 1772, Polish Livonia and all Polish terri- 58 
tory east of the Diina and Dnieper were added to Russia, in 1795 
another strip of the Baltic coast, Courland and Samogitia and all 
Lithuania east of the Niemen. Thus, the south-eastern Baltic littoral 
passed from Sweden and Poland to Russia. The remainder of Finland, 108 
together with the Aland Isles, came to Russia at the Peace of Frederiks- 
hamm, 1809. In the middle west, Russia advanced at the expense of 
Poland. In 1772, in addition to the Baltic territory already mentioned, 58 
she took all Polish territory east of the Diina and Dnieper ; in 1793, the 
rest of Podolia and Ukraine, and parts of Volhynia and Podlesia — these 
acquisitions bringing back to her all Little Russia and White Russia as 
well as part of Lithuania ; and, in 1795, the remainder of Podlesia and 
Volhynia, and, as stated above, all Lithuania east of the Niemen. Thus 
her ancient rival perished, and the Russian frontiers rested on those of 
Prussia and Austria. 

On the Black Sea, Russia conquered AzofF in 1696, which by a truce 52 
of 1700 was surrendered to her, together with all the land south, to the 
river Kuban. But, in 1711, AzofF was restored to the Porte. In 1774, 
at the Peace of Kutchuk Kainardji, Russia gained the territory between 
the Dnieper and the Bug, with the fortresses of Kuban, Kerch, Yenikale, 
and Perekop, which gave her a firm footing on the northern shore of the 
Black Sea. At the same time, Turkey admitted the independence of 



72 IV A. Great Powers of Eighteenth Century : Europe. 

Crimea, which Russia annexed in 1783, Turkey recognising the annexa- 
tion at the Peace of Constantinople, in 1784. The Peace of Jassy, in 1792, 
gave to Russia the land between the Bug and the Dniester with the fortress 
of Ochakoff*. These swift steps forward transferred to Russia more land 
than she could occupy, and necessitated an organised immigration, from 
which southern Russia has derived a special ethnographical character, 
5S Between the Black Sea and the Caspian, and along the latter, 
Russia was also advancing. In 1723 Peter obtained the cession of 
Derbent and Baku, and the provinces of Gilyan, Mazanderan, and 
Astrabad contiguous to the south of the Caspian. But this initial ad- 
vance proved premature. In 1732 Anne retroceded everything south 
of the Koura, and in 1735, in the Treaty of Gandja, ceded the remainder 
of Peter''s conquests and returned to the line of the Terek. The Treaty 
of Kutchuk Kainardji, 1774, ended the Turkish dominion in Georgia 
and Imeritia, established the river Kuban as the boundary between 
Russia and Turkey, and gave to Russia Kabardia south of the Terek. 
The independence of the Tartars of Kuban was recognised. In 1783, 
Russia annexed Kuban, and Turkey recognised the annexation at the 
Peace of Constantinople, 1784. In 1796, Russia conquered Derbent, 
Kouba, Baku, and the Persian Klianates between Baku and East Georgia, 
but these conquests were abandoned. In 1800, Georgia was definitely 
and finally annexed, and Russian dominion was carried beyond the 

108 Caucasus ; in 1804, Mingrelia and Imeritia ; and, in 1806, Derbent and 
Baku. In this latter year Gandja was taken. Russia's sway thus 
extended from the Caspian to the Black Sea, In her southern expan- 
sion Russia had distinct set-backs in 1711 and 1732-5 ; but she was 
surer in her hold on the Baltic and the Dnieper. In the north and 
middle west there was a natural halting-place to her expansion, when 
she had reduced Sweden to a Scandinavian kingdom, and, by the 
partition of Poland, had come into contact with the strong Powers 
of Prussia and Austria, But on the south-east there was no natural 
halting-place, while the Ottoman empire was decaying, and Russia's 
advance continued in the nineteenth century. And so in the 
Caucasus, no stable frontier had been found, and much was yet to be 
done. But, in the eighteenth century, Russia had learned the direction 
of her expansion, and in some quarters had reached her present limits. 
Over the great plains of eastern Europe she had advanced to the sea, or 
to meet Powers strong enough to check her. Of her expansion into 
northern and central Asia we shall speak later. 

58 The extinction of the kingdom of Poland, whereby Russia, Austria, 
and Prussia consolidated their power, and in which it is noteworthy 
that Sweden, Poland's historic enemy, played no part, must be separately 
explained. In the seventeenth century the position of Poland was 
changed by the political transformation that was going on in north- 
eastern Europe. Her great enemies had been Sweden and Russia, 



IV A. Great Powers of Eighteenth Century : Europe, 73 

Sweden checking her Baltic expansion and threatening her Baltic 
provinces, Russia disputing with her for the plains of the Duna and 
Dnieper. Against Russia she had maintained an even, if not a 
victorious, struggle. The rise of Prussia and the definite turning of 51 
Russia to the west created a new position. When Brandenburg planted 
herself in the middle of Polish territory by the acquisition of the 
duchy of Prussia, it was certain that, either Poland must conquer 
Prussia, or Brandenburg would link up her possessions at the expense 
of Poland. The losses of Poland began in the middle of the seventeenth 
century. By the Convention of Wehlau, 1657, she renounced her 59 
suzerainty over East Prussia; by the Peace of Oliva, 1660, she sur- 53 
rendered northern Livonia to Sweden; by the Peace of Andrusovo, 52 
1667, she restored to Russia Smolensk, Sieverski and ChernigofF, the 
places gained in 1618 and 1634, and recognised the loss of the trans- 
Dnieper territory of Zaporogia ; by the Peace of Budziak, 1672, and 48 
the Peace of Zurawna, 1676, she surrendered Kameniec, the greater 
part of Podolia, and part of the Ukraine to the Ottoman empire. 
Podolia and Kameniec she recovered at the Peace of Carlo witz, 1699. 
Two years earlier the crown of Poland had passed to the Electors of 
Saxony, who held it till 1763. In the eighteenth century Poland was 
in evil case. But she suffered no losses till 1770, when Austria annexed 
the parts of the Hungarian county of Zips which had been pawned 
to Poland in 1412. This was the beginning of the end. The partition 
which followed was made in three stages. In 1772, Russia took the 61 
provinces along her own frontier, Polish Livonia, part of Polozk, and 
Witebsk, and made the Diina the frontier between the two countries. 
There was a natural connexion between this land and Russia; it was 
Russian land lost centuries before. Prussia took West Prussia and 59 
Ermeland, the Netze district, a part of Great Poland and Cujavia, 
but not Danzig and Thorn, which Poland retained. The acquisition 
was of great political importance to Prussia, as linking up East Prussia 
and Brandenburg. Austria took most of Red Russia and parts of Podolia 60 
and Little Poland, the territory which became Galicia and Lodomeria. 
By this partition Poland was diminished by one-third. In 1793, Prussia 
and Russia joined to make a second partition. Prussia took Danzig and 59 
Thorn, and so gained control of the Vistula, the rest of Great Poland 
and Cujavia, as well as part of Masovia, which linked up Silesia and 
West Prussia. Russia again annexed the provinces adjacent to herself, 61 
the rest of Podolia and the Ukraine, which she now finally acquired, 
parts of Volhynia and Podlesia, an area four times the size of that 
which Prussia had taken and containing twice its population. Russia 
and Austria were now contiguous. The buffer State had gone. 
Poland still retained its three capital towns, Warsaw, Cracow, and Vilna, 
but was so diminished that her hope of continued existence was small. 
In 1795 the final division was made. Russia took Courland and 61 



74 IV A, Great Powers of Eighteenth Century : Euroye. 

Samogitia, all Lithuania east of the Niemen, the remainder of Podlesia 
and Volhynia. Her boundary now ran from Galicia along the Bug to 
Brzesc, thence in a straight line to Grodno, thence along the Niemen to 

60 the border of East Prussia. Austria extended the province of Galicia 
by an addition of the whole district between the Pilica, the Vistula, and 
the Bug, including Cracow, with the exception of a small area round 
Warsaw, the piece of land between Vistula, Bug, and Narew, which 

59 Prussia desired to secure her hold on that town. Prussia took the 
remainder — a strip of territory which flanked nearly the whole of the 
duchy of Prussia and a large part of the Prussian acquisitions in 1793, 
W'^arsaw, with a piece of Little Poland adjacent to Silesia, the remainder 
of Masovia, Podlachia, and Lithuania west of the Niemen. Thus, when 
Poland fell to pieces, Russia regained what she had once lost to Lithuania, 
and added to it the greater part of Lithuania herself, while Prussia and 
Austria divided up the original Poland. The destruction of Poland was 
in some sense a result of her want of geographical strength. She lay in 
the valleys of the Dwina, Dnieper, Pripet, and Vistula. But nature had 
not formed here an area with the geographical separateness that supports 
separate political being. Thus, when on her frontiers historical causes 
brought into being States with unity and strength, strong autocracies 
in whose pathway she stood, a loosely organised individualist State, she 
had not the necessary natural strength and unity to resist their expansion. 
63 The Utrecht settlement in western Europe, as modified by slight 
subsequent changes, and the partition of Poland in eastern Europe 
appeared to have brought about a position of comparative stability. 
We may sum up as follows the situation which the wars and diplomacy 
of the eighteenth century had produced. In the British Isles, England 
and Scotland were incorporated in one kingdom of Great Britain, having 
a self-governing dependency in Ireland, and attached by a personal union 

79 to the Electorate of Hanover. France had not gained the natural 
frontiers she desired ; but she had reached a position of security, and 
the acquisition of Lorraine in 1766 followed naturally on the policy of 

62 two centuries. In the group of States small and large, which made up 
the German Empire, Austria, with her greatly increased territory in 
southern Europe and her additions from Poland, was still the strongest. 
But Prussia, which had grown up rapidly in the eighteenth century, and 
held a strong position on the Baltic and in eastern Europe, menaced 

61 her superiority. Russia rested firmly on the four seas which were her 
natural outlet. In the north and west she had reached a position of 
stability ; in the south and to the east she was still advancing. Sweden, 

62 driven from most of her conquests, still retained in Western Pomerania 
a foothold on German soil. The kingdom of Sardinia had gained 
ground in northern Italy, while Spain once more held a position in 
the south, where, in Naples, a Spanish Bourbon line had reigned since 
1735. Austria was predominant in the north of the peninsula. Venice 



IV B, Powers of Eighteenth Century : Greater Europe. 76 

still kept her Adriatic dominion and her mainland territory. In south- 
eastern Europe the Ottoman empire was receding before Austria and 48 
Russia ; but the process of its disruption had not yet begun. 



B. GREATER EUROPE. 

In the colonial world, the chief interest of this period gathers round 
the extension of French and British colonisation, and the conflict between 
these two Powers, which gave the British in the end an unquestioned 
predominance in North America, the West Indies, and India. The 68 
extension of British colonisation along the Atlantic coast of North 
America proceeded apace in the later seventeenth century. After the 
expulsion of the Dutch, the colonies of Delaware, New York, and New 
Jersey were constituted. Pennsylvania was founded in 1682, New 
Hampshire separated from Massachusetts in 1691, Carolina divided into 
North and South in 1729, and Georgia founded in 1733. So the 
thirteen colonies came into being. Meanwhile, from Quebec the French 67 
penetrated the interior of North America. In 1681, they took posses- 
sion of the Mississippi and tried to plant the colony of Louisiana at its 
mouth, though New Orleans was not founded till 1718. They penetrated 
to the Ohio in 1716 and occupied that river valley in 1753. In the 
north-west they reached the great plains of Canada in 1730 and 
discovered the Rocky Mountains in 1731. By successive stages England 
acquired the French American possessions. She conquered Acadia in 
1690, but restored it in 1697, and with it she gave up also Fort York 
on Hudson Bay. At the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 she gained Acadia 
with its uncertain boundaries, the French colony of Placentia in New- 
foundland, and sovereignty over the five nations whose territory lay 
south of Lake Ontario. Louisbourg, on Cape Breton Isle, was con- 
quered in 1744, but restored by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. 
In 1762, the French ceded New Orleans and Louisiana west of the 
Mississippi to Spain; in 1763, by the Peace of Paris, Canada, with 
Cape Breton Isle, Prince Edward's Isle and all their territory east of 
the Mississippi, to Great Britain. Since Spain at the same Peace ceded 
Florida, the whole of the eastern half of the continent passed into 
British hands. France retained fishing rights on the northern shore of 
Newfoundland and the two small islands of St Pierre and Miquelon 
off its coast, all that remained to her of her imperial designs in North 
America. The hiJiterland thus ceded to the British was joined by 68 
proclamation of 1774 to the province of Quebec, and not to the colonies 
of the coast which claimed to divide it. 

In the West Indies there was an extension of colonisation and some 69 
transference of power. Spain lost ground to France and the Teutonic 
Powers. The French gained the western part of Santo Domingo in 



76 IV B. Powers of Eighteenth Century : Greater Europe, 

1697, when Spain recognised their occupation, Santa Lucia in 1763, and 
Tobago in 1783. The Danes occupied St Thomas in 1671, and in 1733 
bought Santa Cruz from the French. The English proclaimed their 
sovereignty over the Bahamas in 1670, and definitely occupied them in 
1717 ; gained Jamaica from Spain at the Peace of Madrid, in 1670, and 
the French part of St Kitts at the Treaty of Utrecht, thereby expelling 
the French from the Leeward Islands; and, in 1763, they divided the 
Windward Islands with the French, taking Grenada, Dominica, St Vincent, 
and Tobago, of which the last named was ceded to the French in 1783. 

65 The changes in Africa were various, though not of great importance, as 
there was little extension of European influence in Africa during this 
period. The Latin Powers lost, the Teutonic Powers gained ground — 
a development in accordance with the general change in the balance of 
maritime power. In East Africa the Portuguese were driven out of 
most of their stations north of Mozambique by the Arabs before the 
end of the seventeenth century. They lost Mombasa finally in 1730, 
and in 1752 they recognised that their dominion in this region was 
limited to the coast between Cape Delgado and Delagoa Bay. In Morocco 
too they lost their last foothold in 1769. In Angola, on the other 
hand, they extended their dominion in the later eighteenth century. 
Spain lost most of her North African possessions in the sixteenth 
century. Oran she retained till 1708, and held again from 1732 till 
1791. In 1778 she acquired Fernando Po. On the Gold Coast, 
Brandenburg joined the English, Dutch, and Danes, and built 
Grossfriedrichsburg at Cape Three Points in 1682, thus beginning her 
colonial enterprise quite near to the region where, two hundred years 
later, she was to resume it. The Dutch concentrated on the Guinea Coast 
and South Africa. They ceded Goree to France in 1678, deserted 
Mauritius in 1712, bought Grossfriedrichsburg, which they renamed 
Fort Hollandia, about 1720, and extended their settlements inland at 
the Cape — the only part of Africa where Europeans had anything more 
than the precarious foothold and fickle interests of trade. The English 
in 1763 took from the French th6ir post on the Senegal, but returned 
it in 1783, and guaranteed to the French Arguin and Portendik. In 
1787 they occupied Sierra Leone. The French occupied the lie de 
France (Mauritius) in 1721. Intermittently, they had a station at 
Albreda on the Gambia; and, in 1787, they acquired Dakar and Cape 
Verde from the natives. 

64 In India, in these years, the British reduced the rival European Powers 
to relative impotence, and began the formation of a territorial dominion 
which gradually expanded into the Indian empire. The foundations 
of their power were laid in the seventeenth century in Fort St George, 
built in 1639 on the site now occupied by Madras, in Bombay, acquired 
by the East India Company in 1668, and made into a presidency in 
1687, and in Fort William, planted on the present site of Calcutta, in 



IV B, Powers of Eighteenth Century: Greater Europe, 77 

1686, to which were added in 1700 three neighbouring villages purchased 
from Aurungzeb^s son. But it was not till the Seven Years' War that the 
British made those extensive acquisitions which ensured their future 
dominion. The district round Calcutta, known as the Twenty-Four 
Parganas, was acquired from the Nawab in three separate stages — 1757, 
1759, and 1765. In 1765, the diivani^ or fiscal administration of Bengal, 
Behar and Orissa, with the jurisdiction of the Northern Circars, was 
granted to the Company. This establishment of the British in Bengal 
was the turning-point in the history of their conquest of India. It 
gave them the resources of the richest part of that country, and planted 
them firmly on a sea base in a region whence it was easy to advance over 
the whole of Hindustan. Their principal rivals were the French, whose 
sixth East India Company, established in 1719, sought in the confusion 
of India on the break-up of the Moghul empire to establish a great 
political dominion. In the contest that ensued the British lost Madras, 
in 1746 ; but they recovered it at the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. 
In the Seven Years' War they gained complete supremacy on the 
Coromandel coast, and at the Peace of Paris they put an end to the 
French political power in India. The French retained their stations, of 
which the most important were Pondicherry on the Coromandel coast, 
founded in 1674, and Chandernagore in Bengal, founded in 1676, as 
commercial posts only. No other Power rivalled the British in India. 
The Danes kept the settlements at Tranquebar and Serampur which 
they had established in 1616. The Portuguese retained Goa, Diu, and 
Damaun, and the Dutch definitely acquired Ceylon. But none of these 
Powers aimed at wide-reaching political dominion. 



78 



SECTION V. 

THE AGE OF THE REVOLUTION AND OF NAPOLEON. 

A. EUROPE. 

With the French Revolution there began a series of rapid territorial 
changes in western Europe which continued throughout the Napoleonic 
era and overturned the political system of the eighteenth century. Of 
these the principal was the expansion of France and the extension of 

94 her influence throughout Europe. Napoleon reconstituted Europe by » 
enlarging France ; by cutting down Prussia and Austria ; by consolidating 1 
and reorganising Germany, without Prussia and Austria, as a confedera- 
tion under French suzerainty ; by rearranging Italy, and by making the 
new Italian States and Spain dependent on France. 
34 In the course of these changes, the first clear landmark with regard 

to the expansion of France was reached in the Peace of Basel, in 1795, 
and, with regard to the resettlement of Italy, in the Peace of Campo 
Formio, in 1797. By these treaties France attained her long desired 
Rhine frontier, and resumed after an interval of centuries her attempt 
to expand into Italy. The following were the principal stages in her 
acquisitions. In 1791 (September), she annexed Avignon and the 
Venaissin ; in 1792 (December), the Austrian Netherlands. The latter 
she lost in 1793, but recovered in 1794. In 1792, also, the bishopric 
of Basel was secularised and became the republic of Rauracia, which 
was annexed to France in 1793, though the Swiss did not ratify the 
annexation till 1798. By the Treaty of Basel, in 1795, Prussia ceded to 
France her territory on the left bank of the Rhine, which included 
Upper Gelders, part of the duchy of Cleve, the principality of Mors, 
and the duchy of Jiilich, though these places were not definitely 
incorporated in French territory till 1801. Prussia was thereby thrown 

89 back into northern and central Germany, where, in 1801, she received 
compensation, and was in consequence really strengthened. Hesse- 
Cassel ceded Rheinfels, St Goar and the part of the county of 
Katzenellenbogen on the left bank of the Rhine. Holland by the 
Treaty of the Hague, 1795, ceded Dutch Flanders, Maestricht, Venloo 



V A. The Revobition and Napoleon: Europe. 79 



and the enclaves south of Venloo. Wiirtemberg and Baden, in 1796, 
surrendered their possessions on the west of the Rhine, of which 
Montbeliard which belonged to Wiirtemberg was the chief. 

There followed a complete overturning of the political system of 
Italy. Austrian Lombardy, Venetia, and part of the Papal States came 
into Bonaparte's hands and enabled him to reshape northern Italy, 
which he did by destroying Venice, driving Austria into north-eastern 
Italy, and creating in northern Italy a Cisalpine republic dependent on 
France. In 1796 the towns of Austrian Lombardy formed themselves 
into the Transpadane republic; and Bologna, Ferrara, Modena, and 
Reggio, into the Cispadane republic. In 1797, by the Treaty of 
Tolentino, the Pope surrendered to France the Legations of Bologna, 
Ferrara, and Romagna, and the port of Ancona, as well as Avignon ; 
and, by the Treaty of Campo Formio, Austria surrendered Milan as 
well as the Austrian Netherlands. The two new Italian republics were 
merged in a Cisalpine republic (July, 1797), to which Bonaparte added 
the Valtelline, Bormio, and Chiavenna, taken from the Grisons in 
October, 1797; part of the territories west of the Adige taken from 
Venice, October, 1797 ; Lunigiana and a part of Parma, November, 1797 ; 
and Pesaro, February, 1798, thus strengthening this dependent State. 
To Austria, at Campo Formio, as compensation for her losses, were given 
the Venetian territories east of the Adige. The Powers most affected 
by these great changes were Austria and France. The general effect 
was to extend the territory of France and consolidate the territory of 
Austria. Austria lost the Netherlands and Milan, but, in occupying 
eastern Venetia, Istria, and Dalmatia, she gained an important sea- 
coast and a natural extension of her territories, and she consolidated 
her power on the Adriatic. France, for her part, gained those natural 
frontiers she had so long desired — the Rhine and the Alps, for Sardinia 
in 1796 ceded to her Nice and Savoy. At the same time she girded 
her frontiers with a line of dependent States. The Batavian republic, 
formed of the kingdom of Holland in 1795, the Ligurian republic, 
formed of the city of Genoa in 1797, the Helvetic republic, formed of 
the Swiss Confederation in 1798, and the Cisalpine republic, flanking 
the territory of Austria from the Alps to the Adriatic, were under 
French influence, and added security to her power. In the Ionian 
Isles she had a stepping-stone to the East. The new arrangements 
represented a great settlement of western Europe, which, in Italy, 
was evidently only partial; and they also gave to France a predomi- 
nance which inevitably led her on to new adventures and greater 
designs. 

A provisional settlement of Switzerland followed. In 1797, Chiavenna, 
Bormio, and the Valtelline had been taken from the Confederation and 
added to the Cisalpine republic. In 1798, France annexed Mulhausen, 
Geneva, and Bienne, and detached Neufchatel. The remainder of 



80 VA, The Revolution and Napoleon: Europe. 

Switzerland was formed into the Helvetic republic, consisting at first 
of 23 and later of 19 cantons. In 1802, the Valais was detached, and 

90 made into an independent republic. In 1803, by the Act of Mediation, 
the Helvetic republic was formed into a confederation of 19 sovereign 
cantons. To the 13 old cantons six new were added — two formed from 
the allies, the Grisons and St Gallen, four from the subject lands — 
Aargau (which was largely made up of districts ceded by Austria in 
1801, including the Frick valley), Thurgau, Ticino, and Vaud. 

89 The Peace of Luneville, 1801, forms another landmark in the 
rearrangement of the European political system. It followed on the 
lines of Campo Formio in contracting the Austrian dominion in Italy 
and extending the French. A series of changes preceded the results 
thus recognised. In 1798 (February), the remainder of the Papal States 
was formed into the Roman republic, which lasted only a few months ; 
in June, 1800, papal rule was restored. In March, 1800, the Ionian 
Islands became the republic of the Seven Islands. From January to 
July, 1799, the Parthenopean republic took the place of the kingdom 
of Naples. In 1798, the French occupied Piedmont, and the kingdom 
of Sardinia was reduced to the island from which it took its name. In 
1800, the Novarese was added to the Cisalpine republic. At the Peace 
of Luneville in 1801, Austria ceded to France Tuscany, the Breisgau and 
her possessions on the left bank of the Rhine — Frickthal, Falkenstein, 
Laufenburg, and Rheinfelden. The kingdom of Etruria was then built 
up out of Tuscany, the Stato degli Presidi, and some Imperial fiefs in 
the Apennines, and given to Louis, son of the Duke of Parma. The 
Breisgau and the Ortenau were given as compensation to the Duke of 
Modena, though occupied by the French till 1803. Piedmont was 
formally annexed by France, 1802, and the Cisalpine republic became 
the Italian republic. Thus the transformation of northern Italy was 
advanced another stage by the expansion of France and the contraction 
of Austrian power. 

Though no position of equilibrium had been reached in Italy, the 
next great territorial development was the consolidation of Germany. 
To provide compensation for the German Princes who had surrendered 
territories to France in 1795 and 1801, a number of changes were 
necessitated within Germany itself. The decision of the Diet in 1803 
reconstituted the map of Germany. By the secularisation of eccle- 
siastical States and the mediatisation of Imperial villages and towns a 
sixth part of Germany was redistributed, 112 States suppressed, and 
a number of States of moderate size, with some degree of geographical 
unity, were formed. An effort was made to simplify political geography 
by rounding off the dominions of the larger States and by uniting to 
them petty districts too insignificant to justify independence. Of the 
Imperial towns only six remained, the three great Hanseatic towns, 
Hamburg, Bremen, and Liibeck, and the great inland towns Frankfort, 



VA, The Revolution and Napoleon: Europe. 81 

Augsburg, and Niirnberg. The number of electors was raised from 
eight to ten by the addition of Salzburg, Baden, WQrtemberg, and 
Hesse-Cassel, and the suppression of Trier and Cologne; while the 
number of circles was decreased from ten to eight by the disappearance 
of the Burgundian Circle and the amalgamation of the two Rhenish 
Circles. Bavaria lost the Rhenish Palatinate, Zweibrlicken, and Jiilich. 
She gained the bishoprics of Augsburg, Bamberg, Freising, and Wiirz- 
burg. She divided with the newly formed electorate of Salzburg parts 
of the bishoprics of Passau and Eichstadt, and in addition gained 
seventeen Imperial towns, including Ulm, and twelve abbeys and priories 
situated mostly in the Suabian and Franconian Circles. Her terri- 
tories were thus made more compact, and, in addition, her gains lay 
in the most fertile part of southern Germany. The territory of Baden 
was also considerably increased, and the Margrave was created an 
Elector. Baden acquired the bishopric of Constance and the portions 
of the bishoprics of Basel, Speier, and Strassburg, which lay to 
the east of the Rhine; part of the Palatinate hitherto Bavarian, 
including Heidelberg and Mannheim ; seven Imperial towns, four 
abbeys and part of a fifth. The Duke of Wurtemberg became 
Elector, and his dominions were enlarged by the acquisition of three 
Imperial towns and several abbeys in Suabia. A new duchy was formed 
out of the Breisgau and Ortenau by the treaty of December 26, 1802, 
between France and Austria, Austria being compensated with the 
secularised bishoprics of Trent and Brixen. The landgravate of Hesse- 
Darmstadt emerged from the crisis with satisfactory prospects, having 
gained, in return for some trifling losses, a narrow strip of territory 
between the Lippe and the Neckar, over 2000 square miles in extent, of 
which part had been previously held by the old duchy of Westphalia, 
the free city of Friedberg, and certain abbeys and villages, and part 
had been included in the dominions of the Archbishop of Mainz, the 
Palatinate, and the Bishop of Worms. The other branch of Hesse 
obtained nothing except the free town of Gelnhausen and the electoral 
dignity. The Nassau family were fortunate, especially the ex-Stadholder 
of Holland, William V of Orange, who received a principality created 
out of the abbacies of Fulda and Corvey and the free city of Dort- 
mund. Usingen and Weilburg were united into one duchy by mutual 
agreement between the cousins, who were their rulers. Another new 
creation of the settlement of 1803 was the principality which was 
formed out of Aschafieiiburg and the district round it, the cities of 
Wetzlar and Ratisbon, the secularised bishopric of Ratisbon, and three 
abbeys, for the Arch-Chancellor of the Empire and Primate of Germany^ 
Dalberg — who was given the additional title of Elector Arch-Chancellor. 
Electoral rank was also given to the Duke of Salzburg, whose dominions 
were formed out of the old archbishopric of Salzburg, together with the 
priory of Berchtesgaden and a part of the bishopric of Passau. 

C. M. H. VOL. XIV, 6 



82 VA. The Revolution and Napoleon: Europe. 

While Prussia herself coveted Bamberg and Wurzburg, Napoleon 
intended to compensate her with Mecklenburg and to transplant the two 
Dukes into Westphalia and Franconia. On the refusal of the Dukes to 
accept this proposition, Napoleon had to give up his idea of pushing 
Prussia east of the Elbe and to put her in possession of the bishoprics 
of Paderborn and Hildesheim, a large part of the bishopric of MUnster, 
with the town included, the Thuringian possessions of Mainz — Erfurt and 
the Eichsfeld — six abbeys, and the cities of Mlihlhausen, Nordhausen, 
and Goslar. Hanover obtained Osnabrlick, but lost land to Nassau and 
Oldenburg. Oldenburg made gains, which included part of the bishopric 
of Miinster. Saxony was not affected. Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, Salm, 
Aremberg, Isenburg, Thurn and Taxis, Lowenstein all survived with slight 
territorial changes, and the Teutonic Order and the Knights of St John 
were excepted from the widespread secularisations. 
92 This consolidation of Germany was a prelude to a drastic reduction 
of the power of Prussia and Austria, the expulsion of their influence from 
eastern and southern Germany, and a reorganisation of these parts of 
Germany as a group of medium-sized States under the influence of France. 
In the wars of the third coalition Austria was humbled and suffered 
her first heavy losses at Napoleon's hands, while Prussia for the moment 
gained. Prussia, at the Peace of Schonbrunn (December, 1805) received 
Hanover provisionally, but was obliged to forfeit Ansbach to Bavaria, 
Neufchatel and Wesel to France, and Cleve to a Prince of the Empire, 
not named in the treaty. Austria, at the Peace of Pressburg (December, 
1805) received nothing but Salzburg and Berchtesgaden to set against 
her surrender of Venetia, Istria, and Dalmatia (with the exception of 
Trieste) to the newly formed kingdom of Italy, Brixen, Trent, Tyrol, 
and Vorarlberg to Bavaria, and all her Suabian possessions to Baden 
and Wiirtemberg. At the same time, the Emperor renounced all feudal 
rights over Bavaria, Baden, and Wiirtemberg, and recognised the com- 
plete and undivided sovereignty of the rulers of these dominions, while 
Bavaria gained in addition Augsburg and Niirnberg. In this way, by 
the end of 1805, a further advance had been made in the policy of 
creating several strong but secondary States to check the supremacy of 
Austria and Prussia in Germany. In addition, Bavaria and Wiirtemberg 
were created kingdoms, and Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt grand duchies. 
Bavaria was the chief gainer; but against her gains is to be set her loss 
of Wiirzburg, which was given to the Elector of Salzburg in return for 
the town of Salzburg, handed over to Austria, and of Berg, which France 
desired for herself. Early in 1806 Berg was united to Cleve, increased 
by the addition of parts of Nassau and Dillenburg, and formed into a 
grand duchy, and Wiirzburg was created an electorate and grand duchy. 
On July 12, 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine was formed. It 
was a league of German States dependent on France and included, with 
the Arch-Chancellor's scattered territories (parts of the dioceses of Mainz, 



V A. The Revolution and Napoleon: Europe, 83 

Worms and Ratisbon), Bavaria, Wiirtemberg, Baden, Berg, Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, Nassau-Usingen, Nassau- Weilburg, HohenzoUern-Hechingen, 
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Salm-Salm, Salm-Kyrburg, Aremberg, Isen- 
burg-Birstein, Lichtenstein, and the principality von der Leyen. It was 
afterwards entered by Wiirzburg, Saxony (which was made into a king- 93 
dom),five Dukes of Saxony of the Ernestine lines, three Dukes of Anhalt, 
four Princes of Reuss, two of Schwarzburg, two of Lippe, and one 
of Waldeck, the new kingdom of Westphalia, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 
Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and Oldenburg. Only Prussia, Brunswick, and 
(momentarily) Hesse-Cassel remained outside the Confederation. All 
the remaining dukes, counts, and knights were mediatised. They 
retained their feudal, but lost their sovereign, rights on their ab- 
sorption into the various States, in whose dominions they had held 
land. The three remaining Imperial towns, Hamburg, Bremen, and 
Liibeck, maintained a precarious existence, till they were incorporated 
into the French empire, in 1810-11. On August 6, 1806, Francis II 
renounced the title of Emperor Elect, and the Holy Roman Empire 
ceased to exist even in name. The virtual loss of more than half its 
territories at the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine set the 
final seal to its long-impending doom. The historic political system of 
Germany was thus destroyed. 

While this immense transformation was being worked in Germany, 
Italy was passing through a series of kaleidoscopic changes of which 94 
some have been already enumerated. In 1802, the Cisalpine and 
Novarese republics were converted into the Italian republic. Three 
years later, the Italian republic became the kingdom of Italy, and 
Napoleon crowned himself King at Milan in May, 1805. The expan- 
sion of France into Italy now proceeded apace. In 1805, the Ligurian 
republic was annexed; in 1806 the duchies of Parma, Piacenza, and 
Guastalla ; in 1808, Etruria for a year only, after which it was given to 
Napoleon's sister Elise, who had already received in 1805 Lucca and 
Piombino; in 1809 the Papal States west of the Apennines, and, in 
1810, the Valais. Thus the frontiers of the French empire reached 
those of its dependency, the kingdom of Naples. A further consoli- 
dation was carried out by the enlargement of the kingdom of Italy, 
to which were added, in 1805, the old Austrian provinces of Venetia, 
Dalmatia, and Istria; in 1808, the March of Ancona, and the dis- 
tricts of Urbino, Macerata, and Camerino ; and, in 1809, the southern 
Tyrol, from Bavaria. In March, 1806, the kingdom of the Two Sicilies 
came under French government, being assigned to Joseph Bonaparte, 
who relinquished it to Murat, on acquiring Spain in 1808. The map 
of Italy was complicated, however, by Napoleon's gifts of duchies to 
his generals and ministers. Within the territories of the kingdom 
of Italy, twelve new duchies were made by a series of decrees of 
March 30, 1806. In Lucca, Parma, and Piacenza, duchies were carved 

G-2 



84 VA. The Revolution and Napoleon: Europe, 

out for four of Napoleon's marshals. Talleyrand and Bernadotte re- 
ceived Benevento and Ponte Corvo, papal enclaves in the kingdom of 
Naples; and Reggio, Taranto, Gaeta, and Otranto were bestowed on 
less well-known men. 

When Germany, Switzerland, and Italy had been reorganised, the 
Batavian republic converted into the kingdom of Holland (1806), and 
Spain placed under the rule of a French king. Napoleon proceeded to 
contract further the power of Prussia and Austria. At the Peace of Tilsit, 

93 in July, 1807, Prussia was all but crushed. She was left with nothing 
but the lands between the Elbe and Oder, East Pomerania, East and 
West Prussia, less Danzig, Thorn, and the district of Netze, and Silesia. 
With the lands thus seized from Prussia Napoleon built up the new 
States he had formed. In January, 1808, the grand duchy of Berg was 
increased by the annexation of the Prussian countships of Mark and 
Tecklenburg, together with a part of the principality of Miinster and 
the county of Lingen. The Rhine fortress of Wesel, which had 
previously been included in the grand duchy, was ceded to France. 
The new kingdom of Westphalia was formed out of the Westphalian 
provinces of Prussia and the southern part of Hanover, together with 
Hesse-Cassel and Brunswick. In January, 1810, it absorbed Lauenburg 
and the remainder of Hanover. The grand duchy of Warsaw (founded 

58 in 1807, but not so styled till 1808) was composed of the Prussian 
share in the second and third partitions of Poland (1793 and 1795), 
with the exception of Danzig (which became nominally independent, 
but was actually occupied by a French garrison), the Bialystok district, 
which went to Russia, and Cottbus, which was given to Saxony. The 

93 plan on which these States were formed is hard to understand, and 
Warsaw never had a defensible frontier till 1809, when, at the Peace 
of Schonbrunn, it acquired the Polish lands south-east of Warsaw. 

93 The humiliation of Prussia was complete; but Austria had still to 
suffer even greater losses. In October, 1809, by the Treaty of Schon- 
brunn, she recognised the cession to France of Trieste, Carniola, Fiume, 
Monfalcone, the circle of Villach in Carinthia, and all her possessions 
on the right bank of the Save as far as the frontier of Bosnia; of 
Salzburg, Berchtesgaden, and the Innviertel to Bavaria; of West Galicia 
and Cracow to Warsaw; and of the south-east corner of Old Galicia 
to Russia, which not only robbed her of her recent acquisitions, but 

94 cut in two the Habsburg hereditary possessions. The territory ceded 
to France together with Istria and Dalmatia was designated the Illyrian 
Provinces and became a part of the French empire, which thus crossed 
the Adriatic. Bavaria was considerably affected by this rearrangement. 
She ceded southern Tyrol to the kingdom of Italy, and, in addition 
to the acquisitions already mentioned, received Baireuth (1810) and 
Ratisbon. With Austria thus driven from the Adriatic eastwards, 
the settlement of southern Germany and Italy was complete. But in 



V A, The Revolution and Napoleon: Europe, 85 

Holland and northern Germany the transformation continued. Holland, 
which had received East Friesland, was, in 1810, annexed to France. 
At the same time France extended her territories beyond the Elbe to 
the Baltic, at the expense of Westphalia, Berg, and other members of 
the Confederation of the Rhine, in such a way as to obtain command of 
the mouths of the Ems, the Weser, and the Elbe. In the new depart- 
ments thus formed, the last of the Imperial towns, Hamburg, Bremen, 
and Liibeck, were swallowed up. 

The political system which Napoleon had thus established in western 
and central Europe consisted of a predominant France, which stretched 
from the Baltic to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, and outside of 
the bounds of France commanded all the German North Sea, the eastern 
Adriatic, and the whole bend of north-western Italy so far south as 
Ponte Corvo; of a group of dependent States — the German States 
organised in the Confederation of the Rhine, the Swiss Confederation, 
the kingdom of Italy, the kingdom of Naples, and the kingdom of Spain; 
of the kingdoms of Prussia and Austria, both expelled from western 
Europe and reduced to boundaries unknown in their previous history, with 
the grand duchy of Warsaw planted between them as a revival of the 
old kingdom of Poland. The independence of Portugal had not been 
suppressed, nor Sweden driven out of Germany, nor the form of Russia 
changed, and neither the Ottoman empire nor Scandinavia had been 
reorganised, while Great Britain, though driven from the Continent, 
except from Gibraltar, was supreme on the sea and in the colonial world. 
In Europe, all centred round the continental supremacy of France. 

After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, and again in 1815, and the 102 
overthrow of the French dominion he had established, an attempt was 
made to undo his work and to rearrange the political system of Europe 
according to a balance of power such as had been constituted in the 
eighteenth century. The first problem of the new settlement was 
necessarily the position of France. 

With a rapidity only equalled by that with which it had been 102, 
formed, the great French empire crumbled to pieces, and at the Peace 103 
of Paris, to which France had to submit on May 30, 1814, the main 
question to be settled was, how far the French frontier should differ 
from the frontier of 1792. The following modifications, involving a net 
gain of territory amounting to 150 square miles, were finally agreed 
upon. In return for a small loss in the department of the Moselle, France 
received certain portions of the departments of Jemappes, Sambre et 
Meuse, and Saare, which had not been included in 1792. She was 
permitted to retain the fortress of Landau, which she had possessed as 
an insulated territory in 1792, and given a portion of the departments 
of Mont Tonnerre and Bas Rhin, "for the purpose of uniting the 
said fortress and its radius to the rest of the kingdom." The Rhine 
continued to be the frontier from a spot dose to Landau, special 



86 VA, The Revolution and Napoleon: Europe. 

arrangements being made, in the event of its altering its course, to secure 
the islands to the country that possessed them in 1801 at the time of 
the Treaty of Luneville. In the departments of Doubs, Leman, and 
Mont Blanc France gained the largest amount of territory, including 
the sub-prefectures of Chambery and Annecy. Avignon, the Venaissin, 
Montbeliard, and all the insulated territories which had been in 
German hands, were declared French, whether they had been occupied 
by 1792 or not. 

This not unfavourable treatment of France was slightly modified 
after the abrupt return of Napoleon and the Hundred Days. By the 
settlement, which was arrived at in November of the following year at 
the Second Peace of Paris, it was arranged that the frontiers of France 
should correspond as nearly as possible with her frontiers in 1790, before 
the revolutionary armies had gained even their first successes. This im- 
plied the loss of the duchy of Bouillon with Philippeville and Marienburg, 
a strip of territory along the river Saare, including Saarbruck and Saar- 
louis, the fortress of Landau and the territory in its neighbourhood ; and 
the small portion of the French Pays de Gex, which had brought the 
French frontier at one point to Lake Geneva, was taken from France 
and handed over to the Helvetic Confederacy. Finally, French rights 
in Monaco were forfeited in favour of Sardinia. 
102 In the attempt which was made at the same time by the Congress 
of Vienna to settle the rest of Europe after the shock to which it had 
been submitted by the far-reaching designs of Napoleon, the same prin- 
ciple was followed, and an effort was made to return once more to the 
days before the Revolution, though no fixed date of the eighteenth 
century was selected to provide a status quo ante, as in the settlement 
of France. In eastern Europe, Poland was once again wiped from 

107 the map. Prussia received the grand duchy of Posen, with Thorn and 
the surrounding district, her frontier now passing between the two 

111 frontiers she had gained at the first and second partitions. Austria 
retained the province of Galicia, recovering the district on the extreme 
east, which had been surrendered to Russia in 1809. Cracow, together 
with a narrow strip of territory round it, was declared neutral and 
independent, and guaranteed as such by Russia, Austria, and Prussia. 

108 The rest of Poland was irrevocably attached to Russia, and the Tsars of 
Russia were to be Kings of Poland. Of the three Powers that at the 
close of the eighteenth century had partitioned Poland and now absorbed 
it finally, Russia made no further gains at Vienna. Austria recovered 

102 all the territory lost at the five disastrous pacifications of Campo 
111 Formio, Luneville, Pressburg, Fontainebleau, and Schonbrunn. She was 
thus secured in possession of Istria, Austrian and Venetian Dalmatia, 
the ancient Venetian islands of the Adriatic, the Bocche di Cattaro, 
the city of Venice with its immediate territory, the principalities of 
Brixen and Trent, the county of Tyrol, the Vorarlberg, the Austrian and 



VA, The Revolution and Napoleon: Europe. 87 

Venetian Friuli, Monfalcone, Trieste, Carniola, Upper Carinthia, Croatia 
on the right bank of the Save, Fiume and the Hungarian littoral. 
The Valtelline, Bormio, and Chiavenna became part of the Austrian 104« 
possessions in Italy, which were known collectively as the Lombardo- 
Venetian kingdom. Kleck still remained in Ottoman hands, so that 
Austria failed to obtain the whole of the Illyrian coast-line; but her 
seaboard, extended by the acquisition of the republic of Ragusa, was 
considerably larger than it had previously been. At the same time 
Austria definitely gave up her position on the Rhine. By one of the 
articles of the Treaty of Vienna she was given all the territories in 
certain districts on the left bank of the Rhine not otherwise disposed 
of; but Metternich used these for exchanges elsewhere. But these 107 
losses were trifling in comparison with her gains, and consisted merely 
of the cession of Breisgau to Baden and Wiirtemberg, Ortenau to Baden, 
and her Suabian possessions to Bavaria. 

Enough of the kingdom of Saxony was left to act as a partial barrier 102, 
between Austria and Prussia; but Prussia received, under the title of 107 
the duchy of Saxony, Lower Lusatia, including Cottbus, the greater 
part of Upper Lusatia and the district round the towns of Wittenberg, 
Torgau, and Merseburg, all her rights in which Austria renounced. 
It would have suited France well if Prussia had been given the 
whole of Saxony and offered the opportunity of concentrating herself 
as an East German Power, remote from the Rhine and the coveted 
provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. But this was not to be. It was 
decided to restore to Prussia her territories in western Germany instead. 
She recovered Altmark, Cleve, Halberstadt, Upper Gelders, Mark, and 
Ravensberg, Magdeburg, Minden, Paderborn, and most of Miinster. 
She acquired the greater part of Trier, and that part of Cologne which 
lay on the left bank of the Rhine, together with Berg and Jiilich, and 
portions of Nassau, Thuringia, and Westphalia. In the north, Sweden 
ceded to her at last the remainder of Pomerania, which included Riigen 
and Stralsund. By the side of these gains her losses were small. She 
handed over to Russia a large strip of territory in Poland, which in- 
cluded Warsaw; and she relinquished Hildesheim, East Friesland, Goslar, 
Lingen, Osnabriick, and a part of Miinster to Hanover; Ansbach and 
Baireuth to Bavaria; and the part of the duchy of Lauenburg which 
she had acquired from Hanover to Denmark. She was thus left as 
unformed as in the eighteenth century, with her territories scattered 
over a large part of Germany, geographically incomplete, and under 
the strongest temptations to remedy this defect. 

In Germany, next to Prussia, Bavaria underwent the greatest change. 
In return for her cessions to Austria she received the duchy of Wlirzburg 
and the principality of Aschaffenburg, Ansbach and Baireuth, Niirn- 
berg and Ratisbon. On the Rhine, she was given, together with the 
sovereignty of the feudal fortress of Landau, territory from the former 



88 V A. The Revolution and Napoleon: Europe. 

French departments of Bas Rhin, Mont Tonnerre, and Saare, which 
became known as the Bavarian Palatinate; and in addition she obtained 
the reversion of the Baden share of the Palatinate. Baden emerged 
m possession of all she had gained during the Napoleonic wars, including 
her portion of the Palatinate roimd Lake Constance, Heidelberg, Mann- 
heim, and part of Breisgau. Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Cassel, Oldenburg, 
Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Coburg, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and Hesse-Homburg 
all received noticeable additions to their territories. 

But more important than these territorial changes in Germany 
was the political creative work, the formation of the Germanic Confede- 
ration, which was finally sanctioned at Vienna. The way had previously 
been smoothed at Kalisch, Toplitz, Chaumont, and Paris, where Prussia 
had renounced her claims to Hanover, Austria her designs on Bavaria, 
and "compensation" and "full and unconditional independence" had 
been guaranteed to the various Princes. The constitution, which was 
finally presented to Germany, was a confederation formed on the lines 
of the Confederation of the Rhine with the addition and inclusion of 
Austria and Prussia. Under the presidency of Austria, the Diet was 
to be composed of representatives of the following sovereign States : 
the kingdoms of Bavaria, Hanover, Prussia, Saxony, Wurtemberg; 
the grand duchies of Baden, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Luxem- 
burg (the vote being exercised by the King of the Netherlands), Olden- 
burg, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Saxe- Weimar; the 
duchies of Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Kothen, Brunswick, 
Holstein, Lauenburg (the vote being exercised by the King of Denmark), 
Nassau, Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Hildburghausen; the principalities of Hesse- 
Homburg, Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Lichten- 
stein, Lippe-Detmold, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Schaumburg-Lippe, 
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Reuss, the older 
and younger lines, Waldeck; the free cities of Bremen, Frankfort, 
Hamburg, and Liibeck. The enlargement of Prussia and the formation 
of the Germanic Confederation were the essential conditions of the 
subsequent political changes of Germany. 
102 In Italy Napoleon's policy of unification was reversed, and the old 

104 order was restored as far as possible. Sardinia was reinstated in her 
position of 1792 with slight modifications. Some territory in Savoy 
was ceded to Geneva ; while Genoa, now receiving the title of a duchy, 
with the Imperial fiefs of the late Ligurian republic, was incorporated 
in the kingdom of Sardinia. The provinces of Chablais and Faucigny, 
and all Savoy north of the Ugine, were included in the European 
guarantee of "the neutrality of Switzerland." Venetia and Lombardy 
came once more under Austrian government. The duchies of Modena, 
Reggio, and Mirandola were given to Duke Francis IV d'Este; the 
duchy of Massa and certain Imperial fiefs in the Lunigiana were given to 
his mother and incorporated with Modena at her death in 1829. The 



V^A. The Revolution and Napoleon: Europe, 89 

duchies of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla were assigned for her hfe to 
the ex-Empress Marie Louise ; Lucca fell to her namesake the Bourbon 
ex-Queen of Etruria. The Archduke Ferdinand of Austria received 
the grand duchy of Tuscany with the Presidi, Elba, Piombino, and 
certain late Imperial fiefs, although in Elba and Piombino certain 
rights were withheld in favour of Prince Ludovisi Buoncompagni. 
The Papal States were restored to the Holy See, the Marches and 
Camerino, the duchy of Benevento, the principality of Ponte Corvo 
and the legations of Ravenna, Bologna, and Ferrara being again 
expressly included. The republic of San Marino alone remained 
independent within the sphere of the Pope's temporal domains. The 
kingdom of the Two Sicilies reverted without territorial change to 
Ferdinand IV. 

In Switzerland little change was made. Bern finally gave up her 112 
pretensions to sovereignty over Vaud and Aargau, being compensated 
by the inclusion in her territory of the bishopric of Basel and the 
town and territory of Bienne, and several less important territorial 
changes were made among the various cantons. The nineteen cantons 
were by the inclusion of Valais, which had recently been a French 
department, Neufchatel, which still acknowledged the sovereignty of 
the King of Prussia, and Geneva, which was increased by the cession 
of territory in Savoy by the King of Sardinia, united into a loose 
federal union of twenty-two cantons, with the directorate rotating 
in biennial periods between the three most important, Bern, Zurich, 
and Luzern. 

With reference to Spain and Portugal, the Congress had little to 102 
arrange outside of the colonial world. All that Portugal got in return 
for her splendid resistance to the French in the Peninsular War was 
a promise, never realised, that the town of Olivenc^a, which was retained 
in Spanish hands, should ultimately be restored to Portugal. 

More important was the settlem.ent of the Netherlands. Two factors 102^ 
determined the policy of uniting the Belgic Provinces with the United 109 
Provinces of the Netherlands, under the title of the Kingdom of the 
Netherlands. The need of a moderately powerful kingdom to act as 
a buffer between France and Prussia was strongly felt, and some way 
had to be found of compensating the Dutch for the loss of colonies to 
Great Britain. The kingdom thus formed included the duchy of Lim- 
burg and the bishopric of Liege. Prussia was made expressly to renounce 
claims to various enclaves. Luxemburg, though not included in the 
new kingdom, was made into a grand duchy under the sovereignty of 
the King of the Netherlands, and enlarged by the addition of a part 
of the duchy of Bouillon. 

An experiment similar to that made with the kingdom of the 102 
Netherlands was tried in Scandinavia, in the cession of Norway to 
Sweden. Denmark, although led to believe that she would receive 



90 VB. The Revolution and Napoleon : Greater Europe, 

Swedish Pomerania, was forced to look on, while it was handed over 
to Prussia, and to be content with the small part of Lauenburg, which 
had been given up by Hanover. The duchy of Finland, lost by Sweden 
in 1809, remained in Russian hands. 

All that England gained in Europe was Malta, Heligoland, and the 
protectorate of the Ionian Islands, whilst she consented to the cession of 
a portion of Hanover. 

B. GREATER EUROPJE. 

This period of revolution and change in Europe coincides roughly 
•with a period of revolution in her colonies, which led to the foundation 
in America of a group of independent States and of a separate political 
70 system. It is also characterised by the fact that Great Britain, though 
losing a large part of her possessions, nevertheless increased her relative 
superiority as the greatest colonising Power, owing to the maritime 
supremacy which she gained during the Napoleonic Wars, and the colonial 
conquests which this enabled her to make. The colonial revolutions 
began in North America in 1778 with the revolt of the thirteen British 
colonies. By the Peace of Versailles in 1783 Great Britain recognised the 
independence of the thirteen colonies, and thus was formed the first State 
of European origin outside of Europe. At the same time she ceded to 
them the western lands from the Alleghanies to the Mississippi — a sub- 
stantial part of her acquisitions from France in 1763 — which gave them 
the natural field of their expansion. As, by this Peace, she also restored 
Florida to Spain, she retired altogether from the continental theatre of 
the greatest colonising work she has done. In 1789 the revolted British 
colonies joined to form the United States of America, and immediately 
began their great expansion across the American continent. In 1803 
70, 72 they purchased Louisiana from France, to whom it had been restored by 
Spain in 1783, and thus brought their frontiers to the Rocky Mountains. 
Explorers penetrating to the Pacific down the Columbia in 1792 and 
1806 established claims in Oregon which rivalled those of the Hudson 
Bay Company. In 1812, the Americans occupied part of Florida, and 
in 1819 acquired the whole from Spain. Thus rapidly North America 
east of the Rockies passed into their hands. In the north of Louisiana, 
by agreement of 1818 with Great Britain, the parallel of 49° was fixed 
as the frontier, from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains, 
and the joint occupation of Oregon was provisionally agreed upon. As 
settlement proceeded in the west, new States were formed, Kentucky in 
1792, Tennessee in 1796, Ohio in 1802, Louisiana in 1812, Indiana in 
1816, Mississippi in 1817, Illinois in 1818, Alabama in 1819 and Maine 
in 1820. The expanding population of the country enabled the 
Americans to hold securely the vast dominion which had passed so 
easily into their hands. 



VB. The Revolution and Napoleon: Grr eater Europe, 91 

In Spanish America, as the result of a series of revolutions, Mexico, 106 
including Texas, made herself independent in 1821, and Texas freed 
herself from Mexico in 1836. A group of small States was formed in 
Central America — Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, San Salvador, and 
Costa Rica. In South America, Venezuela and New Granada formed 
the republic of Colombia in 1819, to which Quito was added in 1822, 
but which divided in 1830 into the three republics of New Granada, 
Venezuela, and Ecuador. Chile established her independence in 1818, 
the Argentine in 1816, Uruguay in 1828, Paraguay in 1811, Peru in 
1821. In 1825, Upper Peru became a separate republic under the 
name of Bolivia. Brazil proclaimed its independence of Portugal 
in 1822. 

Thus in America Portugal lost all her possessions; Spain, all, lOO, 
except Florida, which she retained till 1819, and her West Indian lOl 
Islands ; France lost Hayti, which established its independence in 
1793, but recovered Louisiana which she held till 1803; Great Britain 
lost all except her West Indian Islands, her part of Honduras, 
Hudson's Bay, Newfoundland, and part of the territory which she 
had conquered from France in 1714-63, viz. Acadia, at this time 
called Nova Scotia, Canada, and the adjacent islands. But, while 
Great Britain lost by these wars of colonial independence, she greatly 
increased her colonial empire during this period at the expense of 
other European Powers and by new colonising efforts. At the settle- 
ment of 1815, she gained, in the West Indies, Trinidad, St Lucia, 
and Tobago, taken from France ; in South America, part of Dutch 
Guiana; in Africa, the Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope; 
in the Indian Ocean, Mauritius, the French naval base in the 
East, with its dependencies Rodrigues and the Seychelles; in India, 
Ceylon and Cochin, with its dependencies on the Malabar coast, taken 
from the Dutch. She had, also, in 1788, annexed New South Wales and 
begun the colonisation of Australia, and in 1815 she occupied Ascension 
Island. These were the lasting changes which followed many transfers 
of possessions during the course of the war. 

In India, the British power was preserved and much increased. 
Warren Hastings not only guarded our position in northern India 
through the disastrous War of 1778-83, but made new if small ac- 
quisitions. By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Great Britain had 
secured herself finally against her European rivals in India, and, by 
a series of wars with the native Powers and extensive additions to 
her territories in northern and southern India, had made herself the 
dominant Power in the whole country. But the course of her expan- 
sion, little connected relatively with the transformation of Europe or 
the revolution in the colonial world, is best related consecutively in 
another connexion. 



92 



SECTION VI. 

SINCE 1816. 

A. EUROPE. 

141 Since the settlement of 1815, the political system of Europe has been 

modified in important ways. In central Europe the national spirit 
brought about the union and consolidation of races politically divided ; 
in north-west and south-east Europe it broke the political ties which 
bound together peoples naturally separate. The unification of Germany 
and Italy may be traced to the same motive force, which upset the unions 
of the Belgic and the United Provinces, of Norway and Sweden, and 
liberated the diverse nations of the Balkan peninsula. The fresh vitality 
of France and the almost unchecked advance of Russia were also inspired 
by the same national self-consciousness. The States of Europe are not 
the same as the nations ; but the tendency to assimilate the two has been 
the strongest influence shaping the political system of Europe in the 
nineteenth century. No State such as was ruled by Charles V in the 
sixteenth century, by Sweden, Spain, and Austria in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, or by Napoleon in the nineteenth, has been formed 
in Europe since 1815. 

107 The greatest of the changes that transformed the political system of 
Europe in the nineteenth century was the formation of the German 
Empire under the leadership of Prussia, which gave, for the first time in 
modern history, a real political unity to the majority of the German 
people. This was brought about, on the one hand, by the steady increase 
of Prussian power and influence in the Germanic Confederation, and, on 
the other, by the growing desire for closer union that animated the 
nation ; and it involved the important consequence that Austria was 
excluded from that German world in which for centuries she had played 
the most prominent part. For fifty-one years the Germanic Confedera- 
tion continued to exist. Within its bounds, however, the process of 
unification made itself evident on the map as well as in the minds of 
the people. A few insignificant States disappeared, and their disappear- 
ance showed a changing attitude towards the political independence 
of the various individual States. In 1826 Saxe-Gotha was incorporated 



VIA, Europe since 1815. 93 

with Saxe-Coburg, and Saxe-Hildburghausen with Saxe-Meiningen. In 
1853, the duchy of Anhalt-Kothen was united with that of Anhalt- 
Dessau ; and, on the extinction of the line of Anhalt-Bemburg in 1863, 
the third branch was absorbed into what became the single duchy of 
Anhalt. In 1866, on the extinction of the male line of the reigning 
house of Hesse-Homburg, the landgravate was annexed to Hesse- 
Darmstadt. But this arrangement was not to last for long; for in 
the same year Hesse-Homburg was claimed and acquired by Prussia. 
Prussia also absorbed Lichtenberg in 1834, and HohenzoUern-Hechingen 
and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, the cradle of the ruling dynasty, in 
1849. In 1837, on the death of William IV, the old dynastic connexion 
of Hanover with Great Britain was broken, and a foreign influence in 
Germany, which was no longer of importance in fact, ceased to exist 
even in name. 

The political union of Germany under Prussia was foreshadowed by 
an economic union brought about under the same leadership. The 
origin of the Zollverein may be seen in the convention between Prussia 
and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen signed in 1819. Rival customs' unions 
were formed by Wiirtemberg in conjunction with Bavaria, and by 
Saxony ; but they failed to survive, and were in the end absorbed. In 
1828 Hesse-Darmstadt and Anhalt joined the Prussian Union, and in 
1831 Hesse-Cassel. At the beginning of 1834 Bavaria joined, and the 
union henceforth became German rather than Prussian in conception. 
Later, in 1834, Saxony and the Thuringian States came in; Baden, 
Nassau and the city of Frankfort followed in the next year, Waldeck 
in 1838, and Luxemburg in 1842. In 1851, the Northern League, 
which included Hanover, Brunswick, Oldenburg, the two Lippes, the two 
Mecklenburgs, and the three Hanse towns, collapsed. Only the Austrian 
dominions were now excluded ; apart from these the Zollverein created 
by Prussia embraced the whole of Germany. The small territorial 
acquisitions of Prussia, and the formation of the Customs' Union on 
her initiative, were among the facts which stamped Prussia as the future 
leader of Germany. Three distinct Wars mark the stages in which she 
carried out the task of uniting Germany in an empire in which she was 
to possess the dominant power. The first of these Wars arose about 
SctJeswig-Holstein. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, both Schleswig and 107 
Holstein were still united to the Danish Crown, although they retained 116 
their position as independent duchies. The two duchies were closely 
connected with each other ; but Holstein alone was included in 1815 in 
the Germanic Confederation. In 1848, the duchies renounced the 
sovereignty of the King of Denmark, and established a provisional 
government. But, in 1852, by the Treaty of London, the sovereignty of 
the King of Denmark was reasserted by the Powers. On the plea of 
a breach of this treaty, Austria and Prussia intervened in 1864, and, 



94 VI A, Europe since 1815. 

by the Treaty of Vienna of October, 1864, the King of Denmark 
renounced his rights over the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and 
Lauenburg in favour of Prussia and Austria. This rather vague 
arrangement was supplemented in 1865 by the Convention of Gastein, 
by the terms of which Prussia was given the administration of Schleswig, 
and Austria the administration of Holstein ; Lauenburg was secured 
by Prussia in return for a money payment to Austria, but was not 
incorporated in Prussia for eleven years. This agreement brought 
Austria and Prussia into direct contact with each other in the two 
duchies ; and in 1866 the two claimants for the leadership of Germany 
since the time of Frederick the Great terminated their rivalry in a war 
in which Austria was defeated. By the Peace of Prague, which was 
concluded in August, 1866, the political conditions of Germany were 
transformed, and Prussia gained a great increase of power. Saxony, 
though nominally independent, became little more than a vassal State. 
Hanover (with East Friesland), the electorate of Hesse, Nassau, part of 
the grand duchy of Hesse, Hesse-Homburg, and Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
were annexed. Austria resigned all rights over the duchies of Schleswig 
and Holstein, which were thus permanently acquired by Prussia, and 
promised to cede Venetia to Sardinia; the Germanic Confederation 
was dissolved, and Austria excluded from the new North German Con- 
federation which was set up in its stead ; Austria concurred in the 
formation of a South German league, bounded on the north by the river 
Main. On June 19, 1867, the constitution of the North German 
Confederation was adopted by the Diet. The Confederation consisted 
of twenty-two members — Prussia (which included Lauenburg as well as 
her other new acquisitions), with the presidency and seventeen votes ; 
Saxony with four ; Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Brunswick with two each ; 
and the other States — Hesse (confined to those parts which were situated 
north of the Main), Saxe- Weimar, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg, 
Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Anhalt, Schwarz- 
burg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Waldeck, Reuss (elder 
line), Reuss (younger line), Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe-Detmold, Ltibeck, 
Bremen, and Hamburg with one vote each. The customs' union included 
the same territories, with the exception of the three Hanse towns, 
which were left free ports. The South German Confederation was never 
actually formed. In 1867-8 Baden, Bavaria, and Wiirtemberg entered 
into a military and economic union with the North German Con- 
federation ; and under the influence of the national feeling aroused by 
the War of 1870, these three States and the part of Hesse south of 
the Main applied separately for union with the North German Con- 
federation, which they entered in 1870. The creation of a German 
Empire having been previously ratified by the North German Con- 
federation and the Diets of the southern States, the King of Prussia 
was on January 18, 1871, hailed at Versailles as Emperor of a united 



VI A, Europe since 1815. 96 

Germany. The territories of the Empire were declared to be the same 
as those of the North German Confederation, with the addition of the 
rest of Hesse, Bavaria, Baden, and Wiirtemberg. Bavaria was given 
six votes, Wiirtemberg four, Baden three, and Hesse two. Thus was 
the union of Germany accomplished, and the part played by Prussia 
was recognised in Article XI of the constitution, which declared that 
" The Presidency of the Confederation belongs to the King of Prussia, 
who bears the name of German Emperor."" By the Treaty of Frankfort, 118 
May 10, 1871, France ceded Alsace and Lorraine to the German empire. 
It was no longer to Prussia, as was the case with Schleswig and Holstein, 
that cessions were made. The new German territory included the 
important towns of Metz and Strassburg; but an exception was made 
of Belfort and the surrounding district, which was retained by France. 
Alsace-Lorraine, though sharing the Federal Constitution of Germany, 
was given no vote in the Bundesrath, but administered by a vicegerent 
appointed by and responsible to the imperial Government. 

Since 1871 the German empire has been steadily consolidating itself. 
In 1884, the line of Brunswick became extinct, and the duchy, still 
remaining a separate federal State, was given to a Hohenzollern prince. 
In 1890, the island of Heligoland was ceded by Great Britain and 
incorporated in the Prussian administrative division of Schleswig- 
Holstein. The political and fiscal frontiers of Germany do not exactly 
coincide. By 1888, the Hanse towns had all entered the fiscal union, so 
that no part of the Empire is excluded ; but the Zollverein also includes 
Luxemburg and two Austrian communes which are not within the 
political frontier. 

In Italy, the settlement of 1815 was even less enduring than in 104 
Germany. Italy was destined to undergo the greatest change which 
she has known in modern times, for she was to gain independence of 
foreign rule as well as unity. Some minor changes preceded this 
revolution in her political conditions. Massa- Carrara reverted in 1829 
to Modena, in accordance with the arrangements made in the Treaty of 
Vienna ; and, in 1847, on the death of Marie Louise, Lucca, with the 
exception of Lunigiana and Pontremoli, was restored to Tuscany, while 
Parma reverted to Louis de Bourbon. 

The kingdom of Sardinia played the same part in the union of Italy 
which Prussia played in the formation of the German empire. But, 
owing to foreign dominion in Italy, the union of Italy was not achieved 
with the rapidity which characterised the union of Germany. In 1859 
Sardinia drove the Austrians from Lombardy, and the cession of this 
province was secured. In accordance with the Convention of Plombieres, 
by which Sardinia in the event of becoming sovereign over a people 
numbering eleven millions undertook to cede Savoy to France, Cavour 
gave up to France the province which had been the cradle of the 
reigning dynasty. Napoleon HI, uneasy at the growth of so formidable 



96 VI A, Europe since 1815. 

a Power across the Alps, claimed also Nice, and, in March, 1860, the 
double cession was made. In the same year, Tuscany, Parma, Modena, 
the Papal States with the exception of the Patrimony of St Peter, 
Naples, and Sicily, were annexed to Sardinia. The surrenders west of 
the Alps brought the House of Savoy completely into Italy ; while the 
new annexations offered the most striking illustration of that tendency 
of Savoy to move eastwards which had been manifested by all her 
previous history, and assured the union of Italy under her leadership. 
In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II assumed for himself and his successors 
the title of King of Italy, and the capital was fixed at Turin, till its 
removal to Florence in 1865. By the Treaties of Prague and Vienna, 
1866, which concluded the A us tro -Prussian War, Venetia was united 
to the kingdom of Italy. Thus, in 1866 only the Patrimony of St Peter, 
with Rome, was needed in order to make the union of Italy com- 
plete. In September, 1870, Rome fell into the hands of the Italian 
patriots, and the temporal authority of the Pope, which had lasted for 
eleven centuries, and had offered the strongest obstacle to the formation 
of a united Italian State, came to an end. In July, 1871, Rome became 
the seat of government of the new kingdom of Italy. Thus, in 1871, 
united Italy took her place among the Great Powers. She has made 
no further territorial gains or losses in Europe. 
103 Certain modifications in the frontiers of France, resulting for the 

most part from these changes in Germany and Italy, may here be 
enumerated. In 1860 Savoy and Nice were incorporated. In 1861 the 
principality of Monaco surrendered the greater part of its territory, 
including Mentone and Roccabruna, and was thus cut down to the 
narrowest limits. In 1871, the loss of Alsace and Lorraine deprived 
France of her cherished contact with the Rhine, and with those South 
German States over which she had so long exercised a strong political 
influence. Thus, while France has advanced to the Alps in the south- 
east, she has receded from the Rhine in the middle east. 
105, ^^ the Balkan peninsula, during the nineteenth century, a process of 

119, disruption has brought into being a group of independent States, while 
120 the territories of the Ottoman empire have been still further diminished 
by the annexations of Russia, Austria, and Great Britain. Greece, 
Servia, Wallachia and Moldavia (under the name of Roumania), 
Montenegro and Bulgaria, have made themselves independent ; Russia 
has advanced almost to the Danube ; Austria has encroached on the 
north-west ; and Great Britain has preyed on outlying possessions which 
were material to her maritime power. 

The kingdom of Greece was the first of the new States to be formed. 
In 1827, the Treaty of London established the autonomy of Greece, and, 
in 1829, at the Treaty of Adrianople the Sultan recognised her indepen- 
dence. In 1830, the frontier of Greece was fixed from the river Aspro 
to the Gulf of Volo, and, in 1832, it was extended on the west coast up to 



VI A, Eui^ope since 1815. 97 

the Gulf of Arta. In addition to the mainland territory she received 
the islands adjoining the Morea, Euboea and the Cyclades. The Crown 
was bestowed on Otho, son of the Duke of Bavaria, who assumed his 
office in 1833. Since achieving her independence, Greece has made some 120 
territorial acquisitions. In 1864 Great Britain handed over to her the 
Ionian Isles, over which she had maintained a protectorate since 1815, 
though giving up, in 1819, Parga, the one continental possession of 
these islands. In 1881 Greece acquired Thessaly and a portion of 
Epirus from the Ottoman empire. In 1897, however, she restored 
certain strategic positions in the former province. Along the Danube 
three independent kingdoms have been established by the once subject 
nations. Servia received administrative autonomy in 1817, and, in 1826, 105 
was granted complete tributary independence. By the Treaty of Berlin 119 
she threw off finally Ottoman control, and gained also an extension of 
territory which is described in another connexion. In 1881, she became 
the kingdom of Servia, and in 1882 acquired Pirot and certain other 
places from Bulgaria. Bulgaria was created an autonomous but 119 
tributary principality in 1878, and, after the successful revolution at 
Philippopolis in 1885, was much enlarged by the addition of Eastern 120 
Roumelia, which had enjoyed administrative autonomy since 1878, as 
South Bulgaria. Roumania was formed by the union of the provinces 105 
of Moldavia and Wallachia, which were made tributary States in 1858, 
and, choosing the same ruler, were united in 1861. Her complete inde- 119 
pendence was recognised in 1878, and in 1881 she became the kingdom 
of Roumania. The indomitable Montenegrins, who had long claimed 
freedom in the security of their mountains, also obtained the definite 
recognition of their independence in 1878. Montenegro became a 
kingdom in 1910. 

The Treaty of Berlin of July, 1878, which modified the preliminary 119 
Treaty of San Stefano, had so much importance in determining the 
extent as well as political position of these new States, and forms so 
prominent a landmark in the history of the Ottoman empire, that its 
territorial rearrangements demand a separate and connected considera- 
tion. By the Treaty of San Stefano, Bulgaria had been formed into an 
enormous tributary principality. It embraced Eastern Roumelia, a large 
block of territory east of Adiianople, and a great part of Macedonia 
itself, with the coast opposite the island of Thasos — thus stretching from 
the Black Sea to the Aegean — an arrangement which left to Turkey little 
more than Albania and Constantinople. At Berlin the drastic treatment 
of the Ottoman empire was modified. The "big Bulgaria" was not 
formed and the territory added to Bulgaria was restored to the Porte, 
though Eastern Roumelia was given administrative autonomy. Roumania 
gained little. She was compelled to restore to Russia a strip of Bess- 
arabia which Russia had surrendered to Moldavia in 1856, but she 
received, by way of compensation, the Dobrudja with a frontier rectified 

C. M. H. VOL. XIV. 7 



98 



VI A, Europe since 1815. 



to the south. Servia, by the terms of San Stefano, had been increased 
to the south-west. At Berlin, this addition was taken away and replaced 
by a somewhat larger piece of territory to the south-east, which had, at 
San Stefano, been given to Bulgaria. As for Montenegro, the terms of 
San Stefano had extended her frontier enormously and given her a sea- 
board parallel and equal in length to Lake Skutari. At Berlin, this 
sea-board and the other territorial additions were nearly halved. In 
1880, however, Montenegro succeeded in extending her diminished 
sea-board by the acquisition of Dulcigno in exchange for the Albanian 
towns of Gusinje and Plava. 

The greater part of the losses of the Ottoman empire have thus 
been due to the internal revolutions and other causes which have led to 
the creation of new States. But some important cessions have also been 
made to the Great Powers in continuation of the process by which, 
since the decline of the Ottoman empire began, they have resumed its 

108 conquests. By the Treaty of Bucharest, in 1812, Russia obtained 
Bessarabia and advanced her frontier to the Pruth and the Lower 
Danube. By the Treaty of Adrianople, in 1829, she added some islands 
at the mouth of the Danube — her furthest advance in this direction — 
and received also a strip of territory in Asia Minor, including the 
important city of Achaltsik. By this addition, Russia still further 
consolidated her power in the Caucasus, already increased by the cession 
of a part of Armenia by Persia at the Treaty of Turkmanchay in 1828. 

115 At the conclusion of the Crimean War, in 1856, Russia, by the Peace 
of Paris, restored to Turkey the Danube delta obtained in 1829, and to 
Moldavia a narrow strip of Bessarabia, thus losing her position on the 

119 Danube. At the Treaty of Berlin, Russia recovered this strip of 

110 Bessarabia and received Kars and Batoum in the Caucasus. Austria 

111 made no acquisitions from Turkey until 1878, when she took over the 
administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina. These two provinces 
became thereby virtually parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire, though 
formal sovereignty was not assumed till 1908. Great Britain restored 
Egypt to Ottoman rule in 1815 ; but she retained the Ionian Islands, as 
mentioned above, until 1864, when she presented them to Greece. By 

110 the Convention of Cyprus in 1878 she took over the administration of 
Cyprus, and in 1882 she intervened in the affairs of Egypt and has 
since remained in occupation of that country. Nor is this the sum of 
Turkish losses, for, in 1898, the other great Levantine island, Crete, 
received autonomy. Yet, in spite of all its losses by conquest, revolu- 
tion and occupation, and in spite of the creation of a group of 
kingdoms, representing the once subject nations, the Ottoman race 
still preserve the seat of their empire in Europe, and govern a large 
Christian population in their diminished territories. 

109 The union of the Belgic and United Provinces of the Netherlands, 
made in 1815, lasted till 3830, when the Belgic revolution resulted in 



VIA. Europe since 1815. 99 

the creation of a kingdom of Belgium separate from Holland. Between 
the two States Luxemburg became a cause of dispute. By the Congress 
of Vienna, Luxemburg had been left in a curious position. It was a 
member of the Germanic Confederation ; but the sovereignty and civil 107 
government were vested in the King of the Netherlands, who exercised 
its vote. The fortress was declared a federal fortress, the appointment 
of the governor being given to Prussia, which provided the larger part 
of the garrison. The first arrangement made on the disruption of the 
union of the Belgic and United Provinces of the Netherlands was that 
of January, 1831, by which the whole of the duchy of Luxemburg was 
given to the new kingdom of the Netherlands. The eighteen articles of 
June virtually reversed this decision. The maintenance of the status 
quo, which these demanded, meant the retention by the Belgians of all 
Luxemburg except the fortress, and all Limburg except Maestricht. It 
was finally decided, by the Treaty of November, that limburg and the 
east part of Luxemburg should be restored to the diminished kingdom 
of the Netherlands, while the west part of Luxemburg should remain 
under Belgian rule — an arrangement to which the Dutch King refused 
his assent till 1839. Only that part of Luxemburg retained by the 
Netherlands which included the fortress remained within the Germanic 
Confederation. On the formation of the North German Confederation, 
Luxemburg was not included in it, on the ground that it was attached 
to a foreign Power. But Prussia still maintained her right to garrison 
its fortress. In May, 1867, an agreement was arrived at, by which 
Luxemburg was declared an independent State under King William III, 
but politically separate from Holland, and guaranteed as neutral by the 
Powers ; Prussia was to withdraw her garrison and the King of the 
Netherlands to destroy the fortifications. In 1866, on the dissolution 
of the Germanic Confederation, Limburg was incorporated with the 
Netherlands. Luxemburg retained the position assigned to it in 1867 
till 1890, when, by the death of William III, its dynastic tie with the 
Netherlands was broken. By the Salic Law, Queen Wilhelmina was 
incapable of succession, and it passed to the next male heir. 

Another union made by the Congress of Vienna — that of Norway 141 
and Sweden — lasted for ninety years. In June, 1905, the two kingdoms 
separated by mutual consent. 

The expansion of Russia in the nineteenth century was almost un- 108 
checked, and her frontiers advanced in every direction. In the north- 
west, by the acquisition of Finland and the Aland Islands at the Peace 
of Frederikshamm in 1809, she completed her hold of the eastern Baltic, 
and her frontiers here have since remained unaltered. Finland still 
remains an autonomous State, though its constitutional position is a 
matter of dispute. By the settlement of 1815, the grand duchy of 
Warsaw, diminished by Posnania, Danzig, East Galicia, and Cracow, 
was renamed the kingdom of Poland, and handed over to Alexander's 

7-2 



100 VI A, Europe since 1815. 

protection. After the unsuccessful rebellion of 1831-2, the position of 
Poland was changed, and she has now become the "Russian provinces of 
the Vistula." The frontier is purely conventional and independent of 
geographical considerations ; but it has remained unaltered up to the 
present day. 

Unlike the northern and western frontiers, the south-western has seen 
continuous change, though little expansion. Religious and national 
feeling — the Panslavist sentiment — have combined with the political 
and economic aim of reaching the Mediterranean to make this a region 
of conflict. In this direction, also, Russia has advanced to the sea — the 
goal of nearly all her expansion. The Treaty of Bucharest (1812) 
brought this expansion to the Pruth and the Lower Danube; the Con- 
vention of Akkerman (1826) confirmed this; the Treaty of Adrianople 

115 (1829) included in it the islands of the Danube delta. This last 
acquisition was lost at the Treaty of Paris (1856), together with a narrow 

119 strip of Bessarabia on the left bank of the Danube. At the Congress of 
Berlin (1878), the strip of Bessarabia was recovered and the frontier 
advanced to the position of 1812. The south-eastern frontier has been 
no less changing, and Persia, the Ottoman empire, and the Cossacks 
have all lost territory to Russia. Conquests in the neighbourhood of 
Daghestan, carried Russian dominion along the Caspian. The Treaty 
of Turkmanchay (1828) deprived Persia of the khanates of Erivan and 
Nakhitchevan, and gave to Russia the sole right of navigation on the 
Caspian Sea. In the following year, the Treaty of Adrianople, between 
Russia and the Turks, confirmed the Russian possession of Anapa, 
Poti, and part of the pashalik of Akhaltsikh. In 1834, trifling re- 
adjustments were made in the Kars-Akhiskha district. In spite of the 
capture of their great fortress, in 1845, the Caucasian Cossacks kept 
up a stubborn resistance to Russian aggression. But, in 1859, the 
southern highlands in the district of Daghestan were occupied by Russia, 
and, after five years' further fighting, the Circassian or Kuban district 

110 was conquered. The Congress of Berlin, in 1878, rectified the southern 
boundary of the Caucasian region. Turkey finally ceded Kars to Russia, 
together with Ardahan and Batoum, which was to remain a free port. 
The preliminary Treaty of San Stefano had also arranged that the 
fortress of Bayazid and a valuable strip of territory on the trade route 
to Trebizond should be ceded to Russia. But the Congress of Berlin 
refused to ratify this. Since 1878, the south-eastern frontier of Russia 
has remained unchanged. Russia has, in a sense, drawn the region of 
the Caucasus into Europe, but has not used it as a base of expansion 
into Asia Minor or Asia. Her conquests east of the Caspian will be 
mentioned in another connexion. 




VI B, CrT eater Europe since 1815. 101 



B. GREATER EUROPE. 

In studying the political changes which have occurred outside of 140 
Europe in the course of the nineteenth century we have to trace, first, 
the expansion of the United States and the political formation of Latin 
America; next, the uninterrupted growth of the British empire in all 
continents — in particular, the formation of the British empire in India, 
and, parallel with it, the expansion of Russia in northern and central 
Asia; thirdly, the general extension of colonial activity which has 
brought many new Powers into the colonial world and led to the 
partition of Africa and the Pacific Islands and the penetration of 
the East by European influence. 

Since 1820, the United States have expanded north and south to the 72 
Pacific Coast, and have added a small colonial dominion. First came 
the definition of their northern frontier with British North America. 127 
In 1842, by the Webster- Ashburton Treaty, the boundary between 
New Brunswick and Maine, which had been in doubt since the Peace of 
Versailles, was at last arranged. The United States gained most of the 
land in dispute, and were left with a frontier which projected so far into 
New Brunswick as to impede the direct connexion between the Canadas 
and the maritime Provinces. In 1846, Oregon was divided between 
the two countries along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the 
Pacific, Vancouver Isle being left to the English. This partition, 
however, still left uncertain the ownership of the islands in the strait 
that divides Vancouver from the mainland of the United States. In 
1872, by arbitration, the Juan de Fuca channel was fixed as the boundary 
between Canada and the United States. The south-western expansion 71 
of the United States was continued in 1845, when Texas, a Mexican 
State, which had established its independence of Mexico in 1837, was 
admitted into the Union. A war with Mexico resulted, at the conclusion 
of which, by the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo, 1848, Mexico recognised 
the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas, and ceded New Mexico and 
Upper California to the United States, which thus came into possession 
of an enormous area of country, including the present States of California, 
New Mexico, New Arizona, Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. 
The process of expansion in the south-west was completed by the purchase 
of a tract of some 45,000 square miles south of the river Gila, which 
gave to the United States an improved frontier in this quarter. This 
completed the continuous expansion of American territory. In addition 
the United States in 1867 purchased Alaska from Russia, whence arose 
another boundary dispute with Great Britain. . The boundary between 127 
Alaska and Canada was fixed by an Anglo-Russian treaty in 1825. But 
it was doubtful whether that treaty intended the boundary to follow 



102 VI B. Greater Europe since 1815. 

the general contour of the coast or pass round the heads of the inlets. 
By arbitration, in 1903, the latter alternative was decided upon, and 
the United States thus gained control of the main sea approach to the 
140 Klondyke gold-fields. Outside of America, the United States added 
a colonial dominion in Hawaii and Guam, in 1898, the Philippines and 
75 Porto Rico, taken from Spain, at the Peace of Paris, in the same year, 
and the Samoan island of Tutuila and its dependencies, in 1900. 

With the progress of settlement new States were formed : Missouri 
in 1821, Arkansas in 1836, Michigan in 1837, Texas and Florida in 
1845, Iowa in 1846, Wisconsin in 1848, California in 1850, Minnesota 
in 1858, Oregon in 1859, Kansas in 1861, Nevada in 1864, Nebraska in 
1867, Colorado in 1876, Washington, Montana, North Dakota and 
South Dakota in 1889, Idaho and Wyoming in 1890, Utah in 1896, 
and Oklahoma in 1907, Arizona and New Mexico still remaining 
73 Territories. In the course of its expansion the existence of the United 
States was thrown into jeopardy by the division of the country on the 
question of slavery. In 1861 the southern States seceded and formed 
a new Confederation, which included Virginia, the two Carolinas, Ten- 
nessee, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas. 
After a struggle of four years, 1861-5, the new Confederation succumbed 
to the northern States and its members were one by one readmitted to 
the Union. During the struggle, a part of Virginia, which adhered to 
the North, was separated from the remainder and formed into the State 
of West Virginia (1863). 
134^ Latin America has been gradually taking shape during the course of 

135 the nineteenth century. Mexico has lost territory to the United States : 
71 first, by the secession of Texas in 1836, which entered the Union in 1845 ; 
secondly, by the cession in 1848 of California and New Mexico and the 
sale of a piece of territory south of the river Gila in 1853. In Central 
America, half-hearted attempts at federation failed, and six separate 
States were formed, viz. Honduras, Nicaragua, San Salvador, Costa Rica, 
Guatemala and Panama. Panama was at first a member of the United 
States of Colombia. In 1855 and 1862 it obtained a large degree of 
autonomy, but remained in the federation until 1903, when it definitely 
seceded. In that year, also, it granted to the United States a belt of 
land for the construction of the Panama Canal. Colombia itself divided 
into three republics, in 1830 — New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador ; 
in 1863 New Granada took the name of United States of Colombia. 
Peru was divided, in 1825, by the formation of Upper Peru into the 
Republic of Bolivia. Bolivia had, until 1883, a frontier on the Pacific, 
but, by the Peace of Ancon in that year, it lost to Chile the province of 
Tarapaca and parts of two other provinces. Chile grew by this addition 
from Bolivia and after disputes with the Argentine. The dispute between 
Chile and the Argentine was settled in 1881, when both shores of the 
Straits of Magellan were given to Chile, and the boundary between the 



VI B. Greater Europe since 1815. 103 

two States was fixed northwards from lat. 52 " along the highest crest 
of the Cordillera which divide the waters." Both Venezuela and Brazil 
have had disputes with British Guiana, which have been settled by 
arbitration. The South American States have not yet attained a fixed 
form, for a part of Ecuador still remains in dispute. 

In the West Indies the principal change has been the disappearance 
of the power of Spain. In 1898 Spain lost Cuba, whose independence 
she recognised, and surrendered Porto Rico to the United States. Her 
part of Santo Domingo established its independence in 1820, merged 
itself in Hayti in 1822, freed itself in 1844, passed back to her in 1861, 
and became once more independent in 1865. 

The expansion of the British Empire has proceeded with great 
rapidity since 1815. In North America, the limits of her possessions 126 
have been fixed by the series of agreements with the United States 
already referred to. Out of the group of colonies which she possessed 101 
on the continent the Dominion of Canada has been formed, by a 
steady process of union. In 1840, Upper and Lower Canada were 12T 
united ; in 1858, British Columbia was constituted ; in 1867 the two 
Canadas, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick entered into a confederation, 
which Prince Edward's Island joined in 1870, and British Columbia in 
1871, and which purchased the territories of the Hudson Bay Company 
in 1869, thus gaining a transcontinental extent. In this north-western 
territory of Canada have been formed the new provinces of Manitoba, 
in 1870, and Saskatchewan and Alberta, in 1904. Newfoundland remains 
outside of the Dominion. In the West Indies, dominion has been 
neither lost nor gained. In South America, a long dispute between 
British Guiana and Venezuela was settled by arbitration in 1899, and 
a dispute between that colony and Brazil in 1904. In Australasia, 128 
the first settlement was made at Sydney in 1788, and the colony of 
New South Wales was formed. Tasmania was proclaimed in 1825, 
Western Australia in 1829, South Australia in 1836, New Zealand in 129 
1841, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The six Australian 
colonies united to form the Commonwealth of Australia in 1900. New 
Zealand remains a separate Dominion. 

In South Africa, advancing from the Dutch colony of the Cape of 133 
Good Hope acquired in 1806, and ceded by the Dutch in 1814, Great 
Britain has gained a large dominion reaching into Central Africa, and 
including the new colonies and dominions of Natal, the Transvaal, the 
Orange Free State, Rhodesia, and British Central Africa. The Transvaal 
and the Orange Free State were formed by the trekking of the Dutch 
from the Cape, after 1836. The independence of the Transvaal was 
recognised by the Sand River Convention, in 1852, and that of the 
Orange Free State by the Convention of Bloemfontein, in 1854. The 
Transvaal was annexed in 1877, to be granted independence again in 1881, 
and both States were finally annexed in 1900. Meantime, the Cape of 



104 VI B, Greater Europe since 1815. 

Good Hope was steadily enlarged from the Fish River to the Keiskama 
in 1819, and to the Kei and in the north-east by the inclusion of 
Queen Adelaide Province, temporarily in 1831-6, and finally in 1846 — 
though the territory between the Keiskama and the Kei, called 
British KafFraria, was not annexed to the Cape Colony until 1865 — 
by Basutoland from 1871 to 1884 ; by further additions from KafFraria 
in 1876-9 ; by Griqualand West with Kimberley in 1880 ; by Walfisch 
Bay, annexed by the British 1878, in 1884 ; by the remainder of British 
KafFraria to the frontiers of Natal in 1884-7 ; and by the southern part 
of Bechuanaland, annexed by the British in 1885, in 1895. Natal was 
formed in 1844, and attached to the Cape till 1856. To it Zululand, 
which had been brought under British protection in 1879, and declared 
British territory in 1887, was added in 1897, St Lucia Bay having been 
annexed in 1884. Rhodesia, a great territory north of the Transvaal, 
was acquired by Cecil Rhodes, and transferred to the British South Africa 
Company 1888-90. Its frontier on the south was fixed at the Limpopo, 
by agreement with the Transvaal in 1890, and on the north-east, by 
agreement with Portugal in 1891, was made to include Mashonaland. 
In 1910, the four South African colonies — the Cape of Good Hope, 
Natal, the Orange Free State, and the Transvaal — formed a single State 
as the Union of South Africa. 
122 Perhaps the greatest of the imperial efforts of Great Britain has been 
the formation of her Indian empire. From the beginnings made in the 
eighteenth century, she has advanced with little interruption, until today 
the whole of India and Burma is either under her direct administra- 
tion, or, where native States remain, under her control ; and its frontiers 
are flanked by buffer States whose political relations she supervises. 
64 The acquisitions made by Clive laid the foundations of her power 
in northern India. Warren Hastings obtained Benares from Oudh 
in 1775, Nagore from Tanjore, and Guntur from the Nizam in 1778, 
and, by the Treaty of Salbai, the islands of Salsette and Elephanta, 
99 in 1782. In 1792, Cornwallis took from the Sultan of Mysore one-half 
of his dominions, of which the British retained the Malabar coast, 
with Calicut. In 1799, Mysore was once more partitioned. The central 
portion of the State was handed over to a native Hindu ruler. Parts were 
given to the Nizam and the Mahrathas. The coast up to the Portuguese 
possession of Goa, including Mangalore, was annexed by Great Britain. 
In 1800, the principality of Tanjore, and in 1801 the Carnatic, were 
placed under direct British administration, and thus the Madras Presi- 
dency was formed almost as it has remained until the present time. In 
1801, Oudh surrendered Rohilkhand and the districts of Allahabad 
and Korah. The conquest of Mysore, in 1799, secured to the British an 
uninterrupted dominion from east to west of the peninsula as well as the 
control of the sea-coast in southern India. It left no serious opponent of 
British power in India, save only the Mahratha confederacy, whose chiefs 



VI B, Greater Europe since 1815. 105 

ruled at Poona, Nagpur, Gwalior, Indore, and Baroda, and whose united 
dominions stretched from Mysore to the Jumna, and from Kathiawar 
to the Gulf of Kutch. Occupying the centre of India, they contended 
for dominion in north and south — in Hindustan and the Deccan. The 
British acquisitions from the Mahrathas began in 1802, when the Peshwa 
of Poona, by the Treaty of Bassein, came under British protection and 
ceded some districts in Bundelkhand. After a struggle with the other 
Mahratha princes, Sindhia ceded all his territories north of the Jumna, 
the Rajah of Nagpur Kuttack and his other lands in Orissa, as well 
as Berar to the Nizam, the Gaekwar Ahmadabad and his part of Gujerat. 
By these additions the British made themselves the strongest Power 
amongst the States and races of India — the only Power capable of giving 
to it unity and to its peoples protection. Mysore had been destroyed, 
the Mahratha confederacy broken, the Ganges valley brought under 
British control. Oudh was encircled by British territory, and the British 
frontier marched with that of Sindhia in Upper India. The British 
possessions in Madras were linked up with their possessions in Bengal, 
British territory stretched north-west from Bengal to the mountains, with 
a frontier resting on the Jumna, and almost the whole of the Indian 
littoral was under British control. The great Mohammadan States, 
Haidarabad, Oudh, and Mysore, were dependent. But, while the British 122 
had been made supreme in India, they had found no tenable frontier — 
no satisfactory limit to their expansion. Moreover, their position was 
Aveak. TheBombay Presidency was cut off from the others. The frontiers 
of their possessions were extensive, and communication was difficult 
between the various parts. The attempt to limit conquest, to establish 
a balance of power, and to separate British India from native India, 
failed. In central India no stable political situation had been established. 
On the northern frontiers of British territory the Nepalese encroached. 
To secure this northern frontier and to resettle central India was the 
work of Hastings. By the Treaty of Segauli, in 1815, the British 
annexed the north-west corner of Nepal, and brought Sikkim under 
their protection, thus advancing on the south-east and south-west into 
the outer ranges of the Himalayas, the hill country that overhangs 
Rohilkhand and the North-West Provinces. Simla was among their 
acquisitions on this occasion. In 1817-8, wars with the Pindaris and 
the Mahrathas enabled the British to make a settlement of central and 
south-western India. In 1818, the dominions of the Peshwa were 
annexed to the Bombay Presidency. Ajmir, Asigarh, and a part of 
Gujerat were taken from Sindhia ; Holkar surrendered territory round 
the river Tapti, and the Rajah of Nagpur nearly all his territories north 
of the Mahanadi and the Nerbudda. This great settlement, which 
crushed the Mahratha Power, the only possible rival of the British in 
India, marks a very definite point in the formation of the British 
dominion. Since, in 1815, Ceylon had been definitely ceded by the 



106 VI B. Greater Europe since 1815. 

Dutch, and Mauritius by the French, European rivalry was no longer a 
danger. The whole sea line of India was in British hands. The contest 
with the native States was ended — all the minor principalities of 
Rajputana and of the Mahrathas recognised the British suzerainty. 
The Deccan was under British control, as well as Hindustan from the 
frontiers of the Punjab east to the frontiers of Burma. The British 
empire was firmly established ; but it was to be further consolidated by 
Dalhousie, 1848-56, and its expansion east and west was to continue. 

Between 1818 and 1848 a number of acquisitions were made: in 
1820, the coast between Kolaba and Goa; in 1822, Bijapur (near 
Sholopur) and Ahmadnagar from the Nizam ; in 1830, Mysore (until 
1881, when it was restored to native government); in 1834, Coorg; 
in 1841, Kurnool; in the same year, the Assam Duars, lying on the 
east of the Bhutan Duars, and comprising about one-third of them; 
and, in 1843, Kolaba. After the first Sikh War, in 1845, the Jalandhar 
Doab between the Sutlej and Ravi was annexed, the Punjab brought 
under British protection, and Kashmir made an autonomous State 
in alliance with Great Britain. But it was the work of Dalhousie 
to create substantially the India of today. By annexing the Punjab, 
in 1849, he brought British India into touch with Afghanistan, and so 
indirectly into touch with Russia; while, on the east, by occupying 
Sikkim in 1850, he brought it into touch with Tibet and China. He 
added the lower districts of the Irrawaddy in 1852, which was to lead 
on to the conquest of Upper Burma. Within the interior of India, he 
annexed Satara near Bombay in 1848, Jhansi, a Mahratha State, in 
northern India, in 1853, and the great central tract of India known as 
Nagpur, in 1854, whose territories constitute nearly four-fifths of the 
present Central Provinces. In 1853, Berai', or the Assigned Districts, 
was handed over by the Nizam. The last and greatest of his acqui- 
sitions was Oudh, annexed in 1856. The work of Dalhousie thus gave 
greater unity to British territory in India, and extended it east and west. 
The results of the Mutiny confirmed the long process of conquest and 
consolidation, and carried it to its logical issue in the transference of 
India definitely to the Crown of Great Britain. The Moghul Emperor 
disappeared from Delhi, the last Mahratha Peshwa from Cawnpore, and 
the East India Company, in whose name the great work had been done, 
surrendered the government of India directly to the Crown. It was a 
natural corollary of this that, in 1877, the British Empire of India was 
proclaimed. 

Since 1858 there have been few annexations within the Indian 
peninsula. The Government of India has been occupied mainly with 
the problem of defending the British position and possessions by securing 
strong frontiers to India and encircling them with a belt of protected 
States. The interior acquisitions have been the Panch Mahals (near 
Baroda), 1860, Lalitpur (south of Jhansi) and the district to the south 



VI B. Greater Europe since 1815. 107 

of Bhutan known as the Ambari Fallakotta, 1859-60, and the Bengal 
Duars, of which the eastern part had been annexed in 1841, in 1865. 
The external acquisitions have been much more extensive. 

The protection of the British dominions in India has involved, 
necessarily, the protection of the routes of communication with it and 
the consequent annexation of various strategic points on those routes. 
In addition to Gibraltar, acquired in 1713, and Malta acquired in 1802, 100 
the British Government in 1815 retained the Cape of Good Hope, 
Ceylon, and Mauritius, and occupied Ascension Island. The Suez Canal 132 
was opened in 1869, and Great Britain seized an opportunity in 1877 to 
obtain a financial interest in it, which led on to her joint occupation of 
Egypt with France in 1882 ; whence arose the British Protectorate of 
Egypt recognised by France in 1904, and the conquest of the Egyptian 
Sudan in 1896-9. Cyprus was taken into British occupation in 1878; 110 
a protectorate was declared over Somaliland at the mouth of the Red 130 
Sea in 1884, which has been maintained, though the interior was 
abandoned in 1910. Aden, just opposite, was acquired in 1838, and 
Perim Island in 1857. From Aden to the Persian Gulf, Great Britain 124 
exercises a certain police supervision, and over the Persian Gulf she 
definitely declared a protectorate in 1903. In 1907 Russia recognised 124 
her prior interests in south-eastern Persia. Thus, British communi- 
cations with India have been guarded by a line of possessions and 
protectorates. 

The expansion of British rule on the north-western frontier of India 1 24 
may next be considered. The great colonising movement which Russia 
has carried on from Moscow into Central Asia led the British, early 
in the nineteenth century, to look beyond the actual frontiers of India 
and to interest themselves in Sind, the Punjab, Afghanistan, and Persia. 
The mountainous country of Afghanistan, over whose historic passes 
conquerors and traders have descended into India, had by its geographical 
position and its strategic importance a great interest to the British. 
The attempt made, from 1837 to 1842, to form an alliance with or to 
conquer Afghanistan ended in disaster, but led to the annexation of Sind 122 
in 1843, by which British dominion was established on the Lower Indus, 
a base acquired for further operations in north-western India, and the 
whole Indian littoral brought into British hands. The final annexation 122 
of the Punjab in 1849 carried the British frontier to the Afghan hills. 
Meanwhile, Russia advanced across the Kirghiz steppes, and gained 136 
control of the routes of communication with Central Asia. She came 
into touch with Afghanistan and Persia on the west, at the moment 
when the British came into contact with Afghanistan and Baluchistan 
on the east. The Russian, like the British, empire^ sought a secure 
frontier. The dominions that Russia annexed in Central Asia were as 
large as British India, though their population was small. She occupied 
Tashkend in 1864, Samarkand in 1868, Khiva, virtually, in 1873. 



108 VI B, Greater Europe since 1815. 

122 In 1876, the British, by the Treaty of Jacobabad, came to an agreement 
with Baluchistan. By this, Baluchistan with its passes up to the 
Persian frontier passed under British control, and the British established 
themselves at Quetta. It was a protection of the southern part of the 
north-western frontier of India. A war with Afghanistan, in 1878-80, 
secured to the British the control of the Afghan passes into India, and 
brought Afghanistan under British protection. In 1885-7 a boundary 
commission settled in conjunction with Russia the north-western frontier 
of Afghanistan. Between Afghanistan and India, from Baluchistan to 
Chitral, along the spurs of the hills, was a zone of territory occupied by 
tribes who owned the suzerainty of the Ameer. In 1893, this territory 
was brought under British control by agreement with Afghanistan, and, 
in 1895, Chitral was annexed. In 1907, the two rival Powers in Central 
Asia made a settlement of their differences. The integrity of Persia 
was recognised, but it was divided into three spheres — a northern, which 
included the more important provinces and cities, in which the British 
would seek no political concessions ; a southern, adjoining the frontiers 
of Afghanistan and Baluchistan, from which Russia would similarly be 
excluded, and a central, open to both Powers. Afghanistan was left 
as a buffer State under British protection, and Russia was excluded from 
it. Tibet was recognised as under the sovereignty of China, it being 
agreed that neither Power was to seek influence there, though the 
British retained certain limited rights under the Treaty of Lhassa and 
the Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1904. In 1902, an alteration of the 
Tibetan frontier gave the British some 350 square miles. 
125 The expansion on the eastern frontier of India has borne some 
similarity to that on the west. On the west, Sind and the Punjab have 
been acquired, Baluchistan and Afghanistan have become protectorates, 
and an agreement has been made with Russia as to spheres of influence 
and frontiers. Similarly, on tlie east, Assam and Burma have been 
annexed, the Shan States have become protectorates, Siam has been 
neutralised, and an agreement reached with France as to frontiers. But, 
while on the west the British have not extended their conquests outside 
of India, on the east they have added quite a new region in Indo- 
China. Into this region they advanced first in 1826. By the Treaty of 
Yandabu, they acquired the kingdom of Assam, with Manipur and 
Kachar, and the provinces of Arakan and Tenasserim, with Martaban 
and Moulmein. The King of Ava retained the valley of the Irrawaddy. 
This gave the British all the Burmese sea-board, except the province of 
Pegu, and effectually secured their eastern frontier, which had hitherto 
been the Brahmaputra valley, except where they had gone beyond it in 
the province of Chittagong. In 1852, a further advance was made, and 
the province of Pegu at the mouth of the Irrawaddy, with Rangoon, was 
acquired. It was an important acquisition. It gave the British the 
whole sea coast of Burma, whence it was easy to advance up stream to 



VI B, Greater Europe since 1815. 109 

Mandalay. In 1886 this advance was made, and Upper Burma was 
annexed. It embraced a wide territory from the Irrawaddy to the 
Salwin. Meanwhile, the French were also established in Indo-China. 
In 1859, they occupied Saigon ; in 1862, the provinces of Saigon, Mytho, 
and Bunhoa in Cochin China, and the islands of Pulo Condore ; in 1863, 
they proclaimed a protectorate over Cambodia, and, in 1867, occupied the 
three provinces of western Cochin China to the south-west of Saigon. 
In 1863-5 they made conquests in Tonkin, and by the Treaty of Hue 
with Annam, in 1884, and that of Tientsin with China, in 1885, they 
brought Annam and Tonkin under their protection. 

After threatening war in 1893, the French gained a better frontier 
with Siam, which ceded a large territory, so that the Mekong became a 
French river. By agreement with the English, in 1896, Siam was divided 
into three spheres, of which the eastern was to be the French sphere 
of influence, the western the British, and the central, the basin of the 
Menam, to be neutral. The dismemberment of Siam was thereby pre- 
vented, and the British secured their protectorate over the provinces 
adjoining their frontier. By a further treaty between Great Britain 
and France, in 1907, Siam ceded to France Battambang, Siem-reap, and 
Sisophon, in return for Dansai and Kratt, as well as all the islands 
situated to the south of Chemling including Koh-Kutt. A further 
agreement placed the Malay States of Kelantan, Trengganu, and Kedah 
under British influence. Thus, a zone of protected or neutral States 
separates Persia, Russia, China and France from the immediate posses- 
sion of Great Britain, and forms the real frontier of India. 

Within India, France and Portugal still retain a peaceful foothold — 122 
Portugal in Goa, Diu, and Damaun, France in Pondicherry, Karical, 
Yanaon, Mahe, and Chandernagore. The Danes sold their possessions 
of Tranquebar and Serampur to Great Britain in 1845. 

The British share in the partition of the Pacific Islands and of 140 
Africa will be mentioned later. Of strategic possessions necessary to 
her maritime power she acquired the Straits Settlements, in 1785-1819, 
Singapore, in 1819, Aden, in 1838, Hong-Kong, in 1841, Cyprus, in 
1878, Wei-hai-wei, in 1898, while she ceded Heligoland to Germany, 
in 1890. In south-eastern Asia, she expanded her power by acquiring 139, 140 
Labuan, in 1846, the Malay States, in 1874, North Borneo, in 1878-81, 
a part of New Guinea, in 1884, and Sarawak and Brunei, in 1888. 
The rapid growth and formation of this far extended and heterogeneous 
empire resting on maritime power is the greatest of the changes in the 
colonial world in the nineteenth century. 

Of the other great colonial Powers of earlier centuries, Russia alone 136 
was continuously active during the nineteenth century. In Central Asia 
she advanced her frontier southwards to meet Persia and Afghanistan, 
which now form buffer States between the Russian and British empires 
in Asia. In the Far East she advanced uninterruptedly until, attempting 



110 VI B, Greater JSurope since 1815. 

to encroach on China and to find a better outlet to the sea, she was 
repulsed by Japan. The proximity of northern Asia to Russia, its 
geographical character and its scanty population, on the one hand, and 
Russia's need of a defensible frontier, of new markets, and of more 
territory for her growing population, on the other, explain the ease, 
the continuity, and the vast extent of these conquests. In the later 
eighteenth century, Russia was extending her control over the Kirghiz 
hordes west of the Urals. In 1822, they were placed within the sphere 
of the Governors of Orenburg and Western Siberia. In 1842, the 
Amu Darya was brought under Russian influence; by 1853, the Sil 
Darya ; by 1865, all the territory between the Aral Sea and Issik Kul. 
Thus eastern Turkestan was subdued. In 1868, Bokhara ceded the 
district of Zarafshan, with the important town of Samarkand, and became 
itself a dependent State. In 1873, Khiva was conquered, and, in 1876, 
Khokand was made a province of Turkestan under its ancient name 
Ferghana. Thus, Russian dominion has been extended almost round the 
Caspian. Meanwhile, in 1870, Russia occupied the Kuldja district of 
China, but evacuated the eastern portion of it in 1881. In that year, also, 
the Turkoman Tekkes on the north of the Afghan frontier were subdued 
and Western Turkomania was annexed, the boundaries with Persia being 
arranged by treaty with Persia. In 1884, the Turkoman tribes round 
about Merv were coaxed into obedience. Difficulties about the Afghan 
frontier were settled by the Anglo-Russian boundary commission in 1885, 
which gave to Russia the greater part of the district which she disputed 
with Afghanistan, including the oasis of Penjdeh, and by another Anglo- 
Russian commission of 1895, which settled disputed questions in the 
124 Pamirs. A general settlement of the political position in central Asia 
was made by the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907 already referred to, 
which maintained the integrity of Persia, and recognised the pre- 
dominant interests of Russia in the northern provinces, but closed to her 
Afghanistan and Tibet. Of Russian expansion in eastern Asia we shall 
speak in another connexion. 

130 An increased interest in colonisation shown by the various Great 
Powers has led, in recent years, to the extension of European sovereignty 
over the greater part of Africa and the Pacific. Apart from the move- 
ments of the Dutch in South Africa, and of the French in Algeria, 
there was little extension of European colonisation in Africa between 
1815 and 1875. The British made little of their West African settle- 
ments. But they extended their possessions in Sierra Leone in 1861, 
acquired Lagos in the same year, and consolidated their power on the 
Gold Coast by the purchase of the Danish forts, in 1850, and of the Dutch, 
in 1871. The Portuguese acquired Portuguese Guinea and the Bissagos 
Islands in 1885, St Thome and Principe in 1879. The French occupation 

131 of Algeria began in 1830 with the capture of Algiers. At first restricted 
to points on the coast, it was gradually extended to include the territory 



VI B, Greater Europe since 1815. Ill 

north of the Atlas Mountains by 1848. Between 1848 and 1870, France 
extended her dominion to the northern Sahara. In 1881, the Treaty of 
Bardo with the Bey of Tunis admitted her protectorate over Tunis. 
Meanwhile, she continued to advance south, and, in 1900, occupied 
Insalah, Touat, and Gourara on the frontiers of Morocco, which gave 
her command of the Sahara. In 1884, Germany declared a protectorate 
over the coast of Damaraland and Namaqualand, except Walfisch Bay, 130 
which the British had annexed in 1878. In the same year she also 
annexed Togoland and the Cameroons. The action of Germany hastened 
the partition of Africa. The Berlin Conference called in 1884 recognised 
the Congo State which King Leopold of Belgium had founded in the 
basin of the Congo. After this there was a rapid occupation of territory 
by the various Powers and a constant delimitation of frontiers. In western 
Africa, on the Senegal, France had been extending her power since 1855. 
She acquired the Upper Senegal, and in 1881 established a protectorate 
over the left bank of the Upper Niger. She occupied points on the 
coast between the existing settlements of the English and Portuguese, 
and linked these up with her interior possessions, acquiring by 1891 the 
whole of the Ivory Coast. She overthrew the kingdom of Dahomey and 
occupied Timbuctu in 1892-4. Thus the French secured the Upper 
Niger and much of the country within its great bend, and prevented 
the expansion of the older English and Portuguese settlements from 
the coast into the interior. From the Lower Niger, the English, by 
Treaties with Gando and Sokoto in 1885, gained access to the Benue 
and Lake Chad. The French from the west, the English up the Niger, 
the Germans from the Cameroons, divided the central Sudan by a series 
of agreements, 1886-1906. In north-western Africa the largest share 
has fallen to the French. From the Mediterranean in the north and 
the Atlantic in the west to Darfur in the east and the Congo, where 
they first gained a footing in 1839, in the south, their dominion stretches, 
enveloping the older settlements of other Powers. Morocco remains 
unconquered, and Liberia, in the south-west of the great bend of Africa, 
is an independent negro republic. Spain holds Tiris, where she pro- 
claimed the protectorate of Rio Oro in 1884, the English their historic 
West African settlements, to each of which they have added a small 
hinterland, and the protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria at 
the lower course of the Niger, in which Lagos is now included. The 
Germans have territory in Togoland and the Cameroons, and Portugal 
has still a foothold on the coast between Cape Roxo and the river Cajet. 
Otherwise, the vast interior and the remainder of the coast has passed to 
the French. In eastern Africa, the Germans, in 1885, acquired territory 
in Zanzibar, where also the English established claims. By a series of 
agreements the dominions of the Sultan of Zanzibar and the hinterland 
passed to these two Powers. In 1886, the Sultan's territories were 
confined to a narrow strip of coast, of parts of which both Powers 



112 VI B. Greater Eui^ope since 1815. 

obtained leases. In 1888, Germany acquired a lease of the Sultan's 
territory from the Rovuma to the Umba, and in 1890 bought the 
territory leased to her. She surrendered her claims to the coast between 
Witu and the river Jub, giving up all claims north of the British 
boundary at the Umba. The northern limit of her territory was carried 
from the Victoria Nyanza to the Congo State, thus excluding her from 
the Upper Nile, and a line was drawn on the south between Lake Nyassa 
and Lake Tanganyika, dividing her possessions from British Central 
Africa. The British Government declared a protectorate over the 
islands of Pemba and Zanzibar, in 1890. The Upper Nile fell mainly into 
the hands of the British, who acquired Uganda, in 1890-4, conquered 
the Egyptian Sudan, in 1898, and thus prevented the French from 
extending thither their west African empire. In 1894, the British leased 
a tract of territory, the Lado enclave, to King Leopold II, and thus 
brought the Congo State also to the Nile, which territory on the death 
of King Leopold returned to the British. In the basin of the Congo, 
the Congo State was formed in 1884. By conquering the Arabs in 
Central Africa, in 1890-3, and by a series of astute diplomatic agree- 
ments, King Leopold steadily expanded its frontiers. In 1908, it 
133 was transferred to the kingdom of Belgium. In south Africa, the 
British advanced from the Cape Colony to the Upper Zambesi, and, 
west of Lake Nyassa, north to Lake Tanganyika. The Portuguese 
dominions of Angola in the west and Mozambique in the east, though 
they have been enlarged, were thus separated. In 1875 the Portuguese 
received Delagoa Bay, which was in dispute with the British. An agree- 
ment of 1891 fixed the frontiers of Portuguese and British territory 
inland. German south-west Africa has gained a considerable hinter- 
land and at one point reaches the Zambesi. Its frontiers were fixed by 
agreements with England in 1885 and 1890, and with Portugal in 1896. 
On the Red Sea France established herself at Obok in 1862 and 1883, 
Italy at the Bay of Assab in 1870 and 1882, whence she has expanded 
to Obok, and established the dependency of Eretrea. Abyssinia remains 
independent. Somaliland was divided between England and Italy. 
The British protectorate over Somaliland was declared in 1884 ; Italy 
acquired her territory in 1889. Thus, save for Morocco, Liberia, and 
Abyssinia, the whole of Africa has passed under European control. 
131 Even in Morocco, the principal seaports, since 1906, have admitted 
French or Spanish or Franco-Spanish garrisons. 
139 The recent partition of the Pacific Islands began with the annexation 

by France of Tahiti and the Marquesas in 1842, and of New Caledonia 
in 1853. The British annexed Fiji in 1874, and in 1887 established a 
joint control of the New Hebrides with France. The United States 
appeared in 1878, when they acquired Pago Pago in the Samoas, 
Germany, in 1884, when she annexed parts of northern New Guinea. 
In 1885 and 1886, Germany, France, and Great Britain came to a 



VI B, Greater Europe since 1815. 113 

general agreement as to their respective spheres of influence. The 

German sphere included a large area in Micronesia and western 

Melanesia, in proximity to the Dutch Indies, and including the Carolines, 

Marshalls, part of the Solomons, and northern New Guinea. The French 

claimed a sphere of influence in Melanesia, of which New Caledonia was 

the centre, and another in Polynesia, of which the Society Islands were 

the centre. The English sphere extended from south-east Melanesia 

and Micronesia over Polynesia, almost enveloping the French. In 1892, 

Great Britain annexed the Gilbert and Ellice Islands ; in 1893 the 

Southern Solomons ; in 1898, Santa Cruz and the Swallow group. In 

1900, she established a protectorate over the Tonga Islands ; in the same 

year she obtained Choiseul, Isabel, with the islands in Bougainville 

Straits, and Lord Howe''s group was transferred by treaty from Germany. 

In 1902 and in 1906 she renewed her joint control of the New Hebrides 

with France. The Manihiki and Cook Islands were placed under the 

government of New Zealand in 1902. The United States annexed 

Hawaii in 1898; and, in 1899 (Great Britain relinquishing her claim^^-^,^-(f op M^'ni. ^ 

they divided the Samoas with Germany. In 1899, Germany boughj^\]^\^-- '^ — — "^C. 

Spanish rights in the Carolines and Pelews. / ' / / st. rr/c 

In the Far East, the record of political change has been different^xajid^ ^^LL^r 
while it presents some likeness, oilers also a great contrast to the changes ^ 
which we have just narrated. There has been the same steady pressure 
of advancing Europe ; but the resistance of the Asiatic Powers has been 
much stronger and more successful, and the uprising of an Asiatic 
State — the Japanese empire — in a manner unique in modern history has 
checked the expansion of Europe. While the commercial penetration 138 
of China has progressed slowly throughout the century, her actual 
territorial losses have been small. Almost inaccessible to most of the 
Powers of Europe, except by the sea, and strong in her sea-board pro- 
vinces, she has maintained the bulk of her empire intact, though a 
number of ports have been opened, and some ceded, to the aggressive 
importunity of Europe. In 1841 Great Britain acquired Hong-Kong, 140 
which was confirmed to her by the Treaty of Nankin in 1842. To this 
she added, in 1860, a portion of the township of Kowloon, and, in 1898, a 
further portion of the Chinese coast opposite Hong-Kong, to increase the 
security of the colony. Over Sikkim she established a protectorate in 122 
1850, though it was not acknowledged by China until 1890. On the 125 
frontiers of Burma, she ceded Munglem and Kwanghung to China in 
1894; but, after China had, in the following year, ceded a portion of this 
territory to France, Great Britain obtained Kokang and Wanting as 
compensation in 1897. When Russia leased Port Arthur and Talienwan 
in 1898, Great Britain leased Wei-hai-wei, a strong position on the other 
side of the Gulf of Pechili, for so long a time as Russia should keep Port 
Arthur — and she still retains it. Other Powers also have had their shares. 
France, as has been already explained, took Annam and Tonkin in 1884, 125 

0. M. H. VOL. XIV. g 



114 VI B. Greater Europe since 1815. 

Laos in 1893, and leased Kwang-chow-wan in 1898 ; in which year, also, 
186 Germany leased Kiaochau. But Russia, with her long contiguous 
frontier, naturally attempted the most ; and her field of operations lay 
on the north-east provinces. From the barren regions of Kamschatka 
she moved southwards, in the nineteenth century. She gained control of 
the mouth of the Amur and of part of Saghalin Island, in 1854. By the 
Treaty of Aigun, in 1858, and a further convention, in 1860, she definitely 
acquired all the land on the left bank of the Amur and the sea-board so 
far south as the Tumen. Thus her frontiers touched Korea, and her terri- 
tories half encircled Manchuria. Vladivostok was then founded at the 
most south-easterly point of the Russian empire. In 1867 Russia sold 
Alaska to the United States, and thus withdrew from North America, 
where she had ac()uired an extensive coast-line in competition with the 
Hudson's Bay Company; but her southward advance in Asia continued. 
In 1867, she improved her position in Saghalin Island, and in 1875 ac- 
quired the whole, in exchange for her claims in the two most southerly of 
the Kurile Islands. Her outlet to the sea in the ports of Nicholaievsk 
and Vladivostok, icebound for a part of the year, was inadequate for the 
development of the vast territory she had acquired ; and she turned her 
eyes to the Gulf of Pechili, and sought concessions in the great northern 
province of China, Manchuria, and the dependent kingdom of Korea 
137 with its excellent harbours. But the rise of Japan had created a new 
situation. To Japan, owing to her geographical situation and ex- 
panding population, Korea was a first line of defence and a great field 
of commercial and industrial interests. A competition between the two 
Powers ensued. Japan, in 1895, in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, took 
from China the Liao-Tung peninsula, Manchuria's and north-eastern 
Asia's best outlet to the sea, Formosa and the Pescadores Islands, and, in 
addition, established the independence of Korea ; but she was compelled 
by the protests of Russia, Germany, and France to restore the Liao-Tung 
peninsula to China. In 1898, Russia acquired Port Arthur and Talienwan, 
and, in 1900, she occupied Manchuria. She thus offered a strong barrier 
to Japanese expansion, and planted herself in a commanding position 
against China. By the Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905, which ended the 
Russo-Japanese War, Russia evacuated Manchuria, which was restored 
to China, and surrendered the Liao-Tung peninsula, and the southern 
half of Saghalin Island, to Japan. Korea was placed under the control 
of Japan, and was annexed to the Japanese empire in 1910. Thus 
rapidly, Japan gained an extensive territory on the mainland of the 
continent, and terminated an episode which her success has rendered 
unique in the history of European colonisation. 

The point to which this brief summary has been brought offers no 
natural break in the history of territorial change. Both in Europe, and 
in the Greater Europe extended over the globe which Europe has formed. 



VI B, Conclusion. 115 

there has been throughout modern history an unceasing ilux of power, 
with its consequent transference of territories and rearrangements of 
frontiers. No political equilibrium has yet been reached, nor any 
lasting balance of power established. So long as some States rise in 
wealth, population and efficiency, while others decline or remain 
stationary, so long, in a system of competing States, formed on no fixed 
principles, there must be constant disturbance in the balance of real 
power, leading to transfers of political sovereignty. It is not within 
the scope of this historical sketch to discuss present political tendencies; 
but it finds a natural conclusion in a brief description of the position to 
which this long series of changes has led. Europe presents today a 
form which it has not previously borne in modern history. It consists 
of a group of States, which, though they do not coincide with its 
geographical or ethnographical divisions very exactly, yet bear strong 
marks of having been formed under their influence. As compared with 
other continents, the number of States is very large for its area and 
population, partly because of the operation of the principle of nationality, 
which has divided more States than it has united, and partly because of 
the subjugation of other continents to its influence. The States of 
Europe are the product not only of its racial and geographical divisions, 
but also of the political instincts of its peoples, and of the hopes, fears 
and precautions of the more powerful members of its system. For the 141 
first time in our survey of Europe as a whole we see a German empire, 
possessing a real unity, and exercising a political influence commensurate 
with the numbers, wealth and civilisation of the German people. 
Occupying the north-central plains of Europe and the greater part of 
the valleys of the Vistula, Oder, Elbe, Weser, Ems, and Rhine, it 
finds its sea outlet in the Baltic and the North Sea. It embraces 
neither the whole German people, nor all the territory which, in north- 
central Europe, once owned the sway of the Holy Roman Empire. 
Outside of Europe, its great activities are feebly represented in the 
unimportant islands of the Pacific and the undeveloped sections of 
Africa which are its sole colonial possessions. The train of events which 
began in the connexion of the Burgundian inheritance with the Crown of 
Spain ended in the complete detachment from the German empire of an 
extensive strip of land on the North Sea surrounding the mouth of the 
Rhine. Today this rich territory forms two States — Holland, with her 
national distinctness, her tradition of independence and her ancient 
colonial dominion in the West Indies and in the great islands of the 
Malay archipelago, and Belgium, the creation of the national spirit and 
of diplomacy, owing her existence, her wealth, and her colonial empire in 
Africa to the industries and the politics of the nineteenth century — both 
of them small States, whose independence helps to preserve the balance 
of power. Adjoining Belgium and. the German empire, but far from 
the Rhine, is Erance, with her unity unimpaired, weaker on her eastern 

i 8-2 



116 VI B, Conclusion, 



frontier than Louis XIV found her, stronger in the south-east than the 
Revolution left her. Outside of Europe, the French race is established 
in a part of Canada ; but the French colonial dominion lies in north- 
western Africa and the south-eastern corner of Asia. Through a century 
of political stress, the Iberian peninsula has preserved its political divisions 
unchanged. But neither Spain nor Portugal retains any dominion in 
America, the seat of their colonial power, though their tongue and race 
remain in the South American nations over which they formerly held sway. 
Portugal still retains parts of Africa and certain points in the East; 
but the first and strongest of colonial empires, the Spanish, has almost 
altogether passed away. Italy, like Germany, appears as a single State, 
for the first time in modern history. She has strong natural boundaries 
in sea and mountains and embraces nearly all the Italian people. In 
Africa, she has made the beginnings of a colonial dominion. Switzerland 
holds the mountainous heart of Europe. In central Europe, the Austrian 
empire comprises a compacter body of territory than the Habsburgs 
ever ruled, but preserves the composite character of their empire. 
German, Czech, Magyar, and Slav are the chief among the many races 
united within its bounds. For so large a State, the outlet to the sea, on 
the rocky coast of the eastern Adriatic, is insufficient, hard to defend, 
and difficult of access. In the Balkan peninsula, a group of States, 
representing once subject nations, watch for the decline and fall of the 
empire from which they have wrested their freedom. Montenegro holds 
a secure position in the midst of her mountains, with a narrow outlet to 
the Adriatic through Austrian territory at Cattaro and through her 
own at Dulcigno and Antivari. Peloponnese, Thessaly and many 
of the Aegean islands are embraced in the kingdom of Greece, the first 
of the freed Christian kingdoms of south-eastern Europe. The three 
kingdoms of Roumania, Bulgaria, and Servia flank the Danube. Servia 
holds a triangular area, resting on the Danube, with the Austrian 
province of Bosnia on the one side and Bulgaria on the other. Bulgaria 
stretches from Servia east to the Black Sea, and includes a chain of the 
Balkan mountains and the fertile plains to the south. Roumania lies to 
the north of the Danube, and holds the mountain and rich plain land 
from the Austrian Carpathians to the Black Sea south of the Russian 
frontier. Curtailed, on north and south, by the formation of the new 
kingdoms, the Ottoman empire, nevertheless, still holds a large strip of 
the Balkan peninsula from the Adriatic to the Dardanelles and the 
Bosporus, and controls the narrow seas that divide Europe from Asia. 
Stretching over a continuous area in three continents, it possesses a 
unique position, girdling the eastern Mediterranean. The centre of its 
dominion is in Europe, the bulk of its territory in Asia, and the fringes 
of its empire extend along the northern coast of Africa. Russia holds 
the greatest continuous expanse of territory which has fallen to any 
modem State. In Europe, she stands at the furthest limit of her 



VI B, Conclusion, 117 

extension. She holds the eastern Baltic from Tornea to Memel, as 
Prussia holds the southern Baltic, and the Black Sea littoral from the 
mouth of the Danube to the frontiers of the Ottoman empire south of 
the Caucasus. In Finland, Poland, and the Caucasus, she has flanked 
her territory with subject nations, difficult to govern and impossible to 
absorb. Over the vast expanses of northern and central Asia she has 
crept from the Urals to the Hindu Kush and the Pacific Ocean, making 
one mighty empire of eastern Europe and northern Asia, which 
struggles against the historical difficulty of Russia, an inadequate outlet 
to southern seas. In Scandinavia, the political situation reproduces that 
which preceded the Union of Calmar. Denmark has been curtailed by 
the loss of Schleswig and Holstein, and has no footing in the Scandi- 
navian peninsula, which Norway and Sweden divide along the line of its 
natural parting, while Sweden has lost her dominion beyond the Baltic. 
The Scandinavian nations have played a part in the extension of 
European influence over the globe ; but their work is not represented in 
any important possessions, save the large Danish island of Iceland. The 
position of Great Britain in Europe has remained almost unchanged. 
The cession of Heligoland to Germany, and of the Ionian Islands to 
Greece, has weakened her position in the North Sea and the Adriatic; 
but she retains the Channel Isles, and in Gibraltar and Malta she still 
holds the more important securities of her Mediterranean power. On the 
other hand, the immense expansion of her empire in America, Asia, Africa, 
and Australia has formed one of the greatest political developments of 
the nineteenth century and coupled with the growth of the United States 
has given the Anglo-Saxon race a predominant position outside of Europe. 

At the dawn of modern history, the political power of the European 1 40 
States was confined within the borders of their own Continent. The 
brief indications we have already given show how vast a part of the 
world has now passed under their control. Africa, carved and cut up, 
without regard to its ethnography or geography or existing civilisations, 
must be regarded as a mere appendage to Europe, in which has been 
reproduced the complicated political colouring of Europe. France has 
crossed the Mediterranean to Algeria, whence she has spread her power 
into the interior, westwards to the Atlantic, eastwards to Egypt, and 
southwards to the Congo. Great Britain holds various small areas in 
western Africa, the greater part of southern Africa, and an almost con- 
tinuous dominion stretching through the continent from the Cape of 
Good Hope to the mouth of the Nile. The northern littoral, though 
opposite to Europe, has not fallen wholly to the colonising Powers. 
Turkey remains in nominal possession of a large part, and Morocco, 
though not free, is still independent. Of eastern Africa, England holds 
the greater part; of north-western, France. England, France, and the 
independent Powers of Morocco and Abyssinia hold most of the 
northern half of the continent. The southern half is divided between 



118 VI B, Conch sion. 



Belgium, Portugal, Germany, and England. America, also, is wholly 
European, but in another sense than Africa. It is a second Europe and 
not another Africa, in which Europe has reproduced its own political 
life in a system of States European in blood and institutions, and not 
like the greater part of Africa, subjected, renamed and without political 
life. The larger half of the northern continent forms a growing Anglo- 
Saxon State, the Dominion of Canada, a part of the British empire, the 
southern and richer half another Anglo-Saxon State, the United States, 
to whose formation almost all the nations of Europe have contributed, 
and which in power and wealth is second to none. Mexico, Central 
America and South America form a group of Latin States. The West 
Indies remain divided among various European Powers and the United 
States. In the Pacific, the Continent of Australia and the islands of 
New Zealand are parts of the British empire. The other islands are 
partitioned among several Powers. The Dutch hold many of the 
larger islands of the Malay archipelago. Germany has a sphere of 
influence adjoining that of Holland. To the south of this lies the 
vaster sphere of Great Britain. Most of the French islands are still 
further to the east, though, in New Caledonia and other islands, France 
has possessions within the circle of British influence. The United 
States have several isolated possessions. In Asia alone has the advance 
of Europe been successfully challenged and checked. And, even in Asia, 
the broad features of political geography are to be sought in the balance 
of power between the Russian and British empires, and in the various 
footholds of other Powers, as much as in the position of the independent 
Asiatic States. Northern Asia and the heart of Central Asia, to the 
mountains of Afghanistan and Kashmir, are Russian. Russian influence 
even penetrates near to the southern seas, since Russia virtually controls 
northern Persia. Great Britain is dominant in southern Asia, having 
interests on the Arabian coast and the Persian Gulf, holding India south 
of the Himalayas, Burma and the Straits Settlements. In eastern Asia 
are the greater of the independent Asiatic Powers. The Japanese 
empire includes not only many islands off the eastern coast of Asia — 
Formosa, the Japanese archipelago and part of Saghalin Island — but has 
also expanded on to the mainland, where it stretches over Korea and the 
Liao-Tung peninsula. The Chinese empire still holds the fertile plains 
in the centre of eastern Asia and the mighty plateaux that occupy the 
heart of the continent. But several of the Western Powers have footholds 
on or near its territory: Great Britain in Wei-hai-wei and Hong-Kong, 
Germany at Kiaochau, the United States in the Philippines, while 
France possesses extensive provinces in the south-eastern bend of the 
continent. In western Asia, Arabia, Syria, and Asia Minor are parts of 
the Ottoman empire, while Persia maintains a qualified independence 
as towards the Russian and British empires, between which, also, the 
mountain kingdom of Afghanistan acts as a buffer State, 



119 



INDEX OF MARGINAL REFERENCES TO 
MAPS IN INTRODUCTION. 

The black type indicates the page on which the principal description of a map i3 
given. The ordinary type is used, where an allusion only is made. 



Map 
Map 
Map 
Map 
Map 
Map 
Map 
Map 8 
Map 10 
Map 11 
Map 12 
Map 14 
Map 15 
Map 16 
Map 17 
Map 18 
Map 19 
Map 20 
Map 21 
Map 22 
Map 23 
Map 25 
Map 26 
Map 27 
Map 28 
Map 30 
Map 31 
Map 32 
Map 40 
Map 41 
Map 43 
Map 46 
Map 48 
Map 51 
Map 52 
Map 53 
Map 54 
Map 55 
Map 58 
Map 59 
Map 60 
Map 61 
Map 62 
Map 63 
Map 64 
Map 65 
Map 66 
Map 67 
Map 68 
Map 69 



2, 7, 14, 26, 27, 29, 70 

46 

22, 23, 25, 41 

20 

11, 18 

12 

8, 44 

7 

31, 45, 49 

34, 37 
11, 14 
39 

19, 84 
10 

43, 52 
38, 40, 41 
41 

27, 50, 51 

26, 45 

13, 42, 55 

10 

24, 36, 38, 49 

21, 22, 32, 33, 36 

10 

39 

35, 49 
40 

60, 70 

49, 51, 53, 64, 66, 68, 69 

2, 3, 43, 49, 54 
56, 59 

33, 34, 37, 49, 60, 55, 61 
45, 46, 64, 73, 75 

3, 4, 33, 34, 63, 65, 67, 73 

27, 62, 69, 71, 72, 73 
60, 54, 73 

44, 52, 62, 67, 68, 69, 71 
15, 53, 54, 65 

64, 65, 67, 71, 72, 84 
15, 62, 64, 65, 73, 74 
54, 64, 68, 73, 74 

63, 70, 71, 73, 74 

64, 68, 74 

4, 34, 86, 37, 61, 65, 74 

56, 76, 104 
44, 57, 68, 76 
67 

75 

57, 70 
75 



Map 70 


90 


Map 71 


101, 102 


Map 72 


90, 101 


Map 73 


102 


Map 75 


102 


Map 79 


34, 37, 62, 74t 


Map 84 


68, 73 


Map 89 


78, 30 


Map 90 


80 


Map 92 


82 


Map 93 


83, 84 


Map 94 


4, 34, 78, 83, 84 


Map 99 


104 


Map 100 


5, 91, 107 


Map 101 


5, 91, 103 


Map 102 


5, 85, 86, 87, 88, S3 


Map 103 


85, 96 


Map 104 


87, 88, 95 


Map 105 


96, 97 


Map 106 


59, 91 


Map 107 


86, 87, 92, 93, 99 


Map 108 


71, 72, 86, 98, 99 


Map 109 


89, 98 


Map 110 


98, 100, 107 


Map 111 


86, 98 


Map 112 


89 


Map 115 


98, 100 


Map 116 


93 


Map 118 


95 


Map 119 


96, 97, 98, 100 


Map 120 


96, 97 


Map 122 


104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 113 


Map 124 


107, 110 


Map 125 


108, 113 


Map 126 


103 


Map 127 


101, 103 


Map 128 


103 


Map 129 


103 


Map 130 


107, 110, lU 


Map 131 


110, 112 


Map 132 


107 


Map 133 


103, 112 


Map 134 


102 


Map 135 


102 


Map 186 


60, 70, 107, 109, 114 


Map 137 


114 


Map 138 


113 


Map 139 


109, 112 


Map 140 


5, 101, 102, 109, 113, 117 


Map 141 


5, 92, 99, 116 



^ 



i 



121 



INDEX OF LOCAL NAMES IN 
INTRODUCTION. 



Aachen (Imperial town), 17. See Aix-la- 
Chapelle 

Aalen (Imperial town), 18 

Aargau, conquered by Bern, 19; created a 

o canton, 80 ; settlement of 1815, 89 

Abo, peace of, 63, 70 

Abruzzi, and the partition of Naples, 34 

Abyssinia, independence of, 112, 117 

Acadia, French in, 57, 58, 69 ; struggles 
with English in, 75 ; British power in, 91 

Accra, English at, 58 

Acljaia, Ottoman rule in, 25 

Achaltsik (Akhaltsikh), (town), conquest of, 
98 ; (pashalik), conquest of, 100 

Acharnania, conquered by Turks, 25 

Aden, acquired by Great Britain, 107, 109 

Adrianople, captured by Turks, 25 ; treaty 
of, 96, 98 

Aegina, Ottoman and Venetian conquests 
of, 46 

Aetolia, conquered by Turks, 25 

Afghanistan, placed under British protec- 
tion, 108; disputed frontier of, 110; in 
1910, 118 

Africa, Ottoman power in, 44-5 ; early set- 
tlements in, 48, 58-9; in 18th century, 
76; settlement of 1815, 91; European 
dominion in, 5-6, 103-4, 110-2; in 1910, 
117 

Agra, English at, 56 

Agram, Habsburg power in, 45 

Ahmadabad, English at, 56; acquired by 
Great Britain, 105 

Ahmadnagar, acquired by British, 106 

Aigle, conquest of, 19, 24 

Aigun, treaty of, 114 

Aire, at peace of Pyrenees, 60 

Aix-la-Chapelle (Imperial town), 17; peace 
of, 36, 61, 75, 77 

Ajmir, English at, 56; annexed by British, 
105 

Ajudia, Dutch at, 57 

Akhiskha, Eussian conquests in, 100 

Akkerman, convention of, 100 

Alabama (State), formation of, 90; in the 

^^ Civil War, 102 

Aland Islands, gained by Eussia, 71, 99 



Alaska, disputed boundary of, 101; pur- 
chased by United States, 114 

Albania, Venetian power in, 23; Ottoman 
conquests in, 25, 26, 46 

Alberta (province), formation of, 103 

Albreda, French at, 76 

Alenijon, united with France, 8 

Alessandria, held by Milan, 21; taken by 
Savoy, 36 

Alexandria, Venetian rights in, 24 

Algeria, conquered by Turks, 44; occupied 
by France, 110 

Algiers, capture of, 110 

Allahabad, ceded to Great Britain, 104 

Alsace. See Elsass 

Altenburg, and Schmalkaldic War, 39 

Altmark, early history of, 15; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 87 

truce of, 51 

Amastris, held by Genoa, 22 

Amazon, river, Spaniards at, 47; Portu- 
guese at, 59 

Ambari Fallakotta, annexed by British, 107 

Amboina, Dutch at, 56, 57 

America, Central : Spanish dominion in, 5, 
59; formation of States in, 91, 102; in 
1910, 118 

North : exploration in, 48 ; early 

settlements in, 57-8 ; 18th century 
struggles in, 4, 75; revolt of colonies, 
90; expansion of United States, 5, 101-2; 
British dominion in, 5, 103; in 1910, 118 

South : Spaniards and Portuguese in, 

5, 47, 59-60; revolutions in, 91; in 19th 
century, 102 ; in 1910, 118 

Ampezzo, trade route of, 23 
Amsterdam, acquired by Burgundy, 13 
Amu Darya, river, Eussian conquest on, 

110 
Amur, river, Eussian boundary, 60, 114 
Anapa, acquired by Eussia, 100 
Ancon, peace of, 102 

Ancona, Marches of, under Papal rule, 21-2 ; 
ceded to France, 79; added to kingdom 
of Italy, 83; restored to Pope, 89 
Andrusovo, peace of, 71, 73 
Angola, Portuguese in, 68, 76, 112 



122 



Index of Local Navies. 



Angoulfime, united with France, 8 

Anguilla, English in, 57 

Anhalt, house of, 16, 69, 93; religion in, 
39, 40; enters Confederation of Ehine, 
80; joins Zollverein, 93; in North Ger- 
man Confederation, 94 

Anhalt-Bernburg, line of, 16, 69; in Ger- 
manic Confederation, 88; extinction of 
line of, 93 

Anhalt-Dessau, in Germanic Confederation, 
88; united with Anhalt-Kothen, 93 

Anhalt-Kothen, in Germanic Confederation, 
88 ; united with Anhalt-Dessau, 93 

Anbalt-Zerbst, line of, 16; extinction of, 
69 

Anjou, acquired by France, 7 

Annam, placed under French protection, 
109, 113 

Annecy, and settlement of 1814, 86 

Ansbach, relations of, with Brandenburg, 
15; in Franconian Circle, 18; adopts 
Calvinism, 40; in 16th century, 66; ac- 
quired by Prussia, 67 ; ceded to Bavaria, 
82, 87 

Antigua, British in, 57 

Antivari, Venetian possession of, 23; ac- 
quired by Turks, 46, by Montenegro, 116 

Antwerp, added to Burgundy, 13; Dutch 
control of, 43 

Appenzell, added to Swiss Confederation, 
19 

Apulia, and partition of Naples, 34 

Aquileia, Venetian possession of, 23 ; taken 
by Maximilian, 32 

Arabia, Ottoman conquest of, 44; Portuguese 
in, 47; in 1910, 118 

Aragon, united with Castile, 9j possessions 
of, 9, 22 

Arakan, acquired by British, 108 

Aral Sea, Russian influence round, 109 

Ardahan, acquired by Eussia, 100 

Aremberg, and settlement of 1803, 82; in 
Confederation of Rhine, 83 

Arezzo, falls to Florence, 21 

Argentine, achieves independence, 91; dis- 
puted frontier of, 102 

Arguin, acquired by French, 76 

Arizona (territory), 102 

Arkansas (State), formation of, 102; in 
the Civil War, 102 

Armagnac, united with France, 8 

Armenia, Ottoman conquests in, 44 ; Russian, 
98 

Arras, treaty of, 13, 14; gained by France, 
50 

Arta, conquered by Turks, 25 

Artois, acquired by Burgundy, 12; seized 
by Louis XI, 8, 13 ; ceded to Empire, 11, 
14, 37, 42 ; becomes province of Nether- 
lands, 42; recovered by France, 33, 50; 
further gains in, 61 

Ascension Island, occupied by Great Britain, 
91, 107 

Aschaffenburg, given to Dalberg, 81; ac- 
quired by Bavaria, 87 



Asia Minor, Turks in, 5 ; Russian gains in, 
97 

Asigarh, annexed by British, 105 

Assab, Bay of, Italians at, 112 

Assam, annexed by British, 108 

Assam Duars, annexed by British, 106 

Asti, acquired by Savoy, 36 

Astrabad, acquired by Russia, 72 

Astrakhan (khanate), 29 ; annexed by 
Russia, 70 

Athens (duchy), 25 

Augsburg (bishopric), 17, 18, acquired by 
Bavaria, 81, 82 ; (Imperial town), 18, and 
settlement of 1803, 81; peace of, 39 

Australia, discovery of, 56 ; colonisation of, 
5-6, 91, 103 ; formation of Commonwealth 
of, 103; in 1910, 118 

Austria, Habsburg power in, 11; unions 
with Hungary and Bohemia, 14, 32; 
losses in Switzerland, 12, 19 ; Burgundian 
inheritance, 14, 32; struggles with Hun- 
gary, 12, 14, 26; acquires suzerainty 
over Wiirtemberg, 16 ; its bishoprics, 17 ; 
Circle of, 18; Reformation in, 39, 40; 
in 16th century, 31-3; struggles with 
Turks, 45-6; at Westphalia, 50, 54; at 
Utrecht, 63; in 18th century, 4, 64-5; 
and partition of Poland, 73-4; at Campo 
Formio, 79; at Lun^ville, 80; at Press- 
burg, 82; at Schonbrunn, 84; settlement 
of 1815, 86-7; in Germanic Confedera- 
tion, 88; and Schleswig-Holstein, 93-4; 
losses of, in Italy, 95; annexes Bosnia 
and Herzegovina, 98; in 1910, 116 

Auxarre, lost and recovered by France, 13 

Ava, kingdom of, 108 

Avignon (Papal enclave), 62; annexed 
by France, 78, 79; at Peace of Paris, 
86 

Axim, Dutch at, 58 

Azoff, conquest of, 71 

Azores, Portuguese at, 46, 48 

Baden, house of, 16; territories of, united 
by I3aden-Durlach line, 69; in Suabian 
Circle, 18; religion in, 39, 40; in 1796, 
79; in 1803, 81; in 1805, 82; in Con- 
federation of Rhine, 83 ; and settlement of 
1815, 87, 88; in Germanic Confederation, 
88; joins Zollverein, 93; joins North 
German Confederation, 94; in German 
Empire, 95 

Baden-Baden, line of, 16 

Baden-Durlach, line of, 16, 69 

Baden-Pforzheim, line of, 16 

Bahama Islands, Columbus at, 47; British 
in, 58, 76 

Bahia, Dutch at, 59 

Baireuth, relations of, with Brandenburg, 
15; in Franconian Circle, 18; adopts 
Calvinism, 40; in 16th century, 66; 
acquired by Prussia, 67, by Bavaria, 84, 
87 

Bakchiserai, treaty of, 71 

Baku, annexations of, 72 



Index oj Local Names, 



123 



Balearic Islands, held by Aragon, 9; pass 
to Charles V, 32 ; retained by Spain, 33 

Baluchistan, British occupation of, 108 

Bamberg (bishopric), 17 ; in Franconian 
Circle, 18; remains Catholic, 40; acquired 
by Bavaria, 81 ; desired by Prussia, 82 

Banda Islands, disputed possession of, 47; 
Dutch in, 56 

Bantam, English and Dutch at, 56 

Bar, duchy of, acquired by Lorraine, 17; 
recovered by France, 50 

Barbados Island, British in, 57 

Barbuda Island, British in, 57 

Barcelona, peace of, 37 

Barcelonette, added by France, 62 

Bardo, treaty of. 111 

Baroda, Mahratha rule in, 105 

Bar-sur- Seine, lost and recovered by France, 
13 

Basel (bishopric), 17, secularised, 78, ac- 
quired by Baden, 81, ceded to Bern, 89; 
(Canton), I'J; peace of, 68, 78 

Bas Bhin (department), and settlement of 

1814, 85; Bavarian gains in, 88 
Basscin, treaty of, 105 

Basutoland, annexed by Cape of Good 

Hope, 104 
Batavia, Dutch in, 56, 57 
Bataviau Kepublic, formation of, 79 
Batoum, acquired by Eussia, 98, 100 
Battambang, acquired by France, 109 
Bavaria, house of, 15, 16; neighbouring 
bishoprics, 17; Circle of, 18; Beforma- 
tion in, 39, 40; at Westphalia, 54, 68; in 
18th century, 64, 68; in 1803, 81; in 
1805, 82 ; in Confederation of Khine, 83 ; 
at Schonbrunn, 83, 84 ; and settlement of 

1815, 87-8; in Germanic Confederation, 
88 ; in Zollverein, 93 ; in North German 
Confederation, 94; in German Empire, 
94-5 

Bavaria-Munich, line of, 16 

Bayazid, and treaty of San Stefano, 100 

Beam, held by Navarre, 9; conquered by 

France, 8 
Bechuanaland, annexation of, 104 
Beeskow, acquired by Brandenburg, 66 
Behar, British power in, 77 
Belfort, and treaty of Frankfort, 95 
Belgium, kingdom of, 98-9; in 1910, 115; 

dominion of in Congo, 111, 112 
Belgrade, independence of, 25; taken by 

Turks, 45, by Austrians, 65; peace of, 

65 
Beliinzona, conquered by Swiss, 20 
Benares, obtained by British, 104 
Benevento (Papal enclave), 22; given to 

Talleyrand, 84 ; restored to the Pope, 89 
Bengal, Danes in, 56; Dutch in, 57; French 

in, 77; British in, 77 
Bengal Duars, annexed by British, 107 
Bentheim, acquired by Hanover, 68 
Benue, river, British on. 111 
Berar, ceded to the Nizam, 105; annexed 

by BiiLish, 106 



Berchtesgaden, given to Dalberg, 81, to 
Austria, 82, to Bavaria, 84 

Berg, relations of, with Rhenish States, 16; 
in Westphalian Ch'cle, 18; religion in, 
40 ; acquired by Palatinate, 68 ; created a 
grand duchy, 82 ; in Confederation of the 
Ehine, 83; enlarged, 84; and settlement 
of 1815, 87 

Bergamo, Venetian conquest of, 23 

Bergen, conquered by United Provinces, 43 

BerUn, treaty of, 97-8, 100 

Bermuda Islands, British in, 57 

Bern, joins Swiss Confederation, 19 ; acqui- 
sitions of, 19-20, 36; and settlement of 
1815, 89 

Bernburg. See Anhalt-Bernburg 

Berwick, frontier disputed at, 10 

Besangon (Imperial town), 17 

Bessarabia, annexed by Russia, 5, 98; 
territory ceded to Moldavia, 98, 100, 
restored to Russia, 98, 100 

Beuthen, acquired by Brandenburg, 66 

Bialystok district, acquired by Russia, 84 

Biberach (Imperial town), 18 

Biel (Bienne), added to Swiss Confedera- 
tion, 19; annexed by France, 79; ceded 
to Bern, 89 

Bijapur, acquired by British, 106 

Bissagos Islands, acquired by Portugal, 110 

Bleking, held by Danes, 43; gained by 
Sweden, 52 

Bloemfontein, convention of, 103 

Blois, united with France, 8 

Bohemia, in Empire, 7; gains Silesia, 27; 
created an electorate, 14; unions with 
Hungary and Austria, 14, 32; losses to 
Brandenburg, 15; union with Poland, 27; 
losses to Hungary, 26; outside Imperial 
Circles, 18; passes to Ferdinand I, 33; 
Reformation in, 40 

Bohus, Norwegian possession of, 43, 52; 
gained by Sweden, 52 

Bokhara, Russian conquest in, 110 

Bolivia (Republic), 91, 102 

Bologna, and Papal rule, 21; secured by 
Julius II, 35; in Cispadane Republic, 79; 
surrendered by the Pope, 79; restored 
to the Pope, 89 

Bombay, acquired by English, 56 ; presidency 
of, 57, 76, 105 

Bormio, held by Milan, 21; conquered by 
Grisons, 20; added to Cisalpine Republic, 
79; restored to Austria, 87 

Borneo, Dutch in, 57 ; British in 109 

Bornholm, Danish possession of, 43 ; gained 
by Sweden, 52; restored to Denmark, 53 

Borromean League, formation of, 40 

Bosnia, Hungarian protectorate of, 26; 
annexed by Turks, 25; conquered by 
Matthias Corvinus, 26; (vilayet), 45; 
Austrian conquests in, 65 ; annexed by 
Austria, 98 

Bougainville Islands, acquired by British, 
113 

Bouillon, and settlement of 1815, 86, 89 



124 



Index of Local Names. 



Boulogne, ceded to Burgundy, 13; gained 
and restored by England, 37 

Bourbon, united with France, 8 

Brabant, added to Burgundy, 13 ; province 
of, 42 ; conquests in, by United Provinces, 
43 

Brandenburg, created an electorate, 14; 
territories of, 15; its bishoprics, 17; in 
Upper Saxon Circle, 18 ; Reformation in, 
39, 40; at peace of Westphalia, 53-4; 
expansion of, 3, 65-7; colonisation, 76; 
(bishopric), 17, secularised, 39, 53, 66, 
and Edict of Eestitution, 40 

Brazil, Portuguese in, 47, 48; Dutch con- 
quests in, 58, 59; achieves independence, 
91 ; disputed frontier of, 103 

Brazzo, conquered by Turks, 24 

Breda, conquered by United Provinces, 43; 
peace of, 57, 58 

Breisach, given to France, 50, 54 ; restored 
to Austria, 63 

Breisgau, acquired by Burgundy, 13 ; added 
to Habsburg dominions, 11 ; French gains 
in, 61; ceded to France, 80; given to 
Duke of Modena, 80 ; created a duchy, 81 ; 
acquired by Baden, 87, 88 

Bremen (bishopric), 17, in Lower Saxon 
Circle, 18, and the Reformation, 40, ob- 
tained by Sweden, 52, ceded to Hanover, 
62, 68; (Imperial town), 17, and settle- 
ment of 1803, 80, annexed by France, 
83, 85, in Germanic Confederation, 88, 
in North German Confederation, 94 

Brescia, conquered by Venice, 23 

Bresse, held by Savoy, 24 ; ceded to France, 
36, 38, 49, 55 

Brieg, ceded to Brandenburg, 66 

Bristol (bishopric), 10 

Britanny, united with France, 7 

British Central Africa, 103, 112 

Columbia, formation of, 103 

Guiana, disputed frontier of, 103 

Kaffraria, annexed by Cape of Good 

Hope, 104 

Brixen (bishopric), 17; in Austrian Circle, 
18 ; given to Austria, 81 ; ceded to Bavaria, 
82; restored to Austria, 86 
Bromsebro, peace of, 52 
Bruges, acquired by Burgundy, 12 
Brunei, acquired by British, 109 
Brunswick, house of, 16; its bishoprics, 
17; in Lower Saxon Circle, 18; adopts 
Protestantism, 39; acquisitions of, 68; 
and Confederation of the Rhine, 83; in 
kingdom of Westphalia, 84 ; in Germanic 
Confederation, 88 ; in North German Con- 
federation, 94; passes to Hohenzollerns, 
95 
Brunswick-Bevern, gains of, 68 
Brunswick-Liineburg, Reformation in, 40; 

see Hanover 
Brunswick- Wolfenbiittel, line of, 16; Re- 
formation in, 40; acquisitions of, 68; 
and settlement of 1803, 82 
Bucharest, treaty of, 98, 100 



Buda, captured by Turks, 45 ; (vilayet), 45 

Budziak, peace of, 73 

Buenos Aires, Spanish settlement at, 47; 

administration of, 59 
Bugey, held by Savoy, 24 ; ceded to France, 

36, 38, 49, 55 
Bugia, taken by Spain, 44 
Bukowina, acquired by Austria, 65 
Bulgaria, conquered by Turks, 25; in 

19th century, 97; in 1910, 116 

South, formation of, 97 

Bundelkhand, British acquisitions in, 105 
Bunhoa, occupied by French, 109 

Burg, acquired by Brandenburg, 67 
Burgau, Habsburg power in, 12 
Burgundy, formation of ducal power of, 
2, 12-14; Burgundian inheritance, 14, 
32, 42; (duchy), acouired by France, 7, 
38; Circle of, 18, 42, abolished, 81 
Burhampur, English at, 56 
Burma, annexed by British, 108-9 ; frontier 

of, 113 
Biitow, acquired by Brandenburg, 67 
Butrinto, captured by Turks, 26 ; recovered 
by Venice, 46 

Cadiz, harbour of, 9 

Caffa, Genoese possession of, 22; Venetian 

rights in, 24 
Cairo, Venetian rights in, 24 
Cajet, river, Portuguese foothold on, 111 
Calabria, and partition of Naples, 34 
Calais, English at, 8, 10; loss of, 37 
Calcutta, British at, 76-7 
Calenberg (Brunswick line), 16; united 

with Liineburg, 68 
Calicut, Dutch at, 57; British at, 104 
California, Spaniards in, 47, 59; Mexican 

losses in, 101, 102; formation of State 

of, 102 
Calmar, Union of, 29; its dissolution, 43 
Cambodia, placed under French protection, 

109 
Cambray, league of, 35; peace of, 34, 37, 

42; added to Netherlands, 42; acquired 

by France, 61 
Camerino, added to kingdom of Italy, 83; 

restored to Pope, 89 
Cameroons, annexed by Germany, 111 
Cammin (bishopric), 17; secularised, 39, 

54; Edict of Restitution and, 40; acquired 

by Brandenburg, 67 
Campagna, under Papal rule, 21-2 
Campo Formio, peace of, 78, 79, 86 
Canada, French in, 75; ceded to English, 

75, 91; boundary disputes with United 

States, 101 ; formation of the Dominion, 

103; in 1910, 118 

Lower, enters Confederation, 103 

Upper, enters Confederation, 103 

Canary Islands, given to Castile, 47 
Candia, conquered by Venice, 23 
Cannanor, Dutch at, 57 

Cape Breton Isle, ceded to English, 75 
— — Coast Castle, English at, 58 



Index of Local Names. 



125 



Cape Horn, rounded, 47 

of Good Hope, Portuguese at, 46; 

Dutch at, 57, 59, 76; English at, 91, 
103, 107; expansion of, 104; in Union 
of South Africa, 104 

Verde, French at, 76 

Islands, Portuguese at, 46 



Carelia, acquired by Sweden, 70, by Kussia, 

71 
Carinthia, Habsburg power in, 11 ; restora- 
tion of Hungarian conquests in, 14; 
Austrian losses in, 84; recovered by 
Austria, 87 
Carlowitz, peace of, 64, 73 
Carnatic, under British rule, 104 
Carniola, Habsburg power in, 11; ceded 

to France, 84; restored to Austria, 87 
Carolina, settlement of, 57; formation of 
two colonies of, 75 ; in the Civil War, 102 
Caroline Islands, Germans in, 113 
Caspian Sea, navigation of, 100 
Cassel. See Hesse-Cassel 
Castile, united with Aragon, 8; colonial 

enterprise of, 46-7 
Cateau Cambr^sis, peace of, 37-8, 42 
Cattaro, Venetian possession of, 23; ac- 
quired by Austria, 86; its value to 
Montenegro, 116 
Caucasus, Kussian conquests in, 72, 98, 

100; in 1910, 117 
Cawnpore, overthrow of native power in, 

106 
Cayenne, French at, 58 
Celebes Island, Dutch conquest of, 57 
Cephalonia, lost and recovered by Venice, 

26 
Cerdagne, held by Aragon, 9; acquired 
by France, 8; restored to Aragon, 9, 
37; recovered by France, 50 
Ceva, acquired by Savoy, 36 
Ceylon, Portuguese in, 47, 48; Dutch in, 

56-7, 77; British in, 91, 105-6 
Chablais, Swiss gain and loss of, 20, 36; 

settlement of 1815, 88 
Chad, Lake, English at. 111 
Cham, gained by Bavaria, 54, 68 
Chambery, and settlement of 1814, 86 
Champagne, acquired by France, 7 
Chandernagore, French at, 77, 109 
Channel Islands, British possession of, 117 
Charolais (Charolles), acquired by Bur- 
gundy, 12; seized by Louis XI, 8, 13; 
ceded to the Empire, 14, 37 
Chartres, acquired by France, 7 
Chaumont, treaty of, 88 
Chemling, agreement of 1907, 109 
Cherasco, acquired by Savoy, 36 
Cbernigoff (principality), 28; annexed by 
Ivan III, 29; restored to Poland, 55, 
70; recovered by Russia, 73 
Chester (bishopric), 10 
Chiavenna, conquered by Grisons, 20; 
added to Cisalpine Republic, 79; re- 
stored to Austria, 87 
Chieri, peace of, 36 



Chile, Spanish conquest of, 47; adminis- 
tration of, 59; achieves independence, 
91; disputed frontier of, 102 
China, Portuguese in, 47, 48; and Tibet, 
108; European influence in, 113-4; in 
1910, 118 
Chios, Genoese possession of, 22 
Chitral, annexed by British, 108 

Chittagong (province), 108 

Choiseul Island, acquired by British, 113 

Christiansborg, Danes at, 58 

Circassian district, annexed by Russia, 100 

Cisalpine RepubUc, formation of, 79, 80; 
forms part of Italian Republic, 83 

Cispadane Republic, formation of, 79 

Cleve, relations of, with Rhenish States, 
16; in Westphalian Circle, 18; adopts 
Calvinism, 40; acquired by Brandenburg, 
66; ceded to France, 78; given to Berg, 
82; restored to Prussia, 87' 

Coburg, included in Ernestine Saxony, 15; 
house of, 68 

Cocconato, acquired by Savoy, 36 

Cochin, Portuguese at, 47, 48; Dutch at, 
57; British at, 91 

Cochin China, French acquisitions in, 109 

Colmar (Imperial town), 17, 50 

Cologne (electorate), 14, in Lower Rhe- 
nish Circle, 18, and the Reformation, 40, 
abolished, 81, and settlement of 1815, 
87; (Imperial town), 17 

Colombia, republic of, 91, 102; United 
States of, 102 

Colombo, Portuguese at, 48; Dutch at, 57 

Colorado, Mexican losses in, 101; forma- 
tion of State of, 102 

Columbia, river, exploration of, 90 

Cond6, acquired by France, 61, 62 

Confederation of the Rhine, 5, 82-3, 88 

Conflans, acquired by France, 50 

Congo, Portuguese in, 58; Belgians in, 
111, 112; French in. 111 

Connecticut, settlement of, 57 ; united with 
New Haven, 57 

Constance (bishopric), 17, and Reformation, 
40, acquired by Baden, 81; (Imperial 
town), 18, trade route through, 23 

Constantinople, captured by Turks, 25; 
trade routes of, 23; Venetian rights in, 
24; peace of (1540), 46; (1784), 72 

Cook Islands, placed under government of 
New Zealand, 113 

Coorg, annexed by British, 106 

Copenhagen, peace of, 53 

Cordillera, and arbitration of 1881, 102 

Cordoba, administration of, 59 

Corfu, conquered by Venice, 23 

Cormentine, English at, 58; conquered by 
Dutch, 58 

Coromandel Coast, Portuguese settlements 
on, 48; Danish, 56; Dutch, 56, 57; 
British, 77; French, 77 

Coron, captured by Turks, 26 

Corsica, held by Genoa, 23; acquired by 
France, 34, 37, 62 



126 



Index of Local Names. 



Corvey, given to William V of Orange, 
81 

Costa Rica, independence of, 91, 102 

Cottbus, acquired by Brandenburg, 15, 
by Saxony, 84, by Prussia, 87 

Courland, conquered by German Order, 
27 ; passes to Brandenburg, 50 ; under 
Polish suzerainty, 60, 51; acquired by 
Russia, 71, 73 

Courtrai, acquired by France, 61 

Cracow, acquired by Austria, 65, 74; added 
to grand duchy of Warsaw, 84; and 
settlement of 1815, 86, 99 

Cranganor, Dutch at, 57 

Crema, held by Venice, 23 

Cremona, given to Venice, 34 

Crete, Venetian and Ottoman conquests 
of, 46, 55; autonomy of, 98 

Crimea, khanate of, 29; conquered by the 
Turks, 70, by Russia, 72 

Croatia, Habsburg power in, 45, 64; and 
settlement of 1815, 87 

Cuba, Spanish occupation of, 47; inde- 
pendence of, 103 

Cujavia, acquired by Prussia, 73 

Calm, ceded to Poland, 27 

Cura^oa, Dutch in, 58 

Guyo, administration of, 69 

Cyclades Islands, acquired by Greece, 97 

Cyprus, acquired by Venice, 23-4; pro- 
posed cession to Savoy, 35; acquired by 
Turks, 46, 65; administered by Great 
Britain, 98, 107, 109 

Daghestan, Russian conquests in, 100 
Dago, conquered by German Order, 27, 

by Denmark, 50, 52, by Sweden, 52 
Dahomey, conquest of. 111 
Dakar, acquired by French, 76 
Dalmatia, Hungarian power in, 26; Vene- 
tian, 23; Ottoman, 25, 46; proposed 
cession to Empire, 35 ; occupied by 
Austria, 79 ; added to kingdom of Italy, 
82, 83; restored to Austria, 86 
Damaun, Portuguese at, 48, 77, 109 
Damaraland, German protectorate of, 111 
Damascus, Venetian rights in, 24 
Damm, ceded to Prussia, 67 
Dannenberg (Brunswick line), 16 
Dansai, restored to Siam, 109 
Danube towns, Habsburg power in, 11 
Danzig, ceded to Poland, 27; Swedish 
rights in, 51; acquired by Prussia, 67, 
73; in Napoleonic age, 84; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 99 
Darfur, French dominion in. 111 
Darmstadt. See Hesse-Darmstadt 
Dauphin^, acquired by France, 7; Refor- 
mation in, 41 
Debreczen, acquired by Turks, 45 
Deccan, Portuguese in, 48 ; British dominion 

in, 106 
Delagoa Bay, Portuguese at, 48, 76, 112 
Delaware (river), colonial struggles on, 57, 
58; (colony), foundation of, 75 



Delgado, Cape, and Portuguese East Africa, 
76 

Delhi, overthrow of native power in, 106 

Delmenhorst, acquired by Oldenburg, 16; 
in 17th and 18th centuries, 69 

Denmark, in Empire, 7; Union of Calmar 
and, 29; at dissolution of Union, 43-4; 
Reformation in, 41; Swedish Wars, 3, 
50, 52-3; in 1648, 64-5; and Germanic 
Confederation, 88; settlement of 1815, 
89-90; and Schleswig-Holstein, 17, 69, 
93-4; in 1910, 117; colonisation, 56, 
58, 76-7, 109, 110 

Derbent, annexations of, 72 

Desna, river, boundary of Muscovite em- 
pire, 29 

Dessau. See Anhalt-Dessau 

Deulino, truce of, 70 

Ditmarschen (free republic), 17; annexed 
by Holstein, 44 

Diu, Portuguese at, 48, 77, 109 

Dixcove, English at, 58 

Dobrudja, acquired by Roumania, 97 

Dominica, acquired by English, 76 

Donau worth (Imperial town), 18 

Dortmund (Imperial town), 17; given to 
William V of Orange, 81 

Douai, acquired by France, 61 

Doubs (department), and settlement of 
1814, 86 

Drenthe, Burgundian power in, 13 

Dulcigno, acquired by Montenegro, 98, 116 

Durazzo, Venetian possession, 23; cap- 
tured by Turks, 26 

Durlach. See Baden-Durlach 

Dutch Indies, German influence round, 113 

Echallens, conquest of, 24 

Ecuador (Republic), 91, 102; disputed 
frontier of, 103 

Eger, acquired by Turks, 45 

Egypt, Venetian influence in, 23; Otto- 
man conquest of, 44 ; settlement of 1815, 
98 ; British occupation of, 98, 107 

Eichsfeld, dependency of Mainz, 14 ; given 
to Prussia, 82 

Eichstadt (bishopric), 17 ; divided by Ba- 
varia and Salzburg, 81 

Eisenach. See Saxe-Eisenach 

Elba, and settlement of 1815, 89 

Elbe, river, Sweden and, 52, 62; France 
and, 85 

Elaphanta Island, acquired by British, 
104 

Eleuthera Island, British in, 58 

Elfborg, geographical importance of, 43 

Ellice Islands, British in, 113 

Ellwangen (abbey), 17 

Elmina, Dutch at, 58 

Elsass, Habsburg power in, 12; in Upper 
Rhenish Circle, 18; passes to Ferdinand 
I, 33; and Edict of Restitution, 40; 
French annexation of, 33, 50, 54, 55, 62, 
64; ceded to German Empire, 95, 96 

Emilia, under Papal rule, 21 



Index of Local Names. 



127 



Empire, Holy Roman, composition and im- 
portance of, 1, 7, 11; Holstein's position 
in, 17; Circles of, 18; and Peace of 
Westphalia, 2, 53-4; abolition of, 6, 83. 
See also Austria 

Ems, river, France and, 85 

England, in Holy Roman Empire, 7; con- 
nexion with France, 8, 10, 13; Refor- 
mation in, 38, 41; capture and loss of 
Boulogne, 37 ; dynastic union with Spain, 
11 ; loss of Calais, 37 ; union with Scot- 
land, 10, 38; in 1648, 55. See Great 
Britain 

Epirus, conquered by Turks, 25; Greek 
acquisitions in, 97 

Eretrea, Italian occupation of, 112 

Erfurt, dependency of Mainz, 14; trans- 
ferred to Prussia, 82 

Erivan, acquired by Russia, 100 

Ermeland, ceded to Poland, 27; seized and 
restored by Brandenburg, 66; acquired 
by Prussia, 67, 73 

Esslingen (Imperial town), 18 

Esthonia, conquered by German Order, 27, 
29, by Sweden, 60, 51, by Russia, 63, 71 

Etruria, kingdom of, 80, 83 

Euboea. See Negropont 

Faenza, conquered by Venice, 35; recovered 
by Julius II, 35 

Falkenstein, ceded to France, 80 

Faucigny, settlement of 1815, 88 

Ferghana (Khokand), Russian conquest of, 
110 

Fernando Po, acquired by Spanish, 76 

Ferrara (Papal fief), 22, 24, 36; under 
direct Papal rule, 35, 36, 55; Reforma- 
tion in, 41; in Cispadane Republic, 79; 
surrendered by Pope, 79; and settlement 
of 1816, 89 

Fiji, annexed by British, 112 

Finland, conquered by Sweden, 27, 43; 
Russian gains in, 51, 63; annexed by 
Russia, 71, 90, 99; in 1910, 117 

Finmark, Russian claims to, ceded, 61; 
Swedish, 52 

Firando, EngHsh and Dutch at, 56 

Fiume, ceded to France, 84; restored to 
Austria, 87 

Flanders, acquired by Burgundy, 12 ; 
added to the Empire, 11 ; French claims 
resigned, 37, 42 ; annexed to Nether- 
lands, 38, 42; Dutch conquests in, 43; 
French gains in, 60, 78 

Florence, geographical position of, 20 ; 
territories of, 21 ; suzerainty over Piom- 
bino, 24 ; changes of rule in, 36 ; capital 
of Italy fixed at, 96 

Florida, Spaniards in, 47, 57; ceded to 
English, 75; restored to Spain, 90, 91; 
acquired by United States, 90; forma- 
tion of State of, 102 ; in Civil War, 102 

Foix, united with France, 8 

Fontainebleau, peace of, 86 

Forez, united with France, 8 



Formosa, Dutch in, 57; acquired by Japan, 

114 
Fort Hollandia, occupied by Dutch, 76 

Nassau, Dutch at, 58 

St George, built, 56, 76 

William, built, 76 

York, ceded to France, 75 

Zelandia, Dutch at, 57 

France, in Holy Roman Empire, 7 ; English 
power in, 8, 10; in 15th century, 2, 7-8; 
dominion in Italy, 33-4; in 16th century, 
2, 37-8; Reformation in, 41; in 17th 
century, 3, 50, 64, 65, 61-2; at Utrecht, 
63-4; Napoleonic age, 78-86; in 19th 
century, 96 ; in 1910, 115-6 ; discoveries in 
N. America, 48 ; early colonial enterprise, 
56-9 ; gains and losses in 17th and 18th 
centuries, 76-8; losses in Napoleonic 
Wars, 91, 106 ; dominion in Africa, 107, 
110-2, in Asia, 109, 113-4, in Pacific 
Islands, 112-3 ; colonial position in 1910, 
117-8 

Tranche Comte, acquired by Burgundy, 12 ; 
seized by Louis XI, 8, 13; ceded to 
Empire, 14, 37; in Burgundian Circle, 
18, 42 ; passes to Philip II, 33 ; proposed 
surrender to France, 63 ; ceded to France, 
33, 61 

Franconia, and partition of Saxony, 15; 
created a Circle, 18; and Edict of Resti- 
tution, 40 

Frankfort (Imperial town), 18; settlement 
of 1803, 80 ; in Germanic Confederation, 
88; joins Zollverein, 93; annexed by 
Prussia, 94; treaty of (1871), 95 

Frederiksborg, Danes at, 58 

Frederikshamm, peace of, 71, 99 

Freiburg (Imperial town), 17; acquired by 
France, 61; restored to Austria, 62, 63 

(Swiss canton), 19; acquisitions of, 

19-20, 36; and Reformation, 40 

Freising (bishopric), 17; acquired by 

Bavaria, 81 
Frick Valley, surrendered by Austria, 80 
Friedberg (Imperial town), 18, 81 
Friesland, Burgundian power in, 13; added 

to the Netherlands, 42; joins Union, 43 

East, adopts Lutheranism, 40; ac- 
quired by Prussia, 67, by Holland, 85, 
by Hanover, 87, by Prussia, 94 

Friuli, Habsburg power in, 11; conquered 
by Venice, 23; settlement of 1815, 87 

Fulda (abbey), 17; given to William V 
of Orange, 81 

Gaeta (duchy), 84 

Galata, held by Genoese, 22 

Galicia, acquired by Austria, 73; treaty of 

Schonbrunn, 84; settlement of 1815, 99 
Gambia, river, English on, 58; French on, 

76 
Gandja, treaty of, 72; capture of, 72 
Gando, English at. 111 
Ganges, river, British and, 105 
Gastein, convention of, 94 



128 



Index of Local Names, 



Gelderland, acquired by Burgundy, 13; 

regains independence, 14 ; added to 

Netherlands, 42; joins the Union, 43 

Gelders, Upper, ceded to Prussia, 64, 67, 

to France, 78; restored to Prussia, 87 

Generaliteitslandf and the United Nether- 
lands, 43 
Geneva, added to Swiss Confederation, 19; 
Eeformation in, 40 ; annexed by France, 
79; and settlement of 1815, 88, 89 

Genoa, possessions of, 22-3 ; French occu- 
pation of, 34 ; deprived of Corsica, 37 ; 
formed into Ligurian Republic, 79 ; 
settlement of 1815, 88 

Georgia, annexed by Eussia, 72 

(American colony), foundation, 75; 

in the Civil War, 102 

Germanic Confederation, formation of, 5, 
88 ; and Luxemburg, 99 ; and Schleswig- 
Holstein, 93; dissolution of, 94 

German Order, power of, 27; gains in- 
fluence in Eussia, 28; and Denmark, 
29; decline of, 30, 50 

Germany, in 15th and 16th centuries, 2, 
14-9; Habsburg power in, 31-2; Eefor- 
mation in, 39-40; in 17th century, 8, 
63-4 ; in 18th century, 4, 64 ; Napoleonic 
settlement of, 80-4; and settlement of 
1815, 87-8; in 19th century, 5, 92-5; in 
1910, 115 ; dominion in Africa, 111-2, in 
China, 114, in Pacific Islands, 112-3; 
colonial power in 1910, 117-8 

Gex, Pays de, held by Savoy, 24 ; acquired 
and restored by Swiss, 20, 36 ; ceded to 
France, 36, 38, 49, 55; and peace of 
Paris, 86 

Ghent, acquired by Burgundy, 12 

Ghiara d'Adda, given to Venice, 34 

Gibraltar, taken by Great Britain, 33, 63, 
107, 117 

Gila, river, sale of territory round, 101, 
102 

Gilbert Islands, British in, 113 

Gilyan, acquired by Eussia, 72 

Gironde, Huguenots in, 41 

Glarus, joins Swiss Confederation, 19 

Glatz, acquired by Prussia, 67 

Gloucester (bishopric), 10 

Gmiind (Imperial town), 18 

Goa, Portuguese at, 48, 77, 104, 109; 
British acquisitions near, 106 

Gold Coast, settlements on, 58, 59, 76, 110 

Golden Horde, disruption of, 29 

Goletta, Turks and Spaniards in, 44 

GoUnow, ceded to Prussia, 67 

Gor^e Island, Dutch at, 58; ceded to 
France, 76 

Goslar (Imperial town), 18; transferred to 
Prussia, 82, to Hanover, 87 

Gottland, conquered by German Order, 
27; a Danish fief, 43, 52; given to 
Sweden, 52 

Gottorp, independence of, 52, 53; in 17th 
and 18th centuries, 69 

Gourara, occupied by French, 111 



Gran, conquered by the Turks, 45 

Granada, conquest of, 9; treaty of, 34 

Grandson, conquest of, 19, 24 

Gravelines, gained by France, 50 

Great Britain, formation of, 10; gains 
Minorca and Gibraltar, 33, 63 ; relations of, 
vpith Hanover, 74; and settlement of 1815, 
90, 96; gives up Hanover, 93; gives up 
Ionian Islands, 97 ; acquires administra- 
tion of Cyprus, 98 ; gives up Heligoland, 
95, 109; in 1910, 117; motives of coloni- 
sation, 11, 31, 39; early colonisation, 
56-9; in 17th and 18th centuries, 75-7; 
gains in Napoleonic Wars, 90-1, in 19th 
century, 103-9; dominion in Africa, 98, 
110-2, in China, 113, in Pacific Islands, 
112-3; colonial position in 1910, 117-8 

Greece, in 19th century, 96-7 

Grenada, acquired by English, 76 

Griqualand West, annexed by Cape of 
Good Hope, 104 

Grisons, added to Swiss Confederation, 19 ; 
conquests of, 20; losses of in 1797, 79; 
created a canton, 80 

Groningen, Burgundian power in, 13 ; 
province of, 42; joins the Union, 43 

Grossfriedrichsburg, founded by Branden- 
burg, 76 ; purchased by Dutch, 76 

Grosswardein, acquired by Turks, 45 

Grubenhagen, Brunswick line of, 16 

Gruy^res (Greyerz), conquered by Swiss, 
20 

Guadaloupe, French in, 58 

Guadaloupe Hidalgo, treaty of, 101 

Guam Island, acquired by United States, 
102 

Guastalla, annexed by France, 83; settle- 
ment of 1815, 89 

Guatemala, Spanish administration of, 59; 
achieves independence, 91, 102 

Guiana, French in, 58, 59; British in, 91 

Guinea Coast, Dutch settlements on, 76 

Gujerat, Dutch at, 57; British acquisitions 
in, 105 

Guntur, acquired by British, 104 

Gusinje, ceded to Ottoman empire, 98 

Guyenne, acquired by France, 7 

Gwahor, Mahratha rule in, 105 

Hagenau (Imperial town), 17, 50 

Hague, treaty of, 78-9 ^ 

Haidarabad, British dependency of, 105 ^ 

Hainault, acquired by Burgundy, 13; in 
Netherlands, 42 ; French gains in, 50, 61 

Halberstadt (bishopric), 17; and the Eefor- 
mation, 40; acquired by Brandenburg, 
54, 67; and settlement of 1815, 87 

Hall (Imperial town), 18 

Halland, held by Danes, 43; gained by 
Sweden, 52 

Hamburg (Imperial town), 17; and settle- 
ment of 1803, 80; annexed by France, 
83, 85; in Germanic Confederation, 88; 
in North German Confederation, 94 

Hauau, partition of, 69 



Index of Local Names. 



129 



Hanover, acquisitions of, 62, 68 ; settlement 
of 1803, 82; at Schonbrunn, 82; in 
kingdom of Westphalia, 84; in Germanic 
Confederation, 88; and settlement of 
1815, 87, 90 ; separated from Great 
Britain, 93; annexed by Prussia, 94. 
See also Brunswick-Liineburg 

Hanse Towns, early importance of, 29; 
survival of, 80; enter Zollverein, 95 

Havelberg (bishopric), 17; secularised, 89, 
53, 66; and Edict of Eestitution, 40 

Hawaii, acquired by United States, 102, 
113 

Hayti, achieves independence, 91 ; relations 
with Santo Domingo, 103 

Hechingen. See Hohenzollern-Hechingen 

Heidelberg, acquired by Baden, 81, 88 

Heilbronn (Imperial town), 18 

Heligoland, acquired by England, 90; ceded 
to Germany, 95, 109, 117 

Helvetic Eepublic, formation of, 79 

Herford, acquired by Brandenburg, 66 

Herjedalen, held by Danes, 43, 52; given 
to Sweden, 52 

Hersfeld (abbey), 17; obtained by Hesse- 
Cassel, 54 

Herzegovina, annexed by Turks, 25, by 
Austria, 98 

Hesdin, gained by France, 50 

Hesse, in 15th and 16th centuries, 16; 
neighbouring abbeys, 17; adopts Protes- 
tantism, 39 ; in 17th and 18th centuries, 
68; and North German Confederation, 
94; and German Empire, 95 

Hesse-Cassel, house of, 16; adopts Calvinism, 
40 ; gains at Westphalia, 54, 69 ; losses at 
peace of Basel, 78 ; created an electorate, 
81 ; and settlement of 1803, 81 ; Confeder- 
ation of the Ehine, 83; in kingdom of 
Westphalia, 84 ; and settlement of 1815, 
88; in Germanic Confederation, 88 ; joins 
Zollverein, 93; annexed by Prussia, 94 

Hesse-Darmstadt, house of, 16; and Re- 
formation, 40; disputes with Hesse- 
Cassel, 69; and settlement of 1803, 81, 
of 1805, 82 ; in Confederation of Rhine, 
83; and settlement of 1815, 88; in 
Germanic Confederation, 88; acquires 
Hesse-Homburg, 93 ; joins Zollverein, 
93 ; Prussian acquisitions in, 94 

Hesse-Homburg, and settlement of 1815, 
88; in Germanic Confederation, 88; 
annexed by Hesse-Darmstadt, 93, by 
Prussia, 93, 94 

Hesse-Marburg, line of, 16; extinction of, 
69 

Hesse-Rheinfels, line of, 16 

Hexhamshire, included in Northumberland, 
10 

Hildburghausen. See Saxe-Hildburghausen 

Hildesheim (bishopric), 17; and the Re- 
formation, 39, 40; desired by Brunswick- 
Liineburg, 54; given to Prussia, 82, to 
Hanover, 87 

Hindustan, British dominion in, 106 

C. U. H. VOL. XIV. 



Hispaniola, Columbus at, 47 

Hohenberg, Habsburg power in, 12 

Hohenzollern-Hechingen, in Confederation 
of the Rhine, 83; in Germanic Confedera- 
tion, 88; annexed by Prussia, 93 

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, in Confedera- 
tion of the Rhine, 83 ; in Germanic 
Confederation, 88; annexed by Prussia, 
93 

Holkar, British acquisitions in, 105 

Holland (county), added to Burgundy, 13; 
province of Netherlands, 42; joins Union, 
43. See Netherlands 

Holstein, political position of, 17, 30, 
44; in Lower Saxon Circle, 18; adopts 
Lutheranism, 39, 40; Danish King re- 
nounces rights in, 52 ; in 17th and 18th 
centuries, 69 ; in Germanic Confederation, 
88 ; in 19th century, 93-4 

Honduras, Columbus at, 47 ; independent 
State of, 91, 102; British power in, 91 

Hong-Kong, acquired by British, 109, 113 

Hooghly, river, English at, 56 

Hormuz, Portuguese at, 48 

Hubertusburg, peace of, 67 

Hudson, river, colonial struggles on, 57, 75 

Hudson's Bay, British power in, 91; pur- 
chase of the Company's territories, 103 

Hue, treaty of, 109 

Huguenots, distribution of, 41 

Hulst, conquered by United Provinces, 43 

Hungary, in Holy Roman Empire, 7; 
unions with Austria and Bohemia, 14, 
32; struggles with Venice, 23; under 
Matthias Corvinus, 12, 26; union with 
Poland, 27; passes to Ferdinand I, 33; 
Reformation in, 41; Ottoman advance 
in, 33, 45-6 ; Habsburg recovery of, 3, 64 

Idaho (State), formation of, 102 

Idstein, house of Nassau at, 69 

lie de France. See Mauritius 

Illinois (State), formation of, 90 

lUyrian provinces, formation of, 84 

Imbros, conquered by Turks, 2 

Imeritia, annexed by Russia, 72 

Imola, and Papal rule, 21 

India, first settlements in, 46-7, 56-7; in 
18th century, 76-7 ; in Napoleonic age, 
91; in 19th century, 104-10 

Indiana (State), formation of, 90 

Indore, Mabratha rule in, 105 

Ingria, gained by Sweden, 51, 70, by 
Russia, 71 

Innsbruck, trade route of, 23 

Innviertel, acquired by Austria, 64, 68, by 
Bavaria, 84 

Insalah, occupied by French, 111 

Ionian Islands, French in, 79 ; created a Re- 
public, 80; English protectorate of, 90; 
acquired by Greece, 98, 117 

Iowa (State), formation of, 102 

Ireland, in Holy Roman Empire, 7; con- 
quest of, and union with Great Britain, 
10; in 1648, 65 

9 



130 



Index of Local Names, 



Irrawaddy, river, British on, 106, 108 
Isenburg, settlement of 1803, 82; in Con- 
federation of the Rhine, 83 
Isny (Imperial town), 18 
Issik Kul, Russian influence round, 110 
Istria, Habsburg power in, 11 ; Venetian, 
28 ; proposed cession to the Empire, 35 ; 
occupied by Austria, 79 ; added to king- 
dom of Italy, 82, 83 ; restored to Austria, 
86 
Italian Republic, formation of, 80, 83 
Italy, in Holy Roman Empire, 7, 11 ; early 
ideas of Balance of Power in, 1 ; in 15th 
century, 20-5 ; outside Imperial Circles, 
18; Habsburg power in, 31, 32; at 
division of Habsburg Empire, 33 ; and 
Reformation, 38 ; foreign dominion in, 2, 
33-7; at Cateau Cambr^sis, 38; in 1648, 
65; at Utrecht, 63-4; and Napoleonic 
Wars, 4, 79, 80, 83-4 ; and settlement of 
1815, 88-9 ; in 19th century, 5, 95-6 ; in 
1910, 116; colonisation, 112 
Ivory Coast, French dominion on, 111 

Jacatra, Dutch in, 56 

Jacobabad, treaty of, 108 

Jaffnapatam, Dutch at, 57 

Jagerndorf, and Brandenburg, 66; (part) 

and Prussia, 67 
Jalandhar Doab, annexed by British, 106 
Jamaica, occupied by Spanish, 47, by 

British, 58, 76 
Jamestown, foundation of, 57 
Japan, Portuguese in, 47, 48 ; English and 

Dutch in, 56 ; war with Russia, 6, 113-4; 

in 1910, 118 
Jaroslavl (principality), 28; annexed by 

Ivan III, 29 
Jassy, treaty of, 72 
Java, Portuguese in, 48; English in, 56; 

Dutch in, 56, 57 
Jemappes (department), and settlement of 

1814, 85 
Jemteland, held by Danes, 43, 52; given 

to Sweden, 52 
Jerusalem, Venetian rights in, 24 
Jever, acquired by Oldenburg, 16; extinction 

of the line of, 69 
Jhansi, annexed by British, 106 
Juan de Fuca, and arbitration of 1872, 

101 
Jiilich, relations with Rhenish States, 16; 

in Westphalian Circle, 18; and Reforma- 
tion, 39; claimed by Brandenburg, 66; 

acquired by Palatinate, 68; ceded to 

France, 78; and settlement of 1803, 81; 

and settlement of 1815, 87 
Jutland (province), 44 

Kabardia, Russian conquests in, 72 
Kachar, acquired by British, 108 
Kaisersberg (Imperial town), 50 
Kalisch, treaty of, 88 
Kama, river, boundary of Muscovite empire, 
29 



Kameniec, lost and recovered by Poland, 73 
Kamschatka, Cossacks at, 60, 114 
Kansas (State), formation of, 102 
Kardis, peace of, 51, 52 
Karical, French at, 109 
Kars, acquired by Russia, 98 
Kashmir, British influence in, 106 
Katzenellenbogen, ceded to France, 78 
Kaufbeuren (Imperial town), 18 
Kazan (khanate), 29; annexed by Russia, 

70 
Kedah, placed under British influence, 109 
Kehl, gained and restored by France, 62, 63 
Kelantan, placed under British influence, 

109 
Kempten (Imperial town), 18 
Kentucky (State), formation of, 90 
Kerch, conquered by Russia, 71 
Kexholm, Swedish loss and recovery of, 51 ; 

ceded to Russia, 63 
Khiva, occupied by Russia, 107, 110 
Khokand, Russian conquest of, 110 
Kiaochau, German lease of, 114 
Kieff (principality), 27, 28; recovered by 

Russia, 71 
Kimberley, annexed by Cape of Good Hope, 

104 
Kirghiz Steppes, Russian conquest of, 107, 

110 
Kleck, Ottoman possession of, 87 
Klondyke, goldfields of, 102 
Knared, peace of, 52 
Knights of the Sword, gains of, 27 ; collapse 

of, 50 ; and settlement of 1803, 82 
Koh-Kutt, restored to Siam, 109 
Kokang, acquired by Great Britain, 113 
Kolaba, British acquisitions near, 106; 

annexation of, 106 
Korah, ceded to Great Britain, 104 
Korea, and Russo-Japanese War, 114 
Kothen. See Anhalt-Kothen 
Kouba, conquered by Russia, 72 
Kowloon, acquired by British, 113 
Kratt, restored to Siam, 109 
Kroja, conquered by Turks, 26 
Krossen, annexed by Brandenburg, 15 
Kuban, conquered by Russia, 71 ; annexa- 
tion of, 72, 100 
Kuldja, occupied by Russia, 110 
Kulmerland, acquired by Prussia, 67 
Kurdistan, Ottoman conquests in, 44 
Kurile Islands, Russian claims in, 114 
Kurnool, annexed by British, 106 
Kutchuk Kainardji, peace of, 71, 72 
Kuttack, acquired by British, 104 
Kwang-chow-wan, French lease of, 114 
Kwanghung, ceded to China, 113 
Kymmene, river, boundary of Russian 

Finland, 63, 71 

Labiau, Swedish rights in, 51 
Labrador, discovery of, 48 
Labnan, acquired by British, 109 
Lado enclave, leased to Leopold I, 112 
Lagos, acquired by British, 110 



Index of Local Navies. 



131 



Lalitpur, annexed by British, 106 

La Marche, united with France, 8 

Landau (Imperial town), 18, 50; acquired 
by France, 62, 63 ; and first peace of 
Paris, 85 ; and second peace of Paris, 86, 
87 

Landrecies, gained by France, 50 

Landshut, Bavarian house at, 16 

Laos, acquired by France, 114 

La Plata, river, disputes at, 59 

Lauenburg, acquired by Brandenburg, 67, 
by Hanover, 68; in kingdom of West- 
phalia, 84 ; ceded to Denmark, 87, 90 ; in 
Germanic Confederation, 88; acquired 
by Prussia, 93-4 

Laufenburg, Habsburg power in, 12; ceded 
to France, 80 

Lausanne, added to Swiss Confederation, 20 

League of God's House, 19 
of the Ten Jurisdictions, 19 

Lebus (bishopric), 17; secularised, 39, 68; 
and Edict of Kestitution, 40 

Leeward Islands, French expelled from, 76 

L^man (department), and settlement of 
1814, 86 

Lemnos, conquered by Venice, 23, by 
Turks, 25 

Lena, river, Cossacks at, 60 

Lepanto, captured by Turks, 26; battle 
of, 46 

Lesbos, held by Genoa, 22; conquered by 
Turks, 25 

Leutkirch (Imperial town), 18 

Leyen, von der (principality), in Confedera- 
tion of the Rhine, 83 

Lhassa, treaty of, 108 

Liao-Tung peninsula, acquired by Japan, 
114 

Liberia, republic of, 111, 112 

Lichtenberg, acquired by Prussia, 93 

Lichtenstein, in Confederation of Rhine, 
83; in Germanic Confederation, 88 

Li6ge (bishopric), 17; conquered by Bur- 
gundy, 13; regains independence, 14; 
in Westphalian Circle, 18; breaks unity 
of Netherlands, 42 ; in kingdom of 
Netherlands, 89 

Liegnitz, ceded to Brandenburg, 66 

Liguria, expansion of Savoy in, 36 ; forma- 
tion of Republic of, 79; annexed to 
France, 83 

Lille, acquired by France, 61, 62 

Lima, administration of, 59 

Limburg, added to Burgundy, 13; under 
Charles V, 42 ; Dutch conquests in, 43 ; 
included in kingdom of Netherlands, 89; 
in 19th century, 99 

Lindau (Imperial town), 18 

Lingen, acquired by Prussia, 67; added to 
grand duchy of Berg, 84; ceded to 
Hanover, 87 

Lippe, enters Confederation of Rhine, 83; 
in Germanic Confederation, 94 

Lippe-Detmold, in Germanic Confederation, 
88 J in North German Confederation, 94 



Lithuania, in Holy Roman Empire, 7 ; 
early history of, 27, 28 ; Union of Lublin, 
27, 61 ; partition of, 71, 74 

Livonia, conquered by German Order, 27, 
by Russia, 70, by Poland, 50, by Sweden, 
51, 53, 73 ; recovered by Russia, 63, 71 

Locarno, ceded to Swiss, 20 

Lodomeria, acquired by Austria, 73 

Lombardo- Venetian kingdom, 87 

Lombardy, plain of, 20; Venetians in, 35; 
French in, 34; in Napoleonic Wars, 79; 
and settlement of 1815, 88 ; conquered 
by Sardinia, 95 

London, treaty of (1827), 96; treaty of 
(1852), 93 

Long Island, settlement of, 57 

Lord Howe Islands, acquired by British, 
113 

Loretto, peace of, 36 

Lorraine, held by Duke of Anjou, 7; 
acquired by Burgundy, 13; regains in- 
dependence, 14; its bishoprics, 17; in 
Upper Rhenish Circle, 18 ; and the 
Reformation, 39; at peace of Pyrenees, 
50; ceded to France, 62, 74; annexed by 
German Empire, 5, 95, 96 

Lotharingia, kingdom of, 2 

Louisbourg, conquest of, 75 

Louisiana, founded by French, 75; ceded 
to Spain, 75; recovered by France, 90, 
91 ; purchased by United States, 90 ; 
formation of State of, 90; in the Civil 
War, 102 

Lowenstein, and settlement of 1803, 82 

Ltibeck (bishopric), 17, Reformation in, 40, 
acquisitions of, 69 ; (Imperial town), 18, 
and settlement of 1803, 80, annexed by 
France, 83, 85, in Germanic Confedera- 
tion, 88, in North German Confederation, 
94 

Lublin, Union of, 27 

Lucca, independence of, 21, 24, 36; Re- 
formation in, 41; passes to Elise Bona- 
parte, 83; part of, given to one of 
Napoleon's marshals, 83-4; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 89 ; restored to Tuscany, 95 

Lugano, ceded to Swiss, 20 

Liineburg, Brunswick line of, 16 

New, line of, 16; gains in 18th 

century, 68. See Hanover 

Lun^ville, peace of, 80, 86 

Lunigiana, added to Cisalpine Republic, 
79 ; and settlement of 1815, 88 ; in 19th 
century, 95 

Lusatia, Bohemian dependency, 14; con- 
quered by Hungary, 14, 26 ; given to 
Saxony, 54, 64, 68; and settlement of 
1815, 87 

Luxemburg, added to Burgundy, 13 ; ac- 
quired by Maximilian, 12; in Burguudian 
Circle, 18, 42; under Charles V, 42; 
French gains in, 50; in Germanic Con- 
federation, 88, 98; and settlement of 
1815, 89; joins Zollverein, 93, 95; in 
19th century, 99 

9-2 



132 



Index of Local Names, 



Ltizern, joins Swiss Confederation, 19; and 
Eeformation, 40; and settlement of 1815, 
89 

Lyons, peace of, 36, 38, 49 

Macao, Portuguese at, 48 

Macassar, Dutch at, 57 

Macedonia, occupied by Turks, 25 

Macerata, added to kingdom of Italy, 83 

Macon, lost and recovered by France, 13 

Madeira, Portuguese at, 46 

Madras, fort at, 56, 77 ; presidency of, 66, 
104; loss and recovery of, 77 

Madrid, treaty of (1526), 42 ; peace of 
(1670), 76 

Maestricht, conquered by United Nether- 
lands, 43; ceded to France, 78; and 
settlement of 1831, 99 

Magdeburg (archbishopric), 17; in Lower 
Saxon Circle, 18; adopts Lutheranism, 
40 ; and Edict of Restitution, 40 ; acquired 
by Brandenburg, 54, 67 j and settlement 
of 1815, 87 

Magellan, Straits of, and arbitration of 
1881, 102 

Mahe, French at, 109 

Maina district, conquered by Turks, 26 

Maine, annexed by France, 7-8 

(America), settlement of, 57 ; united 

with Massachusetts, 67; French con- 
quests in, 58; formation of State of, 90; 
disputed boundary of, 101 

Maiiiz (electorate), 14; in Lower Rhenish 
Circle, 18; and Reformation, 40; and 
settlement of 1803, 81-2 ; and Confeder- 
ation of Rhine, 82 

Malabar Coast, Portuguese settlements on, 
47, 48; Dutch, 56, 57; British, 91, 104 

Malacca, Portuguese at, 47, 48; Dutch at, 57 

Malay Archipelago, Portuguese in, 48 ; 
British in, 109; in 1910, 118 

States, acquired by British, 109 

Malta, acquired by England, 90, 107, 117 
Manchuria, and Russo-Japanese War, 114 
Mangalore, annexed by Great Britain, 104 
Manihiki Islands, placed under government 

of New Zealand, 113 
Manipur, acquired by British, 108 
Manitoba (province), formation of, 103 
Mannheim, acquired by Baden, 81, 88 
Mansfeld, adopts Protestantism, 39; ac- 
quired by Prussia, 67 
Mantua (marquisate), 23, 24, 55; acquires 
Montferrat, 36; passes to Emperor, 36, 
65 
Marburg. See Hesse-Marburg 
Marienburg, gained by France, 50, 62; 

and settlement of 1815, 86 
Ma)k, relations of, with Rhenish States, 
16; in Westphalian Circle, 18; adopts 
Calvinism, 40; acquired by Brandenburg, 
66 ; added to grand duchy of Berg, 84 ; 
restored to Prussia, 87 
Marquesa Islands, annexed by France, 112 
Marshall Islands, Germans in, 113 






Martaban, acquired by British, 108 
Martinique, French in, 58 
Maryland, settlement of, 57 
Mashonaland, acquired by British, 104 
Masovia, partition of, 65, 74 
Massa (duchy), 88; passes to Modena, 95 
Massachusetts, settlement at, 57; united 
with Maine, 57; separates from New 
Hampshire, 75 
Masulipatam, English at, 56 
Maubeuge, acquired by France, 61, 62 
Mauritius, occupied by France, 76; ceded 

to Great Britain, 91, 106, 107 
Mazanderan, acquired by Russia, 72 
Mechlin (province), 42 
Mecklenburg, bishoprics of, 17 ; in Lower 
Saxon Circle, 18; Reformation in, 39, 
40; claimed by Sweden, 52; houses of, 
69; proposed cession to Prussia, 82 
Mecklenburg-Giistrow, at peace of West- 

phaha, 54, 69; extinction of line of, 69 
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, at peace of West- 
phalia, 54, 69; enters Confederation of 
Rhine, 83; in Germanic Confederation, 
88 ; in North German Confederation, 94 
Mecklenburg-Strelitz, formation of, 69; 
enters Confederation of Rhine, 83; and 
settlement of 1815, 88 ; in Germanic 
Confederation, 88; in North German 
Confederation, 94 
Meiningen. See Saxe-Meiningen 
Meissen (bishopric), 17; divided by the 
two Saxon houses, 15-6; secularised, 39; 
and Edict of Restitution, 40 
Melanesia, colonisation in, 113 
Melilla, conquered by Spain, 44 
Memel, Swedish rights in, 51 
Memmingen (Imperial town), 18 
Menam, river, neutrality of basin of, 109 
Mendocino, Cape, Spaniards at, 47 
Mentone, acquired by France, 96 
Merseburg (bishopric), 17; included in 
Albertine Saxony, 16; secularised, 39; 
and Edict of Restitution, 40; acquired 
by Prussia, 87 
Mers-el-Kebir, taken by Spain, 44 
Merv, Russian conquests in neighbourhood 

of, 110 
Mesopotamia, Ottoman conquests in, 44 
Metz (bishopric), 17; (Imperial town), 17; 
taken by France, 37, 49; acquired by 
German Empire, 95 
Meuse, river, Austria and, 63 
Mexico, Spanish conquest of, 47, 69; 
achieves independence, 91 ; losses to 
United States, 101, 102; in 1910, 118 
Michigan (State), formation of, 102 
Micronesia, colonisation in, 113 
Milan, early losses to Savoy, 24; territory 
of, 21 ; conquered by France, 33 ; losses 
to Venice, 35; losses to Swiss, 20; 
acquired by Charles V, 32, 34 ; and 
Spanish Succession, 63; at Utrecht, 3i, 
63, 65; further losses to Savoy, 36; at 
Campo Formic, 79 



4 



Index of Local Names, 



133 



Minden (bishopric), 17; and Keformation, 
40 ; acquired by Brandenburg, 54, 67 ; 
and settlement of 1815, 87 

Mingrelia, annexed by Russia, 72 

Minnesota (State), formation of, 102 

Minorca, taken by England, 38, 63 

Miquelon, French at, 75 

Mirandola (duchy), 88 

Mirow, ceded to Mecklenburg-Giistrow, 54, 
69 

Mississippi (State), formation of, 90; in 
the Civil War, 102 

Missouri (State), formation of, 102 

Mistra, Ottoman rule in, 25 

Mittelmark, early history of, 15 

Modena (Imperial fief), 24, 36, 55; Refor- 
mation in, 41 ; acquired by Emperor, 65 ; 
in Cispadane Republic, 79; surrendered 
by the Pope, 79 ; and settlement of 1815, 
88; acquires Massa-Carrara, 95; annexed 
by Sardinia, 95 

Modon, captured by Turks, 26 

Mohacs, battle of, 32, 45 

Moldavia, Hungarian gains in, 26; made 
tributary to Turks, 25 ; conquered by 
Matthias Corvinus, 26 ; recovered by 
Turks, 46; in 19th century, 97, 98 

Molucca Islands, disputed possession of, 
47; Portuguese at, 48; Dutch at, 56 

Mombasa, lost by Portuguese, 76 

Monaco, and second peace of Paris, 86; 
loss of territory, 96 

Monfalcone, ceded to France, 84; restored 
to Austria, 87 

Monmouthshire, created an English county, 
10 

Montana (State), formation of, 102 

Montb61iard, and Wiirtemberg, 62, 69; 
acquired by France, 79, 86 

Mont Blanc (department), and settlement 
of 1814, 86 

Montenegro, independence of, 25; in 19th 
century, 97, 98; in 1910, 116 

Montferrat, early expansion of Savoy in, 
24; passes to Mantua, 36, 55; gains of 
Savoy in, 36, 55 ; acquired by Savoy, 64 

Montserrat, British in, 57 

Mont Tonnerre (department), and settle- 
ment of 1815, 85, 88 

Morat, conquest of, 19, 24 

Moravia, Bohemian dependency, 14 ; con- 
quered by Hungary, 14, 26 

Morea, Venetian power in, 3, 23; losses in, 
24, 25, 26, 46 

Morocco, Portuguese expelled from, 76; 
independence of. 111, 112, 117 

Mors, acquired by Prussia, 67; ceded to 
France, 78 

Moscow (principality), 28; oentre of Russian 
unity, 29 

Moselle (department), and settlement of 
1814, 85 

Moulmein, acquired by British, 108 

Mouree, Dutch at, 58 

Moyenvic, given to France, 50 



Mozambique, Portuguese at, 48, 112 

Miihlberg, battle of, 39 

Miihlhausen (Thuringia), (Imperial town), 

18 ; given to Prussia, 82 
Miilhausen (Elsass), (Imperial town), 17, 

62; joins Swiss Confederation, 19; 

annexed by France, 79 
Munglem, ceded to China, 113 
Munich, Bavarian house at, 16 ; trade route 

through, 23. See Bavaria-Munich 
Miinster (bishopric), 17; and Reformation, 

40 ; given to Prussia and Oldenburg, 82 ; 

added to grand duchy of Berg, 84 ; restored 

to Prussia, 87 

(Elsass), (Imperial town), 50 

Muscat, Portuguese settlement at, 48 

Mykonos, given to Turks, 46 

Mysore, conquest of, 104 ; temporary 

annexation of, 106 
Mytho, occupied by French, 109 

Nadin, ceded to Turks, 46 

Nagore, obtained by British, 104 

Nagpur, Mahratha rule in, 105; British 
acquisitions in, 105, 106 

Nakhitchevan, acquired by Russia, 100 

Namaqualand, German protectorate of, 111 

Namur, added to Burgundy, 12 ; province 
of, 42 

Nankin, treaty of, 113 

Naples, early history of, 7, 9, 22 ; losses to 
Venice, 35 ; conquered by France, 33 ; 
acquired by Spain, 33, 34, 54 ; Reforma- 
tion in, 41 ; and Spanish Succession, 63; 
at Utrecht, 34, 63, 65; acquires State 
degli Presidi, 34-5 ; given up by Austria, 
65 ; in Napoleonic age, 80, 83 ; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 89 ; annexed by Sardinia, 95 

Narbonne, united with France, 8 

Narva, conquered by Sweden, 51 

Nassau, in 16th century, 16 ; and Re- 
formation, 39, 40; in 18th century, 69; 
in Napoleonic age, 81, 82; and settlement 
of 1815, 87 ; in Germanic Confederation, 
88 ; joins Zollverein, 93 

Nassau-Dietz, gains of, 69 

Nassau-Dillenburg, extinction of line of, 
69 ; added to grand duchy of Berg, 82 

Nassau-Saarbriicken, insulated territory of, 
62 

Nassau-Saarwerden, insulated territory of, 
62 

Nassau-Usingen, line of, 69; unites with 
Weilburg, 81 ; in Confederation of Rhine, 
83 

Nassau-Weilburg, unites with Uoingen, 81 ; 
in Confederation of Rhine, 83 

Natal, British in, 103 ; in Union of South 
Africa, 104 

Naumburg, treaty of, 39 

Naumburg-Zeitz (bishopric), 17; included 
in Albertine Saxony, 16 ; secularised, 39 ; 
and Edict of Restitution, 40 

Navarre (kingdom), 8, 9 

Naxos (duchy), 46 



134 



Indeoc of Local Names. 



Nebraska (State), formation of, 102 
Neoapatam, Portuguese at, 48 ; Dutch at, 

57 
Negropont, conquered by Venice, 23, by 

Turks, 24, 26 ; acqiiired by Greece, 97 
Negumbo, Dutch at, 57 
Nellenburg, Habsburg power in, 12 
Nenierow, ceded to Mecklenburg-Giistrow, 

54, 69 

Nepal, British acquisitions in, 105 

Netlierlands, in Holy Eoman Empire, 11 ; 
pass to Maximilian, 12; at division 
of Habsburg Empire, 33; at Gateau 
Cambr^sis, 38 ; and Reformation, 39 ; 
secession of northern provinces, 3, 31, 
33 ; loss of southern provinces, 33 ; in 
16th century, 42-3 ; independence of 
recognised, 54 ; in 1648, 55 ; at Utrecht, 
63-4 ; French gains in, 78-9 ; formed 
into Batavian Republic, 79 ; created a 
kingdom, 84; annexed to France, 85; and 
Germanic Confederation, 88 ; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 89 ; in 19th century, 98-9; 
in 1910, 115 ; early colonial settlements, 
56-9 ; gains and losses in 17th and 18th 
centuries, 75-7 ; losses in 1815, 91, 106 ; 
sale of posts on Gold Coast, 110 ; colonial 
position in 1910, 118 

Netherlands, Austrian. See Netherlands, 
Spanish 

Netherlands, Spanish, French gains in, 50, 

55, 61 ; and Spanish Succession, 63 ; 
ceded to Austria, 63-4 ; proposed exchange 
of, 64 ; value of, 65 ; annexed by France, 
78, 79 

Netze (district), acquired by Prussia, 67, 

73 
Neuburg, subject to Rhenish Palatinate, 

15-6 ; adopts Lutheranism, 40 
Neufchatel, added to Swiss Confederation, 
19 ; acquired by Prussia, 67 ; recognised 
at tFtrecht, 64 ; detached from Confedera- 
tion, 79 ; ceded to France, 82 ; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 89 
Neukloster, obtained by Sweden, 52, 54 
Neumark, acquired by Brandenburg, 15 
Neustadt, changes of rule in, 39 
Nevada (State), formation of, 102 
Nevers, acquired by Burgundy, 12 
Nevis, British in, 57 
New Arizona, acquired by United States, 101 

Biscay, Spanish administration of, 59 

. Brunswick, disputed boundary of, 101 ; 

enters the Confederation, 103 

Caledonia, annexed by France, 113, 

118 

England, settlement of, 57 



Newfoundland, discovery of, 11, 48 ; English 

at, 57, 75, 91 ; French fishing rights in, 

75 ; administration of, 103 
New Granada, Spanish conquest of, 47 ; 

administration of, 59 ; in 19th century, 

91, 102 
. Guinea, Portuguese in, 47, 48 ; British 

in, 109; Germans in, 113 



New Hampshire, settlement of, 57; sepa- 
rates from Massachusetts, 75 

Haven, settlement of, 57 ; united with 

Connecticut, 57 

Hebrides, divided by French and 



British, 112, 113 

— Jersey (colony), foundation of, 75 

— Mexico, acquired by United States, 
101, 102; Territory of, 102 

Netherlands, Dutch in, 58 ; conquered 



by British, 57 

— Orleans (colony), foundation of, 75 ; 
ceded to English, 75 

— Plymouth, settlement of, 57 

— Providence, English in, 57 

— South Wales, annexation of, 91, 103 

— Spain ( viceroy alty), 59 

— York (colony), foundation of, 75 
Zealand, annexation of, 103 ; depend- 



encies of, 113; in 1910, 118 
Nicaragua (independent State), 91, 102 
Nice, in Napoleonic age, 79 ; acquired by 

France, 95, 96 
Nicholaievsk (Russian port), 114 
Niger, river, French and English on, 111 
Nigeria, protectorates of. 111 
Nios, ceded to Turks, 46 
Nordhausen (Imperial town), 18; given 

to Prussia, 82 
Nordlingen (Imperial town), 18 
Normandy, Huguenots in, 41 
North Dakota (State), formation of, 102 
Northern Circars, British power in, 77 
North German Confederation, formation of, 

94 ; and Luxemburg, 99 
Northumberland, absorbs Hexhamshire, 

Tynedale and Redesdale, 10 
Norway, in Holy Roman Empire, 7 ; suzerain 

of Orkneys and Shetlands, 10 ; and Union 

of Calmar, 29 ; held by Danes, 43 ; 

Swedish wars, 52-3, 55 ; union with 

Sweden, 89 ; dissolution of union, 99 ; 

in 1910, 117 
Noteborg, gained by Sweden, 51 
Novara, held by Milan, 21 ; taken by Savoy, 

36 ; Republic of, 80 ; added to Italian 

Republic, 83 
Nova Scotia, British power in, 91 ; enters 

the Confederation, 103 
Novgorod (principality), 28 ; annexed by 

Ivan III, 29; captured by Sweden, 51 
Novgorod Sieverski, annexed by Basil, 29 
Niirnberg (Imperial town), 15, 17; and 

settlement of 1803, 81; acquired by 

Bavaria, 82, 87 
Nymegen, treaty of, 61 
Nystad, peace of, 62-3, 71 

Oberehenheim (Imperial town), 50 
Obok, French at, 112 
Ochakoff, conquered by Russia, 72 
Oder, mouth of, obtained by Sweden, 52, 

67, by Brandenburg, 67 
Oderberg, acquired by Brandenburg, 66 
Orenburg (Imperial town), 17 



Index of Local Names, 



135 



Ohio (State), formation of, 90 
Oklahoma (State), formation of, 102 
Oland, held by Sweden, 43 
Oldenburg, in 16th century, 16; in 17fch 
and 18th, 69; and settlement of 1803, 
82 ; enters Confederation of Khine, 83 ; 
and settlement of 1815, 88; in Germanic 
Confederation, 88 
Oliva, peace of, 51, 52, 66, 73 
Oliven^a, and settlement of 1815, 89 
Oneglia, purchased by Savoy, 36 
Ontario, Lake, English at, 75 
Oppeln, acquired by Brandenburg, 66 
Oran, taken by Spain, 44 ; struggles in, 76 
Orange, annexed by France, 62, 69 
Orange Free State, Dutch and English in, 

103 ; in Union of South Africa, 104 
Orange-Nassau, house of, 16 
Orbe, conquest of, 19, 24 
Orbitello, changes of rule in, 35 
Oregon, joint British and American occu- 
pation of, 90 ; disputed boundary of, 
101 ; formation of State of, 102 
Orenburg (government), 110 
Orinoco, river, Columbus at, 47 
Orissa, British power in, 77, 105 
Orkneys, acquired by Scotland, 10 
Orleans, united with France, 8 
Orsova, Austrian conquest of, 65 
Ortenau, given to Duke of Modena, 80; 
created a duchy, 81 ; acquired by Baden, 
87 
Orvieto, and Papal rule, 22 
Osel, conquered by German Order, 27; 
recovered by Denmark, 44, 50, 52 ; given 
to Sweden, 52 
Osnabriick (bishopric), 17; and the Kefor- 
mation, 40 ; and Brunswick, 54, 68 ; 
acquired by Hanover, 82, 87 
Osterland, divided by the two Saxon houses, 

16; absorbed by Albertine branch, 39 
Otranto, occupied by Turks, 26, by Venice, 

35; made a duchy, 84 
Ottoman empire, in Holy Roman Empire, 
7; advance of, in 15th century, 25-6; 
checked by Habsburg power, 31 ; tolera- 
tion in, 41 ; in 16th and 17th centuries, 
44-6 ; in 18th century, 71-2 ; in Napo- 
leonic age, 85 ; in 19th century, 96-8, 
100; in 1910, 116 
Oudh, British conquests in, 104; becomes 
a dependency, 105 ; annexation of, 106 
Overmaaslauds, conquered by United 

Netherlands, 43 
Overyssel, Burgundian power in, 13 ; under 

Charles V, 42 ; joins the Union, 43 
Oxford (bishopric), 10 

Pacific Ocean, discovery of, 47; colonisa- 
tion in, 6, 112-3; in 1910, 118 

Paderborn (bishopric), 17; and Reforma- 
tion, 40 ; given to Prussia, 82 ; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 87 

Padua, conquered by Venice, 23 

Pago Pago, acquired by United States, 112 



Palatinate, declared an electorate, 14 ; terri- 
tories of, 15 ; in Lower Rhenish Circle, 
18; Reformation in, 39, 40; acquires 
Jiilich and Berg, 68 ; occupied by Spain, 
49 ; at Westphalia, 54 

Bavarian, 88 

Upper, subject to the electorate, 15; 

adopts Calvinism, 40 ; given to Bavaria, 
54, 68; and settlement of 1803, 81 

Pamir Mts., boundary disputes in, 110 
Panama, changes of government in, 102 
Panch Mahals, annexed by British, 106 
Papal States. See States of the Church 
Paraguay, Spanish administration of, 59; 

achieves independence, 91 
Parga, ceded to Ottoman empire, 97 
Parganas, the Twenty-four, acquired by 

British, 77 
Paris, peace of (1763), 75, 77; peace of 
(1814), 85-6, 88; second peace of (1815), 
86; peace of (1856), 98, 100; peace of 
(1898), 102 
Parma, held by Milan, 21 ; ceded to Pope, 
32, 34; passes to the Farnese, 35, 55, 
to Spanish Bourbons, 35, to Austria, 
65 ; added to Cisalpine Republic, 79 ; 
annexed by France, 83; part of, given 
to one of Napoleon's marshals, 83-4; 
and settlement of 1815, 89; in 19th 
century, 95 
Paros, ceded to Turks, 46 
Parthenopean republic, formation of, 80 
Passarowitz, peace of, 46, 64-5 
Passau (bishopric), 17; and Reformation, 
40; divided by Bavaria and Salzburg, 
81 
Patagonia, limit of Spanish rule, 59, 60 
Patmos, ceded to Turks, 46 
Patrimony of St Peter, under Papal rule, 
21-2; annexed to kingdom of Italy, 96 
Pegu, Dutch in, 57 ; acquired by British, 

108 
Peitz, acquired by Brandenburg, 15 
Pelew Islands, purchased by Germany, 113 
Peloponnese. See Morea 
Pemba Island, placed under British pro- 
tection, 112 
Penjdeh, acquired by Russia, 110 
Pennsylvania (colony), foundation of, 75 
Perekop, conquered by Russia, 71 
P^rigord, united with France, 8 
Perim Island, acquired by Great Britain, 

107 
Pernambuco, Dutch at, 59 
Persia, losses of, to Turks, 44 ; Portuguese 
in, 48; losses of, to Russia, 98, 100, 110; 
spheres of influence in, 107, 108, 110; 
in 1910, 118 
Persian Gulf, British protectorate of, 107 
Peru, Spanish conquest of, 47 ; viceroyalty 
of, 59 ; achieves independence, 91 ; divi- 
sion of, 102 
Perugia, and Papal rule, 22 ; secured by 

Julius II, 35 
Pesaro, added to Cisalpine Republic, 79 



136 



Index of Local Names, 



Pescadores Islands, acquired by Japan, 114 

Petapoli, English at, 56 

Peterborough (bishopric), 10 

Pforzheim. See Baden-Pforzheim 

Pfullendorf (Imperial town), 18 

Philippeville, gained by France, 50, 62 ; 
lost, 86 

Philippine Islands, given to Spain, 47, 59 ; 
acquired by United States, 102 

Philippopolis, revolution at, 97 

Philippsburg, French garrison at, 50, with- 
drawn, 61 

Piacenza, held by Milan, 21 ; ceded to the 
Pope, 32, 34; given to the Farnese, 35, 
55 ; passes to Spanish Bourbons, 35 ; 
annexed by France, 83 ; part of, given 
to one of Napoleon's marshals, 83-4; 
and settlement of 1815, 89 

Picardy, acquired by France, 8 

Piedmont, Savoyard conquest of, 24, 36 ; 
and Utrecht settlement, 64 ; occupied by 
France, 80 

Pillau, Swedish rights in, 51 

Pinerolo, taken by France, 34, 49, 50, 55 ; 
recovered by Savoy, 36 

Piombino, independence of, 21 ; under 
protection of Florence, 24 ; passes to 
Elise Bonaparte, 83 ; and settlement of 
1815, 89 

Pirot, acquired by Servia, 97 

Pisa, falls to Florence, 21 

Pistoia, falls to Florence, 21 

Placentia, ceded to English, 75 

Plava, ceded to Ottoman empire, 98 

Pleissnerland, divided by the two Saxon 
houses, 16 

Plombi^res, convention of, 95 

Podlachia, partition of, 65, 74 

Podlesia, acquired by Eussia, 71, 73, 74 

Podolia, conquered by Turks, 46, 73 ; 
partition of, 65, 71, 73 

Poel, Island of, obtained by Sweden, 52 

Pointe de Galle, Dutch at, 57 

Pola, Venetian possession of, 23 

Poland, in Holy Roman Empire, 7; early 
history of, 27, 30 ; wars with Russia, 29; 
relations with Brandenburg, 50, 66 ; and 
Reformation, 41 ; wars with Sweden, 
61-2 ; in 1648, 54-5 ; partition of, 4, 65, 
67, 71, 72-4; and settlement of 1815, 86, 
99; in 19th century, 5, 100; in 1910, 117 

Little, partition of, 65, 73, 74 

Polesine, conquered by Venice, 23 
Polianovka, treaty of, 70 

Polozk, acquired by Russia, 73 

Polynesia, colonisation in, 113 

Pomerania, early history of, 15, 17; its 
bishoprics, 17 ; in Upper Saxon Circle, 
18 ; Reformation in, 39, 40, 54 ; acquired 
by Brandenburg, 54, 66 

Eastern, recovered by Brandenburg, 

66-7 

■ Western, obtained by Sweden, 52, 

54; partly recovered by Prussia, 62; 
remainder recovered, 87 



Pomerania-Stettiu, line of, 15, 17 
Pomerania- Wolgast, line of, 17 
Pomerelia, early history of, 27 
Pondicherry, French at, 77, 109 
Ponte Corvo, Papal enclave, 22 ; given to 

Bernadotte, 84 ; restored to the Pope, 

89 
Pontremoli, held by Milan, 21 ; in 19th 

century, 95 
Poena, Mahratha rule in, 105 ; defeat of 

the Peshwa of, 105 
Port Arthur, Russian lease of, 113, 114 

Royal, French in, 58 

Portendik, acquired by French, 76 
Porto Ercole, changes of rule in, 35 

Rico, Spanish occupation of, 47 ; 

acquired by United States, 102, 103 

Portsmouth, treaty of, 114 

Portugal, in Holy Roman Empire, 7 ; and 
the Reformation, 39 ; absorbed by Spain, 
9, 33 ; regains independence, 55 ; in 
Napoleonic age, 85 ; and settlement of 
1815, 89; in 1910, 116; early colonial 
enterprise, 46-8 ; in 17th century, 56-9 
in 18th century, 76-7 ; loses Brazil, 91 
in India, 109; in Africa, 104, 110-2 
colonial position in 1910, 117 

Portuguese Guinea, acquisition of, 110 

Posen, acquired by Prussia, 86 

Posnania, and settlement of 1815, 99 

Poti, acquired by Russia, 100 

Prague, peace of (1635), 40; peace of 
(1866), 94, 96 

Pressburg, peace of, 82, 86 

Prevesa, conquered by Venice, 46 

Priegnitz, early history of, 15 

Prince Edward's Isle, ceded to English, 75 ; 
enters Confederation, 103 

Principe Island, acquired by Portugal, 110 

Provence, acquired by France, 7-8 ; Savoyard 
gains in, 24 

Prussia, early history of, 27 ; secularisation 
of, 50 ; relations with Poland and Sweden, 
50, 51; added to Brandenburg, 54, 66; 
made a kingdom, 67 ; at Utrecht, 64 ; 
conquers Silesia, 64, 67; other gains of, 
67-8, 69 ; and partition of Poland, 73-4 ; 
at treaty of Basel, 78; and settlement of 
1803, 82 ; at peace of Schonbrunn, 82 ; 
and Confederation of Rhine, 83 ; at Tilsit, 
84; in Germanic Confederation, 88; and 
settlement of 1815, 86, 87, 89 ; in 19th 
century, 5, 92-5, 99 

East, Polish suzerainty of, 51 ; 

gained by Brandenburg, 73 

• New East, acquired by Prussia, 67 

South, acquired by Prussia, 67 

West, acquired by Poland, 27, 51, 

by Prussia, 67, 73 

Pskoff (principality), 28; acquired by Basil, 

29 
Pulo Condore, occupied by French, 109 

Run, Dutch in, 56 

Punjab, annexation of, 106, 107 
Pyrenees, peace of, 50 



Index of Local Names. 



137 



Quebec, French at, 58, 75 

Queen Adelaide Province, annexed by Cape 

of Good Hope, 104 
Queensland, annexation of, 103 
Quetta, British occupation of, 108 
Quilon, Dutch at, 57 
Quito, administration of, 59 ; added to 

Colombia, 91 

Ragusa (republic), 23; acquired by Austria, 

87 
Rajputana, British dominion in, 106 
Rangoon, acquired by British, 108 
Rastatt, treaty of, 62 

Ratisbon (bishopric), 17, and Reforma- 
tion, 40, and settlement* of 1808, 81 ; 

(Imperial town), 18, and settlement of 

1803, 81, in Confederation of Rhine, 83, 

acquired by Bavaria, 84, 87; treaty of, 

62 
Ratzeburg (bishopric), 17; adopts Luther- 

anism, 40; and Edict of Restitution, 40; 

at peace of Westphalia, 54, 69 
Rauracia (republic), 78 
Ravenna, conquered by Venice, 23; ceded 

to Pope, 35 ; and settlement of 1815, 89 
Ravensberg, relations of with other Rhenish 

States, 16; acquired by Brandenburg, 66; 

and settlement of 1815, 87 
Ravensburg (Imperial town), 18 
Redesdale, absorbed by Northumberland, 

10 
Reggio (Imperial fief), 24, 36; in Cis- 

padane Republic, 79; made a duchy^ 

84; and settlement of 1815, 88 
Rethel, acquired by Burgundy, 12 
Reuss, enters Confederation of Rhine, 83 ; 

in Germanic Confederation, 88; in North 

German Confederation, 94 
Reutlingen (Imperial town), 18 
Rheinfelden, Habsburg power in, 12; ceded 

to France, 80 
Rheinfels, ceded to France, 78. See Hesse- 

Rheinfels 
Rhine, Lower, Circle of, 18 ; amalgamated 

with Upper Rhine, 81 
Upper, Circle of, 18; amalgamated 

with Lower Rhine, 81 
Rhode Island, settlement of, 57 
Rhodes, acquired by Turks, 46 
Rhodesia, British in, 103, 104 
Riga, importance of, 53 
Rimini, conquered by Venice, 35; re- 
covered by Julius II, 35 
Rio Grande, boundary between Mexico and 

Texas, 101 
Rio Oro, Spanish protectorate of, IH 
Roccabruna, acquired by France, 96 
Rocky Mountains, discovery of, 75 
Rodrigues, acquired by Great Britain, 91 
Roeskilde, peace of, 52 
Rohilkhand, ceded to Great Britain, 104 
Romagna, under Papal rule, 21 ; conquered 

by Caesar Borgia, 35 
Roman republic, formation of, 80 



Rome, Papal power in, 22 ; capital of Italy, 
96 

Rosheim (Imperial town), 50 

Rostoff, annexed by Ivan III, 29 

Rottenburg (Imperial town), 18 

Rottweil (Imperial town), 18; joins Swiss 
Confederation, 19 

Roumania, Hungarian protectorate of, 26; 
in 19th century, 97, 98; in 1910, 116 

Roumelia, and treaty of San Stefano, 97 

Eastern, incorporated with Bulgaria, 

97 

Roussillon, held by Aragon, 9; acquired 
by France, 8; recovered by Spain, 9, 
37; passes to Charles V, 32; annexed 
by France, 33, 50 

Rovigo, conquered by Venice, 23 

Roxo, Cape, Portuguese foothold at, 111 

Riigen, Island of, obtained by Sweden, 52, 
62, by Prussia, 87 

Ruppin, annexed by Brandenburg, 15, 66 

Russia, early history of, 27-9; wars with 
Sweden, 51; in 1648, 54-5; expansion 
of, 3-5, 62-3, 69-72; and partition of 
Poland, 73-4; at treaty of Schonbrunn, 
84 ; conquers Bessarabia, 98 ; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 86, 90; in 19th centurv, 
96, 97, 98, 99-100; in 1910, 116-7; and 
sale of Alaska, 101; Asiatic expansion 
of, 108, 109-10, 113-4; colonial position 
of, in 1910, 118 

Great, early history of, 28 

Little, political position of, 28; re- 
covered by Russia, 71 

Red, acquired by Austria, 65, 73 



Ryswyk, treaty of, 62 

Saarbriick, and second peace of Paris, 86 
Saare (department of the), and settlement 

of 1814, 85; Bavarian gains in, 88 
Saarlouis, and second peace of Paris, 86 
Saba, Dutch in, 58 
Sabina, under Papal rule, 21 
Sagan, given to Bohemia, 39 
Saghalin, acquired by Russia, 114 ; Japanese 

acquisitions in, 114 
Sahara, French dominion in. 111 
Saigon, occupied by French, 109 
St Eustatius, Dutch in, 58 
St Gallen, added to Swiss Confederation, 

19; created a canton, 80 
St Germain, peace of, 58, 67 
St Goar, ceded to France, 78 
St Helena, Dutch and English at, 59 
St Kitts, British in, 57, 76; French in, 58 
St Lawrence, river, French at, 48, 59 
St Lucia, acquired by Great Britain, 91 
St Lucia Bay, annexation of, 104 
St Martin, French and Dutch in, 58 
St Omer, at peace of Pyrenees, 50; ac- 
quired by France, 61, 62 
St Petersburg, geographical position of, 28 
St Pierre, French at, 75 
St Quentin, ceded to Burgundy, 13 
St Thomas, Danes in, 76 



13b 



Index of Local Names, 



St Thom6, acquired by Portugal, 110 

St Valery, ceded to Burgundy, 13 

St Vincent, acquired by English, 76 

Salbai, treaty of, 104 

Salm, insulated country of, 62; and settle- 
ment of 1803, 82 

Salm-Kyrburg, in Confederation of Ehine, 
83 

Salm- Salm, in Confederation of Rhine, 
83 

Salonika, conquered by Turks, 25; Venetian 
rights in, 24 

Salsette Island, acquired by British, 104 

Saluzzo, conquered by Savoy, 24, by 
France, 34, 38; recovered by Savoy, 36, 
38, 49 

Salzburg (archbishopric), 17; in Bavarian 
Circle, 18; and Reformation, 40; created 
an electorate, 81 ; at peace of Pressburg, 
82; at treaty of Schonbrunn, 84 

Samarkand, occupied by Russia, 107, 110 

Sambre et Meuse (department), and settle- 
ment of 1814, 85 

Samoa Islands, United States and, 102, 
112, 113; Germany and, 118 

Samogitia, lost and recovered by Lithu- 
ania, 27; Polish rule in, 51; acquired 
by Russia, 71, 74 

Saraothrace, conquered by Turks, 25 

Sand River, convention of, 103 

San Marino, Republic of, 89 

San Salvador, independence of, 91, 102 

San Stefano, treaty of, 97-8, 100 

Santa Cruz (America), purchased by Danes, 
78 
(Pacific), British in, 113 

Santa Lucia, French in, 76 

Santa Maura, captured by Turks, 26; re- 
covered by Venice, 46 

Santo Domingo, French in, 58, 75; and 
United States, 103 

Sao Paulo de Loanda, Dutch at, 58 

Saragossa, treaty of, 47 

Sarawak, acquired by British, 109 

Sardinia, held by Aragon, 9, 22; passes 
to Charles V, 32; Spanish rule in, 34, 
55; acquired by Austria, 34, 65; passes 
to Savoy, 34, 36, 65; in Napoleonic age, 
4, 79, 80; and settlement of 1815, 86, 
88, 89; and peace of Prague, 94; achieves 
unification of Italy, 95-6 

Saskatchewan (province), formation of, 
103 

Satara, annexed by British, 106 

Savoy, territories of, 24; losses to Swiss, 
19-20; and league of Cambray, 35; in 
1648, 55; losses and acquisitions of, 4, 
38; frontier of, 62; at Utrecht, 64; in 
Napoleonic age, 79; and settlement of 
1815, 88, 89; ceded to France, 95, 96 

Saxe-Altenburg, in North German Con- 
federation, 94 

Saxe-Coburg, and settlement of 1815, 88; 
in Germanic Confederation, 88; acquires 
Saxe-Gotha, 92-3 



Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, in North German Con- 
federation, 94 

Saxe-Eisenach, line of, 68 

Saxe-Gotha, formation of, 68; in Germanic 
Confederation, 88; incorporated with 
Saxe-Coburg, 92-3 

Saxe-Hildburghausen, line of, 68; in Ger- 
manic Confederation, 88; incorporated 
with Saxe-Meiningen, 93 

Saxe-Lauenburg, adopts Lutheranism, 40 

Saxe-Meiningen, line of, 68; in Germanic 
Confederation, 88; acquires Saxe-Hild- 
burghausen, 93 ; in North German Con- 
federation, 94 

Saxe- Weimar, formation of, 68; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 88; in Germanic Confedera- 
tion, 88 ; in North German Confederation, 
94 

Saxony, created an electorate, 14; terri- 
tories of, 15-6 ; its bishoprics, 17 ; Circles 
of, 18 ; division of, 39 ; Reformation in, 39, 
40; and Edict of Restitution, 40 ; at West- 
phalia, 54, 64; houses of, 68; and settle- 
ment of 1803, 82; enters Confederation 
of the Rhine, 83; acquires Cottbus, 84; 
and settlement of 1815, 87; in Germanic 
Confederation, 88; in Zollverein, 93; in 
North German Confederation, 94 

Schaffhausen, added to Swiss Confedera- 
tion, 19 

Schaumburg-Lippe, in Germanic Confede- 
ration, 88 ; in North German Confedera- 
tion, 94 

Schleswig, political position of, 17, 30, 44, 
69; in 19 th century, 93-4 

Schlettstadt (Imperial town), 17, 50 

Schmalkaldic War, 39 

Schonbrunn, peace of (1805), 82; treaty of 
(1809), 84, 86 

SchwarzlDurg, enters Confederation of Rhine, 
83 

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, in Germanic Con- 
federation, 88; in North German Con- 
federation, 94 

Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, in Germanic 
Confederation, 88; and origin of Zoll- 
verein, 93; in North German Confedera- 
tion, 94 

Schweinfurt (Imperial town), 18 

Schwerin (bishopric), 17 ; adopts Lutheran- 
ism, 40; and Edict of Restitution, 40; 
at Westphalia, 54, 69 

Schwiebus, claimed by Brandenburg, 67; 
acquired by Prussia, 67 

Schwyz (Swiss canton) , 19 ; remains 
Catholic, 40 

Scotland, in Holy Roman Empire, 7; ac- 
quires Orkneys and Shetlands, 10; union 
of with England, 10; Reformation in, 
41; in 1648, 55 

Segauli, treaty of, 105 

Semigallia, conquered by German Order, 
27; passes to Brandenburg, 50 

Senegal, river, French on, 58, 76, 111 

Senlis, treaty of, 14, 37 



Index of Local Naines. 



139 



Serampur, Danes at, 77; purchased by 

British, 109 
Serrey, acquired by Prussia, 66, 67 
Servia, Hungarian protectorate of, 26; 
conquered by Turks, 25, by Matthias 
Corvinus, 26 ; Austrian conquests in, 65 ; 
in 19th century, 97, 98; in 1910, 116 
Seven Islands, Kepublic of, 80 
Seville, Reformation at, 42 
Seyclielle Islands, acquired by Great Britain, 

91 
Shan States, placed under British protec- 
tion, 108 
Shetlands, acquired by Scotland, 10 
Shimonoseki, treaty of, 114 
Siam, Dutch in, 57; in 19th century, 109 
Siberia (khanate), 29, 60, 70 
Sibir, captured by Cossacks, 60, 70 
Sicily, conquered by Normans, 22, by Ara- 
gon, 9, 22; passes to Charles V, 32; 
Spanish rule in, 34, 55 ; and Spanish 
Succession, 63; acquired by Savoy, 34, 
36, 64; given to Austria, 34, 65; ex- 
changed for Parma, 65; in Napoleonic 
age, 83; and settlement of 1815, 89; 
annexed by Sardinia, 95 
Sidon, Venetian rights in, 24 
Siem-reap, acquired by France, 109 
Siena, independence of, 21, 24; loses Stato 
degli Presidi, 35 ; annexed by Florence, 36 
Sierra Leone, acquired by English, 76; ex- 
tension of their power in, 110 
Sieverski, ceded to Poland, 70 ; restored to 

Russia, 73 
Sigmaringen. See Hohenzollern-Sigmar- 

ingen 
Sikkim, brought under British protection, 

105, 106, 113 
Silesia, Bohemian dependency, 14, 27; 
conquered by Hungary, 14, 26 ; losses to 
Brandenburg, 15, 66 ; claimed by Sweden, 
52; seized by Prussia, 64 

New, acquired by Prussia, 67 

Simla, acquired by British, 105 

Sind, annexed by British, 107 

Singapore, acquired by British, 110 

Sir Darya, river, Russian conquest on, 109 

Sisophon, acquired by France, 109 

Sitvatorok, treaty of, 45 

Skaane, held by Danes, 43; gained by 

Sweden, 52 
Skutari, conquered by Turks, 24, 26 
Skyros, ceded to Turks, 46 
Slave Coast, settlements on, 58 
Slavonia, Habsburg power in, 45, 64 
Sluys, conquered by United Provinces, 43 
Smaland, centre of Swedish expansion, 43 
Smolensk (principality), 28; acquired by 
Basil, 29; restored to Poland, 55, 70; 
recovered by Russia, 73 
Society Islands, French in, 113 
Sofala, Portuguese fort at, 48 
Sokoto, English at, 111 
Solomon Islandis, Germans and English 
in, 113 



Solothurn, added to Swiss Confederation, 19 

Somaliland, British protectorate of, 107; 
Italian dominion in, 112 

Somme towns, ceded to Burgundy, 13; 
recovered by France, 8, 13 ; renounced by 
Charles V, 42 

South Australia, annexation of, 103 
Dakota (State), formation of, 102 

Sozh, river, boundary of Muscovite empire, 
29 

Spain, in Holy Roman Empire, 7; early 
history of, 8-10 ; inherited by Charles V, 
32; dominion in Italy, 34, 35, 37, in 
N. Africa, 44; and Reformation, 42; 
passes to Philip II, 33; dynastic union 
with England, 11 ; occupation and loss of 
the Valtelline, 49 ; in 1648, 55 ; at Utrecht, 
63-4 ; in Napoleonic age, 83 ; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 89; in 1910, 116; early 
colonial enterprise, 47-8; in 17th and 
18th centuries, 57, 59-60, 75-6; down- 
fall of colonial empire, 90-1; losses in 
West Indies, 103; dominion in Africa, 
111; rights in Morocco, 112; in Pacific 
Islands, 113 ; colonial position in 1910, 
115-6 

Speier (bishopric), 17, and Reformation, 
40, acquired by Baden, 81; (Imperial 
town), 18 

Spice Islands, Portuguese in, 47, 48 

Spinalonga, given to Turks, 46 

Spliigen, trade route of, 23 

Spoleto, and Papal rule, 22 

Stampalia, ceded to Turks, 46 

States of the Church, composition of, 21-2 ; 
growth of, 35, 55; in Napoleonic age, 4, 
79, 80, 83; and settlement of 1815, 89; 
annexed by Sardinia, 95 

Stato degli Presidi, Spanish power in, 34, 
55; changes of rule in, 35; in kingdom 
of Etruria, 80; and settlement of 1815, 89 

Stettin, 52, 66. See Pomerania-Stettin 

Stockholm, capital of Sweden, 53 ; peace of, 
62, 67 

Stolbova, peace of, 51, 70 

Storkow, acquired by Brandenburg, &Q 

Straits Settlements, acquired by British, 
109 

Stralsund, at peace of Stockholm, 62 ; ceded 
to Prussia, 87 

Strassburg (bishopric), 17, and Refor- 
mation, 40, at Westphalia, 50, given to 
Baden, 81; (Imperial town), 17, at peace 
of Westphalia, 50, annexed by France, 
62, acquired by German Empire, 95 

Stuhlweissenburg, conquered by Turks, 45 

Stuhmsdorf, treaty of, 51 

Styria, Habsburg power in, 11; Hungarian 
conquests in, 14 

Suabia, States of, 17, 18; Circle of, 18; 
passes to Ferdinand I, 33; and Edict of 
Restitution, 40 

Suda, given to Turks, 46 

Sudan, conquest of, 107, 111, 112 

Suez Cuual, British interest in, 107 



140 



Index of Local Names. 



Sulzbach, subject to Ebenish Palatinate, 
15-6 

Sumatra, Dutch in, 57 

Sundgau, acquired by Burgundy, 13 

Surat, English at, 56; presidency of trans- 
ferred from, 57 

Surinam, English in, 57; given to Dutch, 
57, 58 

Swallow Islands, British in, 113 

Sweden, in Holy Roman Empire, 7; con- 
quers Finland, 27; Union of Calmar, 
29-30 ; dissolution of Union, 43 ; Refor- 
mation in, 41 ; expansion of, 3, 50-3 ; in 
1648, 54-5; decline of, 4, 62-3; in 
Napoleonic age, 85; and settlement of 
1815, 87, 89-90 ; separates from Norway, 
99; in 1910, 117; colonisation, 57, 58 

Switzerland, in Holy Roman Empire, 11 
formation of Swiss Confederation, 3, 19 
virtual independence of, 12, 19 ; acquisi 
tions of, 24, 32, 34 ; Reformation in, 40-1 
independence recognised, 54; in Napo- 
leonic age, 79-80; and settlement of 
1815, 86, 89; in 1910, 116 

Sydney, settlement at, 103 

Syria, Turks in, 5; Venetian influence in, 
23; Ottoman conquest of, 44; in 1910, 
118 

Szegedin, conquered by Turks, 45 

Szolnok, acquired by Turks, 45 

Table Bay, Dutch at, 57, 58 
Tahiti, annexed by France, 112 
Talienwan, Russian lease of, 113, 114 
Tana, Venetian rights in, 24 
Tanjore, under British rule, 104 
Taranto (duchy), 84 
Tarapaca, acquired by Chile, 102 
Tashkend, occupied by Russia, 107 
Tasmania, annexation of, 103 
Tata, acquired by Turks, 45 
Tauroggen, Prussia and, 66 
Tecklenburg, acquired by Prussia, 67; 

added to grand duchy of Berg, 84 
Telamone, changes of rule in, 35 
Temesvar (Banat), Turkish power in, 45, 

64; (vilayet), 45 
Tenasserim, acquired by British, 108 
Tenda, under suzerainty of Savoy, 24; 

purchase of, 36 
Tennessee, in Civil War, 102 
Teruate, Portuguese at, 48; Dutch at, 57 
Terra di Lavoro, and partition of Naples, 34 
Firma, Spanish conquest of, 47; 

administration of, 59 
Teschen, peace of, 64 
Teusin, peace of, 51 

Teutonic Order, gains of, 27; and settle- 
ment of 1803, 82 
Texas, achieves independence, 91,101, 102; 

joins the Union, 101 ; formation of State 

of, 102 
Thasos, conquered by Turks, 25 
Thessaly, annexed by Turks, 25 ; acquired 

by Greece, 97, 116 



Thionville, gained by France, 50 

Thorn, first and second peace of, 27; ceded 

to Poland, 27; acquired by Prussia, 67, 

73; and settlement of 1815, 86 
Thurgau, ceded to Zurich, 12, 19; added 

to Aargau, 80 
Thuringia, divided by the two Saxon houses, 

15-6 ; Prussian gains in, 87 
Thurn and Taxis, house of, and settlement 

of 1803, 82 
Tibet, Chinese suzerainty of, 108 
Ticino, added to Aargau, 80 
Tidor, Portuguese at, 48 
Tientsin, treaty of, 109 
Tilsit, peace of, 84 
Timbuctu, French occupation of. 111 
Tinos, given to Turks, 46 
Tiris, Spanish possession of, 111 
Tobago, French and English at, 76; lost 

by France, 91 
Toggenburg, added to Swiss Confederation, 

19 
Togoland, annexed by Germany, 111 
Tolentino, treaty of, 79 
Tonga Islands, British in, 113 
Tonkin, placed under French protection, 

109, 113 
Toplitz, treaty of, 88 
Tordesiilas, treaty of, 47 
Torgau, acquired by Prussia, 87 
Tortona, taken by Savoy, 36 
Touat, occupied by French, 111 
Toul (bishopric), 17; taken by France, 

37, 49; (Imperial town), 17 
Tournay, added to Netherlands, 42 
Tranquebar, Danes at, 56, 77; purchased 

by British, 109 
Transpadane Republic, formation of, 79 
Transvaal, Dutch and English in, 103; in 

Union of South Africa, 104 
Transylvania, inherited by Charles V, 32; 

Reformation in, 41 ; Ottoman and Habs- 

burg power in, 45 ; at peace of Carlowitz, 

64 
Trebizond, Venetian rights in, 24 ; con- 
quered by Turks, 25 ; trade route of, 100 
Trengganu, placed under British influence, 

109 
Trent (bishopric), 17, 23; in Austrian 

Circle, 18 ; given to Austria, 81 ; ceded 

to Bavaria, 82; restored to Austria, 86 
Trier (electorate), 14; in Lower Rhenish 

Circle, 18; and Reformation, 40; elector- 
ate of, abolished, 81 ; and settlement of 

1815, 87 
Trieste, Habsburg power in, 11, 23; at 

peace of Pressburg, 82 ; ceded to France, 

84; restored to Austria, 87 
Trincomalee, Dutch at, 57 
Trinidad, Columbus at, 47; acquired by 

Great Britain, 91 
Tripoli, Venetian rights in, 24; conquered 

by Spain, 44 
Trondhjem, gained by Sweden, 52 ; restored 

to Norway, 53 



Index of Local Navies. 



141 



Tucuman, administration of, 69 

Tunis, Turks and Spaniards in, 44; placed 

under French protection, 111 
Turin, capital of Italy fixed at, 96 
Turkestan, Kussian conquests in, 110 
Turkey. See Ottoman empire 
Tiirkbeim (Imperial town), 50 
Turkmancliay, treaty of, 98, 100 
Turkomania, Western, annexed by Kussia, 

110 
Turkoman Tekkes, subjugation of, 110 
Tuscany, Florentine power in, 21, 36, 55; 

Spanish rule in, 34; grand duchy of, 

acquired by Austria, 65 ; in Napoleonic 

age, 80; and settlement of 1815, 89; 

recovers Lucca, 95 ; annexed by Sardinia, 

95 
Tutuila, acquired by United States, 102 
Tver (principality), 28 ; annexed by Ivan III, 

29 
Twenty-Four Parganas, acquired by British, 

77 
Tynedale, absorbed by Northumberland, 10 
Tyre, Venetian rights in, 24 
Tyrol, acquired by Maximilian, 12; ceded 

to Bavaria, 82; added to kingdom of 

Italy, 83; restored to Austria, 86 

tjberlingen (Imperial town), 18 
Uckermark, conquered by Brandenburg, 15 
Uganda, acquired by British, 112 
Ukraine, Ottoman conquests in, 73; ac- 
quired by Russia, 71, 73 
Uim (Imperial town), 18; acquired by 

Bavaria, 81 
Umbria, under Papal rule, 21-2 
United States, formation of, 90; expansion 
of, 101-2; in 1910, 118; colonisation, 
102, 112-3 
Unterwalden (Swiss canton), 19; and Re- 
formation, 40 
Upper League, 19 
Urana, ceded to Turks, 46 
Urbino (duchy), 22; under direct Papal 
rule, 35, 55; added to kingdom of Italy, 
83 
Uri (Swiss canton), 19 ; acquisitions in 

Italy, 19; and Reformation, 40 
Uruguay, achieves independence, 91 
Usedom, Island of, obtained by Sweden, 

52; ceded to Prussia, 62, 67 
Usingen. See Nassau-Usingen 
Utah (State), formation of, 102 
Utrecht (bishopric), 17, held by Burgundy, 
13, regains independence, 14, added to 
Netherlands, 42; Union of, 43; peace of, 
4, 33, 59, 61, 62, 63-4, 74, 75, 76 

Valais, The, joins Swiss Confederation, 19 ; 
acquisitions of, 20, 24, 36; and Re- 
formation, 40; formation of republic of, 
80; annexed by France, 83; created a 
canton, 81) 

Valenciennes, acquired by France, 61 

Valladolid, Reformation at, 42 



Val Levantina, conquered by Uri, 19 

Val Maggia, ceded to Swiss, 20 

Valromey, held by Savoy, 24; ceded to 
France, 36, 38, 49 

Valtelline, conquered by Orisons, 20; de- 
sired by Venice, 35; occupied by Spam 
and France, 49 ; added to Cisalpine 
Republic, 79; restored to Austria, 87 

Vancouver, and Oregon boundary dispute, 
101 

Vasvar, treaty of, 45, 64 

Vaud, possession of Savoy, 24; added to 
Swiss Confederation, 20, to canton of 
Aargau, 80; and settlement of 1815, 89 

Venaissin (Papal enclave), 62 ; annexed by 
France, 78, 86 

Venddme, united with France, 8 

Venetia, at Campo Formio, 79; added to 
kingdom of Italy, 82, 83; restored to 
Austria, 86, 88; promised to Sardinia, 
94; ceded to Italy, 96 

Venezuela, Spanish administration of, 59; 
and republic of Colombia, 91, 102; dis- 
puted frontier of, 103 

Venice, outside Holy Roman Empire, 11; 
possessions of, 22-4 ; losses of, to Hun- 
gary, 26, to Ottoman empire, 25-6; in 
16th century, 85; Reformation in, 41; 
further losses of, to Turks, 46 ; in 1648, 
65 ; conquered by Bonaparte, 4, 79 ; re- 
covered by Austria, 86 

Venloo, ceded to France, 78-9 

Verden (bishopric), 17 ; Reformation in, 
39, 40; obtained by Sweden, 52; ceded 
to Hanover, 62, 68 

Verdun (bishopric), 17, taken by France, 
37, 49; (Imperial town), 17 

Verona, conquered by Venice, 23 

Versailles, peace of, 90, 101; German 
Empire proclaimed at, 94 

Vervins, peace of, 38 

Veszpr^m, acquired by Turks, 45 

Viatka (principality), 28; annexed by 
Ivan III, 29 

Viborg, Swedish possession, 43; ceded to 
Russia, 63, 71 

Vicenza, conquered by Venice, 23 

Victoria, annexation of, 103 

Victoria Nyanza, Lake, and German East 
Africa, 112 

Vienna, captured by Matthias Corvinus, 12, 
26 ; peace of (1735), 65 ; peace of (1738), 
36; Congress of (1815), 86-90, 95, 99; 
treaty of (1864), 93, 96 

Villach, Circle of, ceded to France, 84 

Virgin Islands, British in, 58 

Virginia, colonisation of, 57 ; in Civil 
War, 102 

Vistula, river, Swedish conquests at mouth 
of, 51; Prussian, 73 

Vivarais, Reformation in, 41 

Vladivostok, foundation of, 114 

Vogtland, included in Ernestine Saxony, 
15; given to Bohemia, 89; restored to 
Albertine Saxony, 39 



142 



Index of Local Names, 



Volhynia, acquired by Eussia, 71, 73, 74 
Volterra, falls to Florence, 21 
Vorarlberg, Habsburg power in, 11; ceded 
to Bavaria, 82; restored to Austria, 86 
Vorderoesterreich, Habsburg power in, 11 

Waldeck, enters Confederation of Ehine, 
83 ; in Germanic Confederation, 88; joins 
Zollverein, 93; in North German Con- 
federation, 94 

Waldshut, Habsburg power in, 12 

Wales, conquest of, 10 

Walfisch Bay, annexation of, 104, 111 

Walkenried, obtained by Brunswick-Liine- 
burg, 64, 68 

Wallachia, Hungarian gains in, 26; con- 
quered by Turks, 25; by Matthias Cor- 
vinus, 26 ; recovered by Turks, 45 ; 
Austrian conquests in, 65 ; in 19th 
century, 97 

Wangen (Imperial town), 18 

Wanting, acquired by Great Britain, 113 

Warsaw, acquired by Prussia, 74; grand 
duchy of, 5, 84; acquisitions of, 84; 
and settlement of 1815, 87, 99 

Washington (State), formation of, 102 

Wehlau, treaty of, 66, 73 

Wei-hai-wei, leased by Great Britain, 109, 
113 

Weil (Imperial town), 18 

Weilburg. See Nassau- Weilburg 

Weissenburg (in Nordgau) (Imperial town), 
18 

(in Alsace) (Imperial town), 17, 50 

Wesel, acquired by France, 82, 84 
Weser, river, Sweden and, 62; France 

and, 85 
Western Australia, annexation of, 103 

Siberia, Government of, 110 

West Indies, colonisation of, 67-8, 75-6; 

change of power in, 91, 103; in 1910, 118 
Westminster, bishopric of, 10 ; peace of, 57 
Westphalia, duchy of, 14, 81; Circle of, 18; 
peace of, 43, 49-50, 61-2, 64, 66-7, 68 ; 
kingdom of, 83 ; and settlement of 1815, 
'87 
West Virginia (State), formation of, 102 
Wettin, house of, 15 

Wetzlar (Imperial town), 18; and settle- 
ment of 1803, 81 
Whydah, English at, 68 
Wimpfen (Imperial town), 18 
Windsheim (Imperial town), 18 
Windward Islands, French and English in, 

76 
Wischegrad, conquered by Turks, 45 
Wisconsin (State), formation of, 102 
Wismar, obtained by Sweden, 52, 54 
Witebsk, acquired by Eussia, 73 
Wittenberg, capital of Saxony, 15 ; acquired 
by Prussia, 87 



Wohlau, ceded to Brandenburg, 66 

Wolfenbiittel. See Brunswick- Wolfenbiittel 

Wolgast, at peace of Stockholm, 62. See 
Pomerania-Wolgast 

Wollin, Island of, obtained by Sweden, 52 j 
ceded to Prussia, 62, 67 

Worms (Imperial town), 17; (bishopric), 
40, and settlement of 1803, 81; and 
Confederation of Ehine, 83 

Wiirtemberg, early history of, 16; in 
Suabian Circle, 18 ; Eeformation in, 
39, 40; and Montb^liard, 62, 69, 79; 
created an electorate, 81 ; and settlement 
of 1803, 81; at Pressburg, 82; in Con- 
federation of Ehine, 83; in Germanic 
Confederation, 88; and Zollverein, 93; 
joins North German Confederation, 94; 
in German Empire, 95 

Wiirzburg (bishopric), 17; in Franconian 
Circle, 18; and Eeformation, 40; desired 
by Prussia, 82 ; acquired by Bavaria, 81 ; 
formed into a grand duchy, 82; enters 
Confederation of Ehine, 83 ; and settle- 
ment of 1815, 87 

Wyoming, Mexican losses in, 101; (State), 
formation of, 102 

Xanten, treaty of, 66 

Yanaon, French at, 109 
Tandabu, treaty of, 108 
Yenikale, conquered by Eussia, 71 
Ypres, acquired by Burgundy, 12 
Yucatan, Spanish administration of, 59 

Zambesi, river, Portuguese at, 48 ; English 

and Germans at, 112 
Zante, lost and recovered by Venice, 26 
Zanzibar Island, Germans and English in, 

111-2 
Zaporogia, transfers allegiance to Eussia, 

71, 73 
Zarafshan, acquired by Eussia, 110 
Zebu, Magellan at, 47 
Zeeland, added to Burgundy, 13; under 

Charles V, 42; joins Union, 43 
Zerbst. See Anhalt-Zerbst 
Zips, pledged to Poland, 26; ceded to 

Austria, 65, 73 
Zossen, annexed by Brandenburg, 15 
Zug, joins Swiss Confederation, 19 ; and 

Eeformation, 40 
Zululand, annexation of, 104 
Zurawna, peace of, 73 
Zurich, joins Swiss Confederation, 19; 

acquires Thurgau, 12, 19 ; Eeformation 

in, 40; and settlement of 1815, 89 
Zutphen, acquired by Burgundy, 13; added 

to Netherlands, 42 ; joins Union, 48 
Zweibriicken, in Upper Rhenish Circle, 18; 

adopts Calvinism, 40; lost by Bavaria, 81 



MAPS 1-141 



MAP 1 

Europe 
1490 A.D. 



\ 



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20° 



10" 



EUROPE 

1490 A.D. 

Sca.le of Statute Miles 

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REFERENCE 

Tempotary conquests 
of Matthias Corvinus 



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MAP 2 
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Cambridge University Press. 



Map 2 




Stcui/ori's GeoQ^ Estah^, LoruLon', 



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Scale of Miles 

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REFERENCE 

CZi Ottoman conquests to 1451 
CZI 1. »» under Mohammad 11,1451-81 

W^ » « i» 5e///n /, /5/?-20 

WB « 1. « SoNman I, 1520-66 

Vassal States shown in a lighter tint 
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(^ jLesbos 

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c? 



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250 



Cambridge University Press. 



Map 3 




30' 



Stanford's Geo^i Estab^, London 



MAP 4 

Italy 
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with inset 
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\\% 


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Map 4 




Map 5 




Cambridge University Press. 



I 1 \ Austrian Circle 
It B" i f)iirgi,n/iiAn Circle 
SBMsifCtorj/ Rhenish Circle 
I 4 I Franrnnian Circle 



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\f :6 '\.^uahian Circle 
I 7 I Upper Rhenish Circle 
I 8 I Westphalian Circle 



I Upper SsAon Circle 
]l.otfer „ „ 
I 11 I Immediate Imperial Territory 
Boundary of the Empire 



Stanford's Geog' £stab', London. 



Map 6 




Cambridge University Press. 



Stanford's Geo^! Estate, London. 



MAP 7 

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Ferdinand and Isabel 



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=^ THE 

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FERDINAND and ISABEL 

Scale of English Miles 

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Cambridge University Press. 



Map 7 




Stanford's Ceo^l Estab^, London. 



MAP 8 

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under Louis XI 



Map 8 




Map 9 




Cambridge University Press 



Sunfera'i Ceo^' CiC^b'', London 



r I 



Map 10 




LV 



f 



MAP 11 

Eastern frontier of 
France 
Wars of France and the Empire 
• 1521—1559 



Map 11 




MAP 12 

Germany 

at the 

Accession of Charles V 



54' 



G E R M A N Y 

AT THE 

ACCESSION OF CHARLES V. 

Scale of English Miles 
I ■ I . I I 2 I 



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Cambridge University Press. 



Map 12 




MAP 13 

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Map 13 



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Map 14 



.^^G E R M A N Y 

^^^sC^^%^ SCHMALKALDIC WAR 

English Miles 
>° I I 



rNote-.-'SsATony is coloured toshonv the 
partitions of IS47& 1554. 
^" ' \Albertine Saxony after the 
\ partition of 1547. 



□ Ernestine Saxony after the 
partition of 154/, 

O Territory restored to the 




Cambridge University Press. 



Stanford's 6eof £stab% London. 



Map 15 




MAP 16 

England & Wales 

under 

the Tudors 



Map 16 




MAP 17 

Scandinavia 

in the time of 

Gustavus Vasa 




Map 17 




MAP 18 

Western and Central 

Europe 

The Progress of the Reformation 

to 1560 




Cambridge University Press 



30" 



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WESTERN & CENTRAL 

EUROPE 

THE PROGRESS OF THE REFORMATION TO 1560 



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English Miles 
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/ 



100 O 100 200 300 

REFERENCE TO COLOURS 



Anglican r 

Lutheran and r 
kindred reformers L 



Socinians F 



~\Calvinlst 

"I Waldensians 
ABohemlan Brethren 

J Anabaptists 



Sicily 



Stales -which hoji adapted, the Rerormation, are coloured, in. ftdL. 
In, those which remained Cathjoltc, the extension, of reformed 
opinions is indicated by bars of colour. The different colours 
indicate different form^ of the reformed faitJv.In, Germxmy, certain 
important town,s, chief Oy Imperiai Towns, which had, admitted 
the Jteformxition, before 1560, are inserted,, though notalL 
remained Protestant in, 1560. 



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Stanford's CeogI Estab^, London. 



MAP 19 

France 

The Religious Wars 

with inset 
The Neighbourhood of Paris 




Map 19 




Map 20 




MAP 21 

Hungary 

at the end of the 

Sixteenth Century 






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Cdrnbridfe University Press. 



Map 21 



24^ 



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HUNGARY 

AT THE END OF THE 

SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

English Miles 
_j I I I I I 



so 







O 50 

REFER EN C E 
I Austrian Hungary \_ 



100 



Turkish Dependencies 

I I Turkish Hungary and j 1 Transylvania . genera lly 

' ^ other Turkish Dominions ' ' under Turkish influence 

The red line shows the frontiers of Hun fary to south &. east in 14-90. 

The relative positions of the Hapsbur^ and Ottoman Powers 



'■ *'" ^ - ' ''Jf/i\yxK'\u ■ "'""^W"''^'"""^ 1 V „ '^ Hungary are shown as they stood a6 the Peace of 1606, 









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Stan fords Geof! Estate, London 



MAP 22 

The Netherlands 

The Wars of Independence 






0/4^ 



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Map 22 




MAP 23 

Scotland 

in the 

XVIth and XVIIth Centuries 



Map 23 




Map 24 




p 



Cambridge Uniyersity Press. 



Stanford's 6eog! Estate, London. 



Map 25 




Cambridge University Press. 



Stanford's Geog' £stab!; London- 



MAP 26 

Italy 

at the end of the 
Sixteenth Century 



Map 26 








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MAP 27 

Ireland 

at the beginning of the 
XVIth Century 




Map 27 



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MAP 28 

Religious Divisions of 

Germany 

c. 1610 



Map 28 



20° 




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A 




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^ 




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RELIGIOUS DIVISIONS OF 

GERMANY c.1610 

English Miles 

I I ■ I I 1 I I 

50 O 50 100 

REFERENCE 

Roman Catholic coloured thus 1 J 

Lutheran „ ,, - - 

Cahinist ,, „. . _ 

Bohemian Brethren. . „ „ 

Protestant Towns in Catholic surroundings thus Wetzlatr 



55' 



50' 



45' 



20° 



Stanford's Geog! Estah\ London. 



MAP 29 

Germany 
The Thirty Years War 

1619—1629 

Campaigns In Bohemia, the Palatinate, 

Lower Saxony 8c Denmark 



52' 



46' 



? 



^ 



r 



OE RM ANY 

THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 

1618 — 162 9 

CAMPAIGNS IN BOHEMIA, THE PALATINATE, 
LOWER SAXONY & DENMARK. 




Span 



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Combridfe University Press. 



Map 29 



J 



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Stanford's Ceof! Estsb^, London 



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Map 30 




Map 31 



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54' 




G E RM A N V 

THE EDICT OF RESTITUTION, 
1629 



REFERENCE. 

The names of t/ie bishoprics to which the Edict 
applied are inserted in caps, those in which the 
restitution was carried through or be^un are 
inserted thus MINDEN. The names of Imperial and ~ 
Hanse towns m which the restitution was carried 
through are inserted. Other places, chief ly mon- 
astic foundations, in which the restitution was 
'carried through are indicated thus + without 
bein^ named. i 



Cambridge Universitj Press. 



Stanfords Ceo^' Cstab'^ London. 



Map 32 




Cambridge University Press 



S tin ford's Oeog I Estab\ London. 



MAP 33 

Germany 
The Thirty Years War 

1630-48 
The Swedish Campaigns 



THE THIRTY YEARS WAR L, 

1630-48 <^^^ 

THE SWEDISH CAMPAIGNS 



20 



English Miles 
E_ i_ I 



20 40 60 80 



100 



V 



1 

r 



52° 



48° 



^ 



.<^ 



iPlLjcmhurQ \ ^ , 



'yBremerv 



<rNv Domit 

<5 ^ 



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o 



Werbe 

6 



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m, 



^hnj^stecUQ 



hcT'Ci 



[ArnsherA 



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?i\<^ 



<'^''''/, 



.\i/^ 



''&.^ O O I?/ 

sefULC^ BrRcrt C ,^ 

[.<', -J. J r> 



C0BI4. 



.v^'>^ 



{■^uaoenvb, 



^ier 



■nsci 



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< 



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Pal 






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erv 



berg 
^ffeilhronrv ^ 






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# 



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^ 



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B 



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^ 



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k\ll>^ 



,\\\>l/,l 



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'-> t ^';" 



SilU. 



Cdmbrid^e University Press. 



8° 









Map 33 




\Rostoch 

.0 . /y _ 



StccrgccrcL 



^GoLgiberg ^New '^ V 

* oWittstoch j 

^ \BM7elhera S JBccrwaZde 




20* 



'^ 



^ vjrooscLOfnxj' 
. Jiiterhoh, 



strvnl 
rankfort 







j^ |ly:';jl^<^V/,'.UV^y^/lt...VM^^VM\'t'■■. 



12' 



. 



Stanford's Geog.' Estab^, London. 



/ 



f 



Map 34 



ENGLAND & WALES 

at the ouitreak of 

TH E CIVIL W AR 

English Miles 

' ■ ■ ■ I 1 I I 1 - 

20 10 20 40 60 80 

Districts and places held by the Kin f,coloured pink. 

„ „ „ „ „ Parliament „ yellow. 




a^ 



Cambridge Um^'ersity Press. 



Stani'orut's O'eo^! fst^b'-.Londori 



\ 



Map 35 



\ 



0° 



ENGLAND & WALES 

after the 

CAMP AIGNS OF 1644 

English Miles 



Districts and places held by the Uing, coloured pink. 
„ „ „ „ „ Parliament „ yellow. 




a- 



CoiribnJ^e UmversiCy Press. 



Stanford's Ceo^! EstaO^^Lonaon 



i 



I 



MAP 36 

England & Wales 
The Civil War 



Map 36 




Map 37 



IRELAND 

1558 - 1652 

English Miles 

< 1 — I tz. I I I I 

10 O 10 20 30 40 SO 

REFERENCE TO COLOURS 

Extension of the Pale I I 

E/izabethan Plantations I I 

Jacobean „ I 1 

Unplanted Districts I I 

Settlements on a Native fJasii I I 

Scottish Settlem ents I I 




Ea^^, Malin f/¥ 



Tory I 




Rathlin 1. 




astie 
{Cushenebufv 






\ri)shofin I 




Mageel. 




nisUiilin//^ 

\ ^ •lARMA.GHi 
Ct^VA 



cJiOT^ori/ ': ■■•. ■ "tn^ 

LONGFORD^ 

(:,/'■';:( "^ ■■•■■ m € 

E S T IV^ A T H;' f^'-J^fi^'^m^l 



Clonnuxjcruiise' ^Phib^town-^ 

KING'S COUNTvf <f^ 
KILD^ 



fRLO 



, ■ . , '^■CcirlLiiw . 

liil/ ^-Castlei^rmai 



( MMviv R Black'^aI'eryi''Kf I" R F 




Ixn. 






KeA) 




f^J^A 



sey 



Baf 



trj/ 



^JZ>''> 



ou^hal 



'tori 



^ BaltLmart 



Cambridge University Press 



Stanford's Geo^' Cstab'; London 



> 



I 



Map 



56° f=^ 



IRELAND 

ACCORDING TO THE ACT OF SETTLEMENT 
261" SEPT. 1653 AND SUBSEQUENT ORDERS 

English Miles 




O 10 20 30 40 50 

REFERENCE TO COLOURS 

English Territory I I 

Irish ., tZZI 

English Garrisons thus a 




tnj sbofin 




Cimbridfe University Press. 



Scan ford's CeofI £stjb'; London. 



f 



>f 



i 



MAP 39 

The Thirty Years War 

The French War 1 635-48 

and the 

Dutch War with Spain 1620-48 



Map 39 




Map 40 




w; 



< 



P^ 



%> 



^ 



MAP 41 
Europe in 1648 




EUROPE IN 1648 



V 


'^^^ 


r^^Tf^^ 


hJj ^ 




1 ..A^-V_^J.^^^ 


-y M 






S ^ 


c 1 

3 (f 


i 




vJ»/ 


^ 




English Mil e s ^ 

— ' iOO 200 300 4O0 



Cambridge Unii/ersitj Press 



20' 



Map 41 



30° 



50" 



60= 




& 



6* 



^n' 



[r « a.' 



.t,v^ 



onia^ 



\3 



:)l/loS'^ 




^, 






1ro 






( W a V ^ c '^ ' ^ 



Bulg 
7> 


a r 1 


"( ■ 


Tv 


Os 


a\^4-rC 



V 




^ 




^ 



30° 



Stanford s Oeo^l EsUb^, London. 



Map 42 




MAP 43 

Portuguese, 

Dutch and English 

in the East 

c. 1650 




Cambridge Uni\^ersity Press. 



Map 43 



100" 



120° 



140° 



160" 



180° 



PORTUGUESE 
^ DUTCH &, ENGLISH 
IN THE EAST 

1650. 




Stanford's Geog! Estab^, London, 



Map 44 




m 



MAP 45 

The Netherlands 

and 
Western Germany 

The Wars of 1648-1715 




Map 45 




Map 46 




Cambridge University Press. 



Scan ford's Oea^f £sC^b9, London. 



Map 47 



IRELAND 

1660 - 1800 

English Miles 




REFERENCE 

Schomberg's March 1689 

William's „ 1690..... 

Ginkel's „ 1691....^ 

Humbert's „ I79B 

Parliamentary Boroughs 





S//p 



\ 



■ST JOMIVSTOWN 

^n n llrri- A I '-'#«° •LONDONDERRY 

-^r:? ^:::::cS^^^^3^ 

DONEGAL ^_^^~f 

- . .,..^C'V\ R 6' fyf E 

^SKANN6/v'',;;.../t J • ,„ ,- 

,>. AUGMER ^ 

ENNl's- '■■'." "CubCHER ; 
<1LLEN ■:...,.■% ••...•^RM 

G« . <^o ARMAGH 








DOWjNPATRICt 



CASTLE BAR 



TOLSK 



d=D 






■'^. 



S?JOHNSTO^v^f-_- 

O/' „ °^ GRANARp 
LONCrORDO O ;■ • 

LAI*)ESBOROUCh/ f\ /' 

9 (f. f\^ /'"■■■■ ^^' ^^„^„^ 

ULLINCAR 

ATH; 



^FORE 



^ 



ROSCOMMO 
7 "TUAM if -^ 

.<S."« S O Ji^HLOUE:. MILBEGCAN. 




Dl/NLEER 

>OMEDA 

jDUL^EKitSi 

M e\AT H 



"TRIM/ ; 

ratoa'th 



' flo' °S?VOROS 
NEVyCA^ 



'■■poji^hreo/ 



,_ E 

oPMrLIPSTOWN 

KING'S C0UNTY4 >jAAS;.^^^.^^ 

PORTARLINGTON ::....K I L L/« K Ea^ •.,;■-; "? 
ANAGHER- y-<^V^j5^Y^,LDARE\gp--^ 

^:;#i/t E N'Si °harr1^§^/ 

/■■'^Maryborough fr/VATH-v?'' l/VICKi. OJA^^wicklow 



C, L A R E 



/:f^.yena^7l \ 



-?> A.II M X V \ ••.oBALTINGLASSic ; 

PALLINAkIlI^o^jJ^-:, \, . .|f<W'i5f'«^'??f fcARYSFORT^J 



KILKENNY \coWRAN "^ ='= ^' °?"'^*' 



r^H 



Ri^er Shar^f^"" 



^: MmER^CK .^'^VoCA>"E.,,„,i^„^^^^^^^ <fN3 



arHiU/ 

bf^THV 



^MLMACLOCK 



"r^THAfro^,;;,:: "OWEXF^ 

-:i?<^'i,-/Vv_.^°l!V^ T? -•'. • ■ \/>^^ „CL0NlviVl<iEsA 

^-'•""■•^"■--•■■-^ <t V ,„. OOONERA.L^ y<^^.^^..^.p g p^ p Q p^ 

^ J^ . ^S^i ''"/«*THt6VMAeK,.^*LLAm t _ /« 



5"VGAh 



p^ 



'^'*'»RD 



./^.>K./, 



M1U»"'>*"' 



;^j,.»" 



•^ v^i^'jS"'""""' ^9ANoi6'H-eRiD6e 

'''•ii^^^^./^''* --^ Cl^ONA«ILTY^,c< 



(i^YOUOHA'L] 



emartyr 



M/z*" 



^BALTIMORE 



Cambridge University Press. 



Stanford's Cto^. Cstabf, Condors. 



MAP 48 

South Eastern Europe 

Wars of Turkey with the Empire, 
Venice and Poland 1648-1739 



Map 48 




Map 49 




a| 



MAP 50 
West European Waters 

Anglo-French Naval Wars 
1689-1763 



<^. 



V 1^ 



^?o 



^ 




^ 




Map 50 




MAP 51 

Europe in 1 721 

after the 
Treaties of Utrecht & Nystad 




Cambridge University Press. 



Map 51 




Stanford's Geu^! Estab% LonJon. 



Map 52 



20° 



30° 



40° 



50° 



GO- 




SO' 




RUSSIA IN 172 5 

English Miles 



100 so o 100 zoo 

REFERENCE 



Those south of the hrek were restored IJSZS 



50' 



^^^m 



mm- 

fhe acquisitions of Russia durinf the re/ fn I 1 ^^^^ *^^ '^'"'^^^ 

of Peter the Great are coloured thus I I ;^^c z " 

-tmi.f 



mmmmi 



40' 



Cambridge University Press. 



Stanford's 6eog' Estsb^, London. 



I 



MAP 53 
The Baltic Lands 

1661 



rj7^ 




e / 



^^t* 



??' 




Ll. \ 







). 


Jin 


^ 


^'^^'^^-'^-tx^ 




Map 53 




MAP 54 

Scandinavia, Russia 
and Poland 

The Nopthern War, 1700-21 
with inset of 
Schleswig-Holstein 







~,\'S£.'i*\^ 



'Jli^'ni 



'JK^-?/ 



^;!^i^,„.n 



^y 



J&H 



o 

Stofkyr 









^ 



>/^ 



^.- 



^■^< 



'<?>»a 



^ r>«^^ 






D 



f't/ 



Af 



n 



K 



StfO-^ 



■'ok 







.1^' 



lU^ 



ib^':^' 



;\a 



^^Iski' 






'<>/l« '< 









'^.^i<^ 



'iwcT-^ 






^ a /^ 






» -*5?>.i 



^erli^ 



eWb 



ur 



"^^^^° 



^•a^^ 



loZe 



■^^ 



-'Z^'fti/- 




J^ultush 






sch 



Warsaw 



/'./.. i'"^^"''^'"< 



:# 




y^'^ 






i\\-;i\\- 



.\>UU 



?^ifi/ 



/ ■^lissow 



r'CLCOW 




m 



w>^i'' 



''^::::i% 



M'f'V^^^^ 



Uil\vl, 



IS^^ 






;^ 






^nS'c : i'" 



;\<=^..; 




""V/l 



LemJberg 



fvii^^ 



-•n'f 



\a\\^, 



a^ 




SCANDINAVIA, RUSSIA 
AND POLAND. 



AND POLAND. 

THE NORTHERN WAR, 1700-21. 

English Mil 

.III I 



'"'> 



e s 



100 50 



100 



REFERENCE 

The territory surrendered by Sweden at the 

conclusion or the war, is coloijred thus ' I 

10° 



■/|;;/|05 



v->lrt>' 






'; O'^C- 



- "'/^ 






i\^: 







M7/; 



'"'"w/, 






O'-;/ xVltr 



^■■3^^ 



Cambridge Unii/ersity Press. 



20° 



a I |l a c h 






Map 54 




Stanford's Geog! Estate, London 



t 



Map 55 



^ifi/ 







^( 






MAP 56 

Scotland 

and 
Northern England 

Campaigns of the Pretenders 



Map 56 




MAP 57 

Central Europe 
Wars of Fpederick the Great 



CENTRAL EUROPE 

WARS OF FREDERICK THE GREAT 

English Miles 
I ■ I I I I 




^ 





w^ 

EdaJbei- 

trcr . % 



Memei 



COMPLETION OF 
PRUSSIA 



. StaJUupoTven. 

re/ ^ : 




t P r u 3-5 i a 



& Wurte>nb,.erp^ . 



Cambridge University Press. 



Map 57 




t^f" 




■^tralsu 




RiJien 



RiXberg 



'^ 




it Prussjia,..^ 



^ 



.cV< 



''...■FrvedlimA 



OoTTUtx, 



I e n 



o 



rr^ 



/■■■■•••iVeTUtZ^zit /^ 



Bra n cTe n ^u rjl^ 



shJf^^ 



RossboLchjo C 
Obschiitx^ " 

rficrt .0 






Poserv 






N 



«i 



^^^R^ 



Cottbifsc 



\\sf\ 



o 

Zeitx 







..-J..-- I ...: \^ GlaaoajL 

K^?*'V^'*#^' X ^^ \. M i*^^^^ 






yi0i'>^ 









?vhrf 



^NiederSdwnfeL t 



RatishoTh g/^^Km J = 












'■S*!)////. 



/*/,,aaVUl^l{<3^^^;^■^p■ 










^^'"'^ ''^imhouch.^ 





















Mojuth 

r I 



'"i- 






%^' 




.^<sfn\•^ 






52' 



4«< 



Stanfords Geo^'. Estate, London 



MAP 58 

Poland 

The Partitions 



56 



12* 



ler 



20° 



POLAND 

THE PARTITrONS 



1^ 



24 






English Miles 
J 1 i_r L_ 



50 

REFERENCE 



Partition ( | \J erriU)ry taken by Russia 

of 1772 { \ l .-i. » i,..Prussi3 

.,, ,,.. Austria 



Partition (I ' 

of 1793 \| 



Partition 
of 1795 



^iiatci 



^Pilten 

C (o u 



r /\ 
Mttaic y9 ^ 



, ,, ,,..Russia 

, ,, ^..Prussia 

, ,, „..Russia 

] „ ,, „.. Prussia 

J ,, ,, ^..Austria 




Tlie Boundary of Poland after the first Partition is coloured . 
„. second...,, „ ,, 



\Sa 



m o g f t 



I a 



-i>- >» — 11 






pom 



^f'MUhsbera 

fyf, 



-^^tti^ 



■••..■•■'■■"" "■ •■■ ^J^^*^^^^af4^°£:i6i^J'''ep' 









Grodno 




Cambridge' Unfveniiy fress. 




32" 



Marienhaics 



Minsk, 



iEk- 



iPoLoxh 



^Viiehskr: 




W H'J t/e 



R u S( S I ^ a 



Mstislowl^ 
^Mdhileff 



A 



I a 



^'p5^ 



L it. 



I erJRfu s s I a| 



■<?/- 




32 



36° 



Map 58 



40° 



NJO 



°}/loSC0Vl 



/?. <^A5 



56^ 



\Kalng(^ 



90rel 



EkfidbermashxPr\ 



o!i 



ieper 





52 



48 



36* 



Stanforc/s Geo^f Lstab*; London 



MAP 59 

Prussia 

Teppitopial Expansion 

1648-1795 




Cambridge University Press 



Map 59 




20° 



24° 



Memcl 



Kolberg 



iGoUnow 



■Laxierihioy^ 



^ •■■••; Olu-ao 
O r'^'Bidovi 



5^0^ ...<■ West 

^ "■ "■' Pjj^rf u s s i a 

Dr-aheint ' 






MM^n^iiy* 



•rder 



New Mark 



yUstrin, 
ik/bf^6h 



Netze District/ 



tulmerland 



W.^y 






'A. 






{£^ PUch 



WJhaif^ Schh'iebiis' 

'.-Canal 



'■..firossc'fv 
.°Peitx . '^ 



rosen 



S o/ui h P r u s 



s 1 



L u o 1 w e r 

,.lvegru^ ° Breslau 

Vauer ^ . ^ 

°U p p>e 




Oa^ 



<KaIvfz 



Pultuskot 



Wiirsctv; 



oRawa 




.Sieradx 




SVl^esii 







Bu^ 



^ Soros 



16° 



20° 



52' 



43' 



Stanfords Ccog' Fstab*-, London. 



Map 60 




MAP 61 

Russia 

Terpitopial Expansion 1725-1795 




CCLLE 



Map 61 




MAP 62 

The Empire 

and the 
Netherlands 

c. 1792 



THE EMPIRE 

AND THE 

NETHERLANDS c.l792 

E n^llsh Mile 

I I I I I 1 L 



50 

The Imperial towns are underlined in 





•" E ■)■ e 

B 

-.■^.. Ste^ 




^^ 



InnsbriLck. 



BRfXCN , 



,-'T R E N tib -^t 



Cambridge Uniu'ersity Press. 



Map 62 




e^ 




[nitz "'---h^ U k ermarli . 
r k 

N evu 



^G.' 



.■magVt—"-. 





/^alzb'u 




.<-'• yf ■■•■ ; 

low"- ... ) ".LuiATIA Saqarv 

^Thrgauub- ■./ i ''r'y. \\^ V;:"° ^ 

}S ^AI xS O ■ Nup^rYlusAtia/ i^^«?^<^? 

.*»,*. ... Sj^ -»^ ........... ^ ^ 

o. *^ 

I'ogtlfi^.d....--., 

:^"\ B O y > E M 



'pCham/. 



. 8RIX 



■?.'«^ /carniolA . 

i H '. L- . 



20" 



Stanford s Geo£! t'stab^, London. 



'■1 



MAP 63 
Europe in 1792 



20*= 



10° 



EUROPE IN 1792 

English Miles 




Cambridge University Press. 



20° 



30" 



4-0° 



l^^r-. 



"^ 



6 




\ 



Fi 



6^ 








S^i^ 



«r& 



^^'3 



obno 



% 
^ 




jApsc^' 




East 
Tprussia 



sWarSi 



<J>lN^ 



"S 



D 



^ 



\3 



a ni 



^^^. 



<s> 



^e'■J 



lO^ 



BuUo 



na.: 






A^o, 



fa r y 



» B a n a t/ 



Mo 



la 



?ram 



)s^i 



W a 



ina^ 



h » a 



o 



^ 



o 




oU 



E 



•^ 



\^ 



% 



% 



A/, 






■<; 



Candia » 



r^^q^ 



c:yp 



rus 



50° 



,f^ 




P 1 




Map 63 



60° 




\ 




50' 




20' 



30" 



40" 



St,an ford's Geo^f Estab^, London 



MAP 64 

India 

The Beginnings of British Dominion 



Map 64 




J 



MAP 65 

Africa 

in the 
XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries 

with inset 
The Gold and Slave Coasts 



Map 66 




MAP 66 

European Colonisation 

in 

North America 

to 1700 




.^/ 



Map 66 




MAP 67 

French Expansion 

and British Conquests 

in 

North America 

to 1763 

with inset 

Quebec 



Map 67 




Map 68 



85° 



eh 



40' 



O 




^C^ 



iV\i'l 



>^ 



Vi-e 



.<^ 






Montr&cd/ L§ .SS" 



A Up 



L.S* Frai cis 



TiaO, 



Niagara, 



Detroit f''W 



^^"^ 






'<.-. 



'9</ 



S«'. 



Q. 






P E N IN S,iY L,M^N I A^f^^ 






^hamplain j £ 
\AU,aPffo\ ^\X^.<i''<i:i^'i^'-^,^A7s'achusett5 Bay 

,^c.,-a«^^ , ^ .^ HI/SETTS ^^Uuxi- 



^ 



<-ong /. 



J^,. 




^^-^^ .^^.<^^ 



^iv. 



^H^\p\^MH I A 



^^tyare 



T L A n\t I C 



C E a\N 




THE 
THIRTEEN COLONIES 

AT THE END OF THE COLONIAL PERIOD. 



I ish Miles 



O 100 200 

Note: /He uncohured territory east of the Mississippi and 
south of the freat lakes, tvas claimed by Georgia, 
the Carolinas. Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut, 
by virtue of their charters. The part north of 
the Ohio is shown in this map as part of the 
province of Quebec, to vvhich it was added in 1/74 

I t 



30' 



Cambridge University Press 



Ji^n/ords Geog' Csta'b^. London 



MAP 69 
West Indies in 1763 



V 



100" 



30 



90° 



80" 



Sc/ 



fs" 



cc 



NORTH^V 
CAROL/NA / 



Vers 



''LOR 



io£ 



o 



sttoc 



<\ 



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n 



20 



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of 
tan2 



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£ ^ /? 



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ence I. 



C o< 



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Citrta(fernt><^ 



^Gulf of 
J)arh 



< 

^ 

or 
o 






90" 



80" 



Cambridge University Press. 



Map 69 



WEST INDIES IN 1763 



U 

Scale of Miles 



lOO 50 O 



lOO 200 3O0 400 

REFERENCE. 

\ British ' ' French 
iSpanish I 1 Dutch 
I I Danish 



500 




Grenadaf '^ 




20' 




10" 



70° 



60° 



Stanford's Geog ' Cstab*: London 



MAP 70 

Eastern North America 

In 1812 

The Wap of Independence 

and the War of 1812-14 

with inset 
Boston 



Map 70 




Map 71 



120* 



50° 









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% 




Si 



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20° 



10' 



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50' 



40 



30° 



MEXICO AND TEXAS 

1845-1848 

Scale of Miles 






^%>^ 



'fin*'"' 



-%'l^J 






iDW 



100 50 100 200 300 

REFERENCE 

Texas In 1845 



Territory claimed by Texas from Mexico and 
ceded by Mexico tu the United States in 1818... 

Other Territory ceded by Mexico io the 
Umied Statei in mS ._ 



Mexico in I8t8 



-JZZl 



110° 




10' 



Cambridge Un/versitj Press 



Stanford's tieo^' £.stabi,London 



MAP 72 

Expansion 

of the 

United States 



40' 






30 



20° 



Nootka SfA 



120 



no 



100° 






^ o 4 

'859 '^ / 



\. 



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1890 



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^ 




/ EXPANSION J 

'^" of the W 

UNITED STATES 

Scale of Miles 
I ■ 1 I I ,. I I 

100 50 100 200 300 ^00 

reference: 

The dsrt^s written thus 1848 are the dates orterritorial safuisiiions I 
'The dates written i^tis \&M are tAe dates of tht erection of the 
various States The dates on the northern boundary line indicate 
the year in which the particular boundary was fixed. 



^ 



110 



100° 



Cambridge i/n/yers/ty Press^ 



Map 72 







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Map 73 




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MAP 74 

The Civil War 

in the 
United States 




35' 



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,,1 1 "//,,„ 



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Cambridge University Press. 



Map 74 




50 100 ISO 

Note' The railways are shown es in 18 &Q. 



Stanfords 6eog! Estab^, London. 



I 



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Map 75 











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Map 78 




MAP 79 

France 

before the 

Revolution 



48" 



44' 




F RANGE 

BEFORE THE 

REVOLUTION 

Eng^lish Miles 
I — ■ — > — 1 — I — 1—2 I 

50 O 50 K 

REFERENCE 

Boundaries of Governments mrnmattt. 

Territorial acquisitions 1715' 89.. A J 

Papal Territory. I I 



/?. Gironde 



-^\^- 



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Map 79 



°JNZeiiport 




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Stanfords Geo£! Estabt; London: 



MAP 80 

Paris 

during the 

Revolution 




Cambridge University Presi 



Map 80 





'I 







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D, 





o 



Cn 




§ 




NAMES OF THE SECTIONS 



1 des Tuileries 

2 des Champs-Elys^es 

3 de la Republique {formerly du 

Roule) 

4 de la Montagne [formerly du 

Palais Royal, du Palais 
Egalit^. de la Butte des 
Moulins or de la Butte St. 
Roch) 

5 des Piques [formerly de la Place 

VendSme) 

6 Le Pelletier [formerly de la 

Biblioth^que, des Filles St. 
Thomas, de 1792) 

7 du Mont Blanc [formerly de 

la Grange-Batelifer.e, de 

Mirabeau) 
8du Museum [formerly du 

Louvre) 
9 des Gardes Fran9aises(/brmerij/ 

de rOratoire) 
ID de la Halle au Bl^ 

11 du Contrat Social [formerly des 
Postes 

12 de Guillaume-Tell [formerly de 
la Place de Louis XIV or 
des Petits Pferes du Mail) 

13 de Brutus [formerly de la 
Fontaine de Montmorency, 
la Fontaine Montmartre, 
Moliire et La Fontaine) 

14 de Bonne Nouvelle 

15 des Amis dela Patrie [formerly 
du Ponceau) 

16 de Bon Conseil [formerly de 
Mauconseil) 

17 des Wdrches [formerly du 
MaTch^> des Innocents, des 
Halle?) 

18 des Lombards 

19 des Arcis 

20 du Faubourg Mont- Marat 
[formerly du Faubourg 
Montmartre) 

21 Poissonnifere or de la Rue 
Poissonnifere 

22 de Bondy 

23 du Temple 

24 de Popincourt or des Citoyens 
armes de Popincourt 



25 de Montreull or de la Rue de 

Montreuil 

26 des Quinze-Vingts 

27 des Gravilllers 

28 du Nord or du Faub. du Nord 

[formerly du Faub. St. 
Denis) 

29 de la Reunion [formerly de a 

Rue Beaubourg)^ 

30 de I'Homme Arme [formerly 

des Enfants Rouges, du 
Marais) 

31 des Droits de I'Homme 

[formerly du Roi de Sicilel 

32 de la Fidelity [formerly de 

I'HStel de Ville, de la Maison 
Commune) 

33 de I'Indivisibilite [formerly de 

la Place Royale, de la Place 
des Fed^r^s) 

34 de I'Arsenal 

35 de la Fratemit6 [formerly de 

rile St. Louis) 

36 de la Cite [formerly de Notre- 

Dame, de la Raison) 

37 R^volutionnaire [formerly de 

Henri IV, du Pont Neuf) 

38 des Invalides 

39 de la Fontaine de Grenelle 

40 de rUnit^ (formerly des 

Quatre Nations) 
41, Marat {formerly du Theatre 
Franqais. de Marseille) 

42 du Bonnet-Rouge or du Bonnet 

de la LibertA {formerly de 
la Croix-Rouge, later 
Section de I'Ouest) 

43 de Mutius Scevola [formerly 

du Luxembourg) 

44 de Chalier [formerly des 

Thermes de Julien,.de Beau- 
repaire, R6gener^e) 

45 dy Pantheon Francais [fon'merly 

Ste. Genevieve) 

46 de rObservatoire 

47 des Sansculottes {foTrmerly du 

Jardin des Plantes) 

48 du Finistere or Lazowski 

I formerly des^obelinsj 






U1 



jCoM 



c 



c§ 



^ 



Stan fords Geof £stab^. London 



I 



I 



MAP 81 

Eastern Frontier 

of 

France 

Revolutionary Campaigns 
1792-5 




Map 81 




Map 82 




Cambridge Unit^ejsity Press 



Stanford's Geogt £stat>% London. 



MAP 83 

Northern Italy 

Bonaparte's Campaign 
1796-7 







'.''^>l/n. 








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1796-7. 



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Cambridge Unii'ersity Press, 



Map 83 




'^^".. 













,,;;«r/;-,-ril'///'iili'l'''"'"""'<- 
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I'. 



Map 84 



"' "C ENTRXl EUROPE MMMhlAkMi 




after the 

PEACE OF BASEL AND or CAMPO'^"^ 
FORM 10 . *„ 

, . . , ^^^''sl^ Miles ^^"'^i^T'' ^HOLStEII^'^W; 



Cambridge University Press 



Stanford's Geoe' Est,i)l>*^. London 



Map 85 




CdrnbriJ^e Univenity Press 



Stanford's Geo^' Extjli*; London, 



I 



44° 




&3v-<^r=is-^ — ■,.^'1' — *~o> 



40" 



36° 







SC/V^ 









RAGUSA 



ITALY IN 1799 

The War with Naples 17989 



English Miles 



50 



50 



8* 



44 



40 



36 



12° 



16* 



Cambridge University Press. 



Stanford's Ceo^l LstBb^, London 



MAP 87 

European Waters 

Naval Wars 1792-1815 
with inset 

part of 
the French 8c Flemish coast 





Cambridge University Press 




^y.S t'PeUr'slurif 



40° 



EUROPEAN WATERS 

NAVAL WARS I792-I8I5. 



English Miles 



100 50 o 

I — I 



100 

_l 



200 

I 



300 
I 






ixn 




PART OF THE 
FRENCH & FLEMISH COAST 



^ 



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ol 



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Map 87 



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<tu*' 



0^ 



■ift 






cCP^ 






Cand«a 





Abouki,>p^ 



30' 



Stanfbrd's 6eo^!' £stab*Lornion 



MAP 88 

South West Germany 

and 

North Italy 

The War of the Second Coalition 

1798-1801 





Map 88 




MAP 89 

Central Europe 1803 

aftep the 

Peace of Luneville 1 801 

and the Secularisations 1803 



Map 89 




I 



Map 90 




MAP 91 

North Atlantic 

Naval War 
1803-5 



I 




Cambridge University Press 



Map 91 




Std/)fbrJ's Geogl E.$Ljb^,Lof^don. 



I 



MAP 92 

Central Europe 

Wars of the 

Third Coalition 1805-7 

with Inset 

The Neighbouphood of Austerlitz 




Map 92 




MAP 93 

Central Europe 

The Austrian War 1809 

with inset 
Neighbourhood of Vienna 




16' 



Ho/stein 










52° 






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Cambridge University Press. 



Map 93 




^vii^^^u/Jf^il ,,,11111,//^ A. 






^^ 









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THE AUSTRIAN WAR 1809. 



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E n g"! ish Miles 



20 10 



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60 



60 



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7^e territory ceded by Austria at the 
Peace of Scnonbrunn is 



coloured thus. 



44° 



20° 



24° 



Stsn ford's Geog'f Estab ^ Ion don 



MAP 94 

French Empire 

and 

Central Europe 1811 

Political Divisions 




52' 



48' 



44' 



FRENCH EMPIRE 

AND 

CENTRAI. EUROPE 1811. 
POLITICAL DIVISIONS 

English Miles 

I— i 1 1 1 1 ° I L_ I 

50 50 100 

France in 1789 coloured thus. L 

Acquisitions of France 1789- 1811... 



150 



French Empire and dependent States are coloured 
in full. Other stst&s have bands of colour. 




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% ••• -.: OA^ ... .... -^ -J- 

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/^rfnies A. ■•• 71 rriege/ 
C/ ^ :•-... ....-ryrenees • -— fif Uons 

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0° 



Cambridge University Press. 



16° 



20° 



Mgoland 



Ems 
(oriental ; 



^ 



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Map 94 






dV of 
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Lvubeck}o\ 



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... Vsuperieur 1/ < v Ki n fA^ 

LippeV. ...PT-. ::.-:°r -..x o t v»/ ^-j- ^ _s yj — ^Tj 



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King. 



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Stanford \ Geog' EstM, London 



MAP 95 

Spain & Portugal 

The Peninsular War 

and other wars 
of the XVIIIth & XlXth centuries 





40' 



36' 



^- Minister re 















is^ 







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^^^"^^n^^uS-^^fraz OS] Monies 



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C. Trafalgar 




Camhrid^e University Press. 



Map 95 



Jbvdoju 







Palamos 






Maria, (tj 



>R!.?— *■ o 



N^^'i^" 






enarcu 









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Tarrdgonxib 

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(Alicante, 



\\\'^ 



3 

Carta^eruxy 






y 




SPAIN & PORTUGAL 

THE PENINSULAR WAR 

and other wars 
of the XVIfl^.'^ & XIX^.^ centuries 

Eng"lish Miles 



50 



50 



40' 



36° 



Stanford's Geo^! Estab'r, London. 



;^tO!AEv.^7> 






e.u' 



oow' 



v^' 



G"-- 



ufe?^'''^- 



Map 96 




MAP 97 

Germany & Eastern France 

The War of Liberation 1813-14 

with insets 

The Neighbourhood of Paris 

and 
The Neighbourhood of Leipzig 




52° 



GERMANY & EASTERN FRANCE 

THE WAR OF LIBERATION I8I3-I4 

English Miles 



50 



100 







(^ 




Holstein 

Lubeck? 



Srenuen, 



aAi 






s^ 



\/.- Hanover 



JoHamhura'- M 







y 






Ghent 






v-5= 



Colo. 



Munster%. 

'^iisseLcLorf 

75 






Men 



m 






Erfurt 



4ll'/%^""^'| 



C^, 



^^. 



48' 






'^ 



'^LaHasteijt 



.%.; 



P'^^^&.'ffiwaa. 



o 



'^LcLor. 



.Crq 






'<?/>7^« 



Qmecuo- rh -J. 



ms:^ 



i^^ ^Haisersi 



o S 



.v^Ul///. 



^r/t 












S!'^'^^ \Corn7n 



Met:t 

CO" 



fe-J 









.^^^"^ 




re^ 



.^n 






ftoVl'"^ 










^^''e 



•^/ 



v^W^t^^^'^,^^ 'Oy/imiw^ 









?3 ^^ .<!f!"^« X^> 









-^ 



THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF 

PARIS 



5"? CrermaiwenL^t. 







Cambridge University Press 



Map 97 



12" 




KdJxi^s'^^3 



J)anxi^° 



fElbi 



W 



SI Marienivero 
JO f. 

a .... 



Brcmberg 



^Thorrv 



(xTieseTV 



pFosov 



w 






A 

Kcdiscfv 



R 




rjtti 



^i:s552o 



IvJbUrv 







Breslcao 

: e s^i a 













''^ 



o 



#^^i'v?''"ni^' 



l^it^'UxX^ 



.^/^. 



HFra^h 



e m 






WH 



^1/^ 






G a 






.v.^#ill^^*^uvvuim^.^4t">^^^^ 




I a 






^>, 



'£iim% 






T /Ik# 



i^^PW!iSig:^iiii E 






Jil/^//^ 



imutim,. 



'% ^liPf^'^^'^L 



^''/''■^//IIV; 



'^ ciS' 



Via 



W 
W 



%^^ 



i^^ 



A^"^y 



ivS^ 5.x^ 






M. 



^' 



m'^'niiz:^ 



vWUivlllV^^ 



.vv% .^ 













48" 



SCJofcrd's 6eog' Estob'r, London. 



Map 98 




MAP 99 

India in 1804 

The Mysore & Maratha Wars 
1792-1804 




Map 99 




MAP 100 

The Eastern World 

European Colonies and Dependencies 

1815 





THE EASTERN W< 

EUROPEAN COLON 

AND 

DEPENDENCIES 



1815 
I French C 



1 Spanish. 



Portuguese ' ' Russian l^ I Dutch.. 



Cambridge University Press 



Map 100 




btanford's Ceog! Estab':, London. 



MAP 101 

The Western World 

European Colonies and 
Dependencies 1815 




Map 101 




MAP 102 

Europe 

after the 

Congress of Vienna 






I \IS^^'^'\ 



^^ 



20O 

T 



10° 



EUROPE 

CONG 



I 

100 



AFTER THE 

RESS OF VIENNA 

English Miles 
_i_° L_ L 




Cambridge University Press 



Map 102 




I 



Stanford's Geog! Estate, London. 



MAP 103 

France 

since 1814 




50 

REFE RENCE 

The frontier of France is shown as in 1815. 

The Insulated Territories acguired by France after 
1789, and guaranteed to her in 1614 are coloured 

Frontier districts left to France in 1814 and 
talicn away in 1815 are coloured 

Territory ceded to France by Sardinia in I860 

„ „ „ Monaco in 1861 

by France to German Empire In I87L 









Cambrid^t University Press. 



Map 103 










8° 



3S^ %f(!!!N' 
















\4 



Thiohvule 









am"///^ 






-V OjS gXe S|.^u^ 






g: 






45^-" <ur&N E;,.^;i-^^;Lr^'i^"'^ 






^W^'^^^^:- 




"a UN 






48' 















a^F^ 






.''^''/z 






^RENEES 



42 ^c6|;Sj|^jVj 

AjcLCCio/>7/;ii< 




On the same, scale 




^Sasti/. 



44' 



Stanford's OeogI £st3b^, London. 



MAP 104 

Italy 

since 1815 
The Struggle for Unity 

with inset 

Stages in the Union of Italy 
1859-70 



Map 104 



r 




q:: 


V) 




u) 


o 


<0 


^^ 


00 


u. 


? 




~ 


LU 




< 




-J 
o 
o 




H 


2 
c7^ 




c 
u 



CO 



^^f MLOIum/^x^ 




MAP 105 
Ottoman Empire in Europe 

1792-1870 



Map 105 




MAP 106 

Spanish & Portuguese 
Settlements in America 

with inset 

Latin America 

after the 

Wars of Independence 1825 



Map 106 




MAP 107 
The Germanic Confederation 

1815 



Map 107 




MAP 108 

Russia in Europe 

in the nineteenth century 

with inset 

The Neighbourhood of Warsaw 



Map 108 




k 



Map 109 




Cambridge Un.rtrntj PreiS 



'il^nfordi Oto^t tsUb\ London. 



Map 110 




MAP 111 

The Austrian Dominions 
since 1815 





Cambridfo University Press. 



Map 111 




Stanford's Geog! tstdb ^ 



Map 112 



n 




fe 






z, 






cr 
< 





< 






^ 




J 


rfl 


s 


a 

z 


— .0 


^ 


s 


.w 


CO 


S 


S3 


K 




cr 

Ul 

Q 

7 


><>o 
c -o 


^ 






O 

1/5 




1— i 




W 






^ 




S 


Ul 

I 


cJo 


in 




?i 




r 



)F f.l£& 




^Sk"""'""' 



Map 113 



2° 



0° 



2° 



ENGLAND & WALES 

PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION 

IN 1832 BEFORE 

THE REFORM BILL. 



English Miles 
20 io 20 40 io 



REFERENCE 

Counties returning I member each coloured L 

11 11 2 members „ „ L 

County of Yorkshire returning 4 members 



of whom Z \Nere returned by the West fi'/Vy//i^L___J 
Boroughs returning I member each shown t/,as 3ewiU^ 

11 11 2 members „ ,, „ Beirwick 

The City of London returned 4 members and tiie Univer- 
sities of Oxford Ic Cambridge 2 members each. 
In Wales the County towns returned their I member 
each in conjunction with other smaller borouthe of ~ 
the same county, nith the exception oflai Merioneth 
^hich had been disfranchised in favour c^ Haverfoixl- 
"•west, (biBeaumaris and Montgomery, which had sev- 
ered themselves from their contributory borouPhs. 




Cambridge University Press. 



Stantords Ceoi' tstab?, London. 



I 



Map 114 



6° 



4° 



ENGLAND & WALES 

PARLIAMENTARY REPRESENTATION 

IN 1832 AFTER 

THE REFORM BILL. 



English Miles 

-J 2 I L 



REFERENCE 

Counties [including one division of a county - Me /. of Wiihtj^ 
returning I member each colourpd \ | 

Counties returning Z members each „ I I 

3 .. .. ., I I 

Counties subdivided into Z constituencies and ^_____^ 
returning 4- members each „ I I 

County of Yorkshire subdivided into 3 con 
Stituencies and returning 6 members 



Boroughs returning I member each shm ifius MorpeOv 
1) »• 2 members „ „ „ Duriiiun. 

The city of London returned 4- members and the Uni- — 
versitiesof Of-ford LCambridge Z members each. 
In Wales the boroughs marlied, with the exception of 
ievwickr Brecon and Merthyr Tydfil, returned their. I member 
k^n. -Tweed, in conjunction with other smaller boroughs of the 
same county. 

The boroughs of New Shoreham, East Retford, Crick- 
lade, and Aylesbury included the surrounding districts, 
which are shown thus 




.u\.\f: 



■■^"^^ 



■^^ 




Cambridge University Press. 



Stanfords Ceo^. Lstab^, London 



Map 115 




Map 116 



' DENMARK 

— and the duchies of 
SCHLESWIGam)HOLSTEIN 

the war of 1864 



Reference 

The three Ouchies lost by Denmark in I864-, arc coloured I 1 

Railtvays as in 1864- , shown thus 

English Miles 




Cimbridfe UnirersiCy fres 



Sttnfbrd't Gcof' I sCabf. 



MAP 117 

Central Europe 

The War of 1866 

with inset 

N.E. Bohemia 



Map 117 




MAP 118 

Eastern France 

The Franco-Prussian War 

1870-71 

with inset 

Neighbourhood of IVIetz 




C^mbnd^a University Pre si 



Map 118 




^, 



%i'* 



fe4A£f|'c?%?'''rt' 






41 



''<!'''/^ 













BelforP 















48 




Stanfords Geo^' Estab ^ 



MAP 119 

Ottoman Empire 

in Europe 1870-8 



16' 



,.ii». '(»">'■ % 5§.s s-s> -j^^ \r 

■ave fgs. 



20' 






r H 



L.Balaton 

(Platten See) 



o. 



N 



"^^fe 



:33 






^ssf^ 






^^t-. 



*'fe, 






J^e 



<0^ 



'^!'i^ 






i't, '""nfc 



%'. 



''"I'lj'' 






"''MUJ, 



^^. 



'"^li!^ 



""^ ^!l& 






'"'& 






'IIS 



"'HlUf^t^Sl 






o"^'T\m.j,, \% "^^ ?,%,,,„ ^o/D t/^:'' L-- ^^""'"'■'■■f 



o> 



> 



-■^ 












%^Parcuihii 



Tin 



^i}%f^.'^feS 






•-=.^^^1t..^^Ef^ 



'^^i 






> 



;<5>t 






ksic, , ^ ^ _ . 

or 



rSir.. 



■%>^;'» 



(ScocLt 



^l^^ 



^ 






>^ 



OTTOMAN EMPIRE 

IN EUROPE 1870-8. 






aR' 



II 



l^t 



ij^ 



.Ochhii^^ 



Seff* 



en' 



Saseno /.« 



50 



En<51ish Miles 
o O 5o 



iji^ft'^ 



REFER E NCE 

The colouring shows the political position 
after the Treaty of Berlin, 1878. 

/ndependent States I I ~l 



/Autonomous but dependent States C 

Territory occupied by Austria E 



D 



Cor 



«»nI# j| 



^^ 



*^x;xi 



„ remaining under direct Turkish rule C 

„ ceded by Rouman'ia to Russia C 

Frontiers as defined by the Treaty of San Stefano 



7^ II H.% 






^ 



irfylf. 



<S 



f ••••■■€ % ''-1* 



16° 



20° 



Cambridge C/)/yers/ty f^ess 



Map 119 



24° 



28° 






< 




<s> 



^ 






ip3 



^J^ 



mR 






Odessa^ 



S S l< 



0) 



<0 



Bucharest^ 






■9 



^<:i^n.y^an««^ 









'% SofiaP 



njc 



^&", 




E AStERN ROOmVE LI A 




44- 




...C /^ '% 



9} 



Va-; 






r'"'//,^>ij>J*" 









%Skn;tari 






^%{S!S'^ . J^ 



A-aisM* 



_^,§^ 






*?fl!aBt 



# 



^^5% 



P 



^^. 



^^x^^^ 






^sftao|.i5>#*«?J^^ 



<s?»^ 



40 



c 

> 



J 



28* 



6t3nfi)rd's Gco^lEstab^ 



MAP 120 

The Balkan Peninsula 

1878-1910 



Map 120 




MAP 121 

England and Wales 

1649-1910 



Map 121 




MAP 122 

India 

in the 1 9th century 
British Expansion 1805-1910 



Map 122 




t 



MAP 123 

Northern India 

The Mutiny 1857-9 




^mbridfe. University Press 



Map 123 




Sl^nfordi Geo£ EiCob' 



a 



MAP 124 

The Western 
Frontier of India 

and neighbouring countries 

with inset 
Valley of the Kabul River 




CambridjPi 



'e Universi 



ty Fresi 



Map 124 



















Delhi' 



^-W^'^W^ 30° 




i^ippUr.. 







e Bikaner 

D 






i^y?^ 



% 






¥%AA(y^^ 



35° 



.^# 






■^j 



j>^ 



^lOxirvclcunulc^ 



'M 



■i'\'^\- 



■'/^/^ 



"'"'■(■(«' 



^a5i)(, 



'-'>;,)),, 



g,:^uo'(u^^o^.; 






,Pass 












Scale 



^haib 



10 20 30 40 



""^;:;;;:;;;> ^^^' 



70' 



U£RARW 



>-j I VAL.L.EY OF THE KABUIi RIVER 

^^ j^ Stanford's Gcof! Ei 



fe. 



Stanford's Gcof! Estab^, London 



Map 125 




C^mbridfe University Press. 



Stanford's Geofl Estab* 



MAP 126 

The Dominion of Canada 

and Newfoundland 



M, B E^ 



180° 



170 



'H I 



/? 



160' 



r 



150' 



140' 







130' 



120° 



^ 






>- 



e^ 



-V^^ 



^^- 



^ 



40° 



"''-'///ii'i 



>; 






^^^« 



.^^ 



Ate 






pen 



insi*' 



'..'"'4-, 



:■% 






ert 






■^oyAeO^ 



k 



!^ 



05-'^/ 



''^., 



^'' 



C A 



^^ 



*V^ 



-^:^' 



•^ 



^x> 



o 



<r» 



X- 






^. 



■^s> t^ ^ 



^ 



ee/ia 



/ 



\l 






"""//y 



.3^^ 



Mi 



c? 



')ueenCh 



:o 



a 



'<?/•> 



%o«i 



.c/^ 



n 



'4/ 



'^XvAi 



*55Sii 



<r 



-^M 



4^ 



'^<^a 



'^^54 



j<.; 



^Vd" 



'%. 






'•S'^, 



■?c/. 






^'^^^^^^Kfe 



'"°'V^ 



-^5'^ 



THE 

DOMINIONoF CANAM 

ISnETWFOXINDLAND 






8^ 



;^« 



nedicinel 



°t*V=N 



^' 



^•e;^; 



^i 



S= 



'i§i^^. 



/' s\W///, 



6>' 



^•yoi/,! 



English Miles 



0^^"'/' 



,wsto^ 



100 50 O roc 200 300 

REFERENCE 

Grand Trunk Pacific Railwaj,shown ihus 

Canadian Pacific Railway „ „ +-►++ 
Canadian Northern „ „ „ _o_, 

Intercolonial Railway „ „ .m^ 



?^/v 









-n^^ 






avr. 



N\\i"'/ 



:%^ 



^-^^^tf 



en 



110° 



Cambridge University Press 



Map 126 




Stanford's Geo^! EstabP, London 



Map 127 



180° 



140° 100° 60° 



20' 




60' 



4-0' 



^, 



s^?cr^ 



'^J 





JX:f 



oeO<^^ 



NOTE: The Hudson Ba 



Company had a lease of C^ 
t/ie Russian Coast, south /^ 
of Cape Spencer and had A'» 
a/so established posts onoUB 
t/je VuAon R. in Alaska. (>>.< 



l^'- 



tf' 



60° 






R 



,c^s 



?^ 



Pt 



**°> 



.♦■i*^^ 




«> 



«^ 



*v*! 



BRITISH 

DMORTH AMERICA 
1840-67. 

POLITICAL DIVISIONS 

IN 1867 BEFORE 

CONFEDERATION. 

English Miles. 
ZOO 100 zoo 400 600 800 



^ 




.- di>- 



i^'^^.r-^'-^"- 



40' 



120° 



100=^ 



80° 




^ASKA BOUNDARY 

English Miles 
50 25 6 50 iOO 150 

REFERENCE 

oundarj claimed by Great Britain . 
„ „ United States, 
determined by Arbitration,i9oi 
not settled , under survey. 



MAIN I 

OUNDARY 




48° 



REFERENCE 

.Boundary claimed by Great Britain, 1798 '1542. 
„ „ United States, „ „ 
as fixed by Ashburtan Treaty 1642. 



44° 



72" 



68' 



Cambridge University Press. 



Stanfords Geoi! Estab'.Lindoa 



MAP 128 

The Australian Colonies 

in the 1 9th century 

with inset 

Australia in 1 851 

The Early Settlements 



110' 



120^ 



130° 



THE 

^VUSTRALIAN COLONIES 

IN THE XIX™ CENTURY. 



English Miles 



100 so 100 200 300 too 

REFERENCE. 

The colouring distjn^uishesihesixcolones 
which becamethe'Ori^inal Stat€S"cf the Common- 
wealth in l900.(British NewGuinea,annexedby 
the Imperial Goyernmentin I88f,wasadministered 
fora numberafjears by Queensland andtrans- 
f erred to the CommonweaHfi in 1906.) Northern 
Territory was placed underihejurisdicijon of South 
Australia in I8G3. 




110° 



The Early Settlements. 

H(Aie-T/)e dates are the dates aFthe formation of the Colonies. 
English Miles 



200 O zoo 400 600 800 



Cambridge University Press. 



Map 128 




Stanford's Geo^f EstabP,London . 



Map 129 




rl 



Cambridge University Press . 



Stanford's GeoP'£stsb^, LoDdon. 



MAP 130 

Africa in 1910 

with inset 
Africa in 1 870 



Map 130 




Map 131 




Map 132 




30° 



40° 



ii*~"' 



30° 



""^■•-"•'•jiiS 



mediterranea\i sea M\ EGYPT 

1 mTS UNDER BRITISH PROTECTION 

>»&saici XiM^ ANGLO-EGVPTIAN SUDAN 

^ — :vC><_-.-,=„&,W>YjAj:,-'^ -;• ,^h \ REFERENCE 



TRI POLI 






J..JL1 



M 'di Wl^''r^*W' 
s e r t ilpi %m. ^^., 

Up'tverr E^ pt 



iUajs open .rv 1910 



10' 




idan 



Jrqic^%yife,^mfv-^^S^^ - %^-^ 

U% *■->•■•% M" rf •■ #v o \1 ' 



■ ^uf^fce* \B e r> b e r ^ 

fe V ;u\^^ .. :.. 



JiddamjM 



G f? jE AT DESERT 






d2. uf_ _ I r J 







'"^ \^// ; 




^-~^^; 



luato 





UwdrdNyanf a^ 



Sob 

Nifle 



n 6 a 1 1 a 



iCctorlt 

?i CAo, 



:^ 










( s h 



2>(f 



:,s\t ( 



yy an23-k. 






Cambridge University Press. 



Stsnfords Geo^f Estate, London 



^ 'L 



MAP 133 

South Africa 

since 1815 

Kaffir and Boer Wars 



E S E 



C.Frid 




w 




R 



r' A N 






Walfisch Bav 






4n^ra Pequen, 






'^uTnan 8. 



becnuan^ rf ,n 



3Cf 



4j r Kfilfa 




ft 






'^^-3^ 



.^c,>' 









J^^;:4_-._B e c h 

Kalahari D e 
Pro tec" 



CapeTowTL 

^ 7a6/e /If? i^-^^^^' ^^ 
SimoJistow)^ ^' 



"''^^i 



20° 



Cambridge University Press. 



Map 133 




.$'>/>"' /So a -j^ 



CA^IM^IL 




'ix±oTixik^W''^^^ 






fSofalO' 






rt 

or "at 






f^Shashi 



Q\ 



Pitsanl/.^ i^ (SiMJth 



^''c/o, 



.(^) 












Limff bpA..- \ 












« 









'I 



'{JBazaruto /. 



_QL_ .(,,/_. Tfopiqlaf/ Capricorn ^^ 








-^//IV 



(^■UVN^ 



\Burra P* 



^,.^»^"^ 






^^%a,| If: 

A'ew Kepub- 
"^^•yh^iu I \^ I Lucia 

\j 

"^^^f^iela R. 

bajv, Port 'Nodal 



ft . Limpopo 

Qela^oa Bay 










tu 



'^> 



v\\\^ 






V5U 



e/ /i» 



SOUTH AFRICA 
SII^CE 1815. 

KAFFIR AND BOER WARS. 

'. ^ '> 



tn^lish Miles 

1 . i_Q j_ — 

100 50 100 

REFERENCE 



"5bo 



fhe Colouring indicates the political position in 1399. 

The territory embraced in the Union of SouUi Africa, 1310 bordered. . 

Railways are shown as in IS33 thus^ 



2Cf 



•^^ 



30P 



Stanford's Geo^' EstabT, London 



Map 134 




MAP 135 

South Amepica 

1910 



Map 135 




MAP 136 

Northern Asia 

Russian Expansion in tlie XlXth century 



NORTHERN^ ASIA. ^^^ 

RUSSIAN EXPANSION intheXIXt."CENTURY. 




Cambridge University PresSj 



Map 136 




Stanford's Geo^lEstabP, London 



MAP 137 

The Japanese Empire 

The Russo-Japanese War, 1 904-5 



a4 



116" 



120- 



124° 



128° 



The Japanese Empire 

THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR, 1904-5. 

English Miles 



r^i^ 



So. 



iarhi 



M'^tM 



K. 



lOO 



50 



\Japan 



O 100 

REFERENCE 

I \China I 



200 



^ 



\\i?:;^^'%: '§: 



M-^ 



V ^ 



"i^ 



\^ y/ 



'f 



\Russian 



\N° 



^^\|( 



r'^^m 



''-feJvV^ 



Acquisitions of Japan at the Treaty of 

Portsmouth, fd05. {Korea was placed under 
the Control of Japan, and anneKed in 1910). 

Railways open in 1904 are shown thus 










Cambridge University Press 



I 



Map 137 



132° 



136° 




^t^ufbrd's Ueog! EstabT,Loncloii. 



MAP 138 

The Chinese Empire 
1910 

with inset 
The Neighbourhood of Peking 




Cambridge Universrb^ Press 



Map 138 







'•iMf. 








Islands 



^4"^y\ Chinese EMPIRE 

Ljmas5'' 1910. 

=> *^ English Miles 

1 I I . I I 

200 100 O ZOO 400 

REFERENCE. 

j China \ \ Russidn \ [ French 
I Brrtish [ 
German f 



\Dependen- I 
I cies of China I 



Japan 



Portuguese 

United 
States 



The principal treatf ports and places open to British 

trade in China &ubet are underlined thus Amo y 

The Transiberian Railway is shown thus — » 



50° 



40^ 



30' 



20 



£0M^ 



EL'S 



lie 



120° 



130° 



Stanford's Geo^ /EstabP,L ondon 



MAP 139 
The Pacific Ocean, 1910 




Csm brides University Press. 



Map 139 




The Pacific Ocean, 1910. 



REFERENCE 

I \ British Possessions \ \ J3pBnese Possessions 

^miCA/nese I , i Portuiuese , 

~~\Outch „ 



1 \ French 

{ German 



I \ liussian „ 

I y jnited States „ 



160° 



14-0° 



120° 



100° 



80° 



Stanford^ Geog' lst3b* London 



MAP 140 

The World 

Colonial Possessions and 
Commepclal Highways, 1910 




ST. IV;iCKAEL'S 
COLLEGE 




Cambridge University Press 



Map 140 



30<= 



60° 



90= 



120' 



150' 



180* 







THE WORLD 

COLONIAL POSSESSIONS AND COMMERCIAL HIGHWAYS 

1910. 



R EFER ENCE 

I I Fren c h 



JDutch 
^Danish 
jJapanet 



JBritish 

3United StBtea \ 

"^German \ 

^Russian I 

The greet trunh trade tinea are shown thus 

The ^reat over sea trade routes... „ ., „ 

The principal Coating Stations outside Europe „ 



jSpanish 
"^Portuguese 
"^Italian 
JBet^ian 



Antarctic C i rcl 



Ulufm*^ 



HacQuartes- 
t> ' 



'ujifffl 



60' 



30' 



60° 



90° 



120' 



150"= 



180° 



Stanford's Geo^.'Estsb^, London . 



MAP 141 

Europe 

in 1910 





Cambridge Univarsrty Press 



Map 141 




Stanford^ Geog! EstQbP, London . 



145 



INDEX TO MAPS. 

{For list of Maps see ante^ pp. vii — xi.) 

Where dark type is used, the reference is to the lines of latitude and longitude 
forming the bottom and left-hand boundaries of the section of the map in which the 
name will be found. 

Names of clans and tribes are printed in italics. 

Ins. = Inset. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Aa, R. 


39 


51 N 


5E 


Achaltsik {see Akhaltsikh) 






Aa, R. 


98 


51 N 


2E 


Acheen (see Achin) 








Aachen 


12 


51 N 


6E 


Achil I 


37 


54 N 


low 


Aalborg 


17 


57 N 


10 E 


Achin 


43 


6N 


96 E 


Aalen 


12 


49 N 


10 E 


Aconcagua ... 


135 


32 S 


70 W 


Aarau 


15 


47 N 


8E 


Acqui 


83 


45 N 


8E 


Aare, R. 


90 


47 N 


7 £ 


Acre ... 


87 


33 N 


35 E 


Aargau 


15 


47 N 


BE 


Acre Territory 


135 


10 S 


70 W 


Aarhuus 


17 


56 N 


10 E 


Acs ... 


HI 


48 N 


18 E 


Abai, R. 


132 


UN 


38 E 


Adalia 


110 


37 N 


31 E 


Aballa, L. 


132 


6N 


38 E 


Adana 


3 


37 N 


35 E 


Abauj 


21 


48 N 


2oz: 


Adda... 


94 


44 N 


8£ 


Abaya, L. 


130 


6N 


38 E 


Adda, R 


4 Ins. 


45 It 


9 E 


Abba I. 


132 


13 N 


32 E 


Adelaide 


128 


35 S 


139 E 


Abbeokuta 


130 


7N 


4E 


Adelaide Province ... 


133 


31 S 


27 E 


Abbeville (F 


ranee) ... 79 


50 N 


2E 


Adelaide, R. 


128 


13 S 


131 E 


Abbeville (t 


r.S.A.)... 74 


34 N 


82 W 


Aden 


130 


13 N 


45 E 


Abbiate Gra 


sso. ... 4 Ins. 


45 N 


9E 


Aden Protectorate... 


130 


13 N 


45 E 


Abenakis 


67 


40If 


70*^ 


Aden, G. of 


130 


O 


40S 


Abensberg . 


93 


49 N 


12 E 


Aderklau 


93 Ins. 




AhpraniQ. 


lACi 


AA XT 


t A(\ m 


\^;r,^ 


C\A 


Jt M M 


•« v« 



ERRATA IN INDEX TO ATLAS 

Dele Arraso ; For Euboe read Euboea ; For La Tour, B. of read La Tour, Barony of ; 
For Maurrenne read Maurienne ; Dele Miihlheim, and for Miilheim {see Miihlheim) read 
Miilheim 62 51 N 7E; For Rethe read Bethel, County of; For St Brieuc.SE read 
St Brieuc...3 W. After Aix-la-Chapelle add {see Aachen) and similarly in respect of 
Grandson, Granson ; Hangkow, Hankow ; Jajcza, Jajce ; Kur, Koura ; Kura, Koura ; 
Lorenzo Marquez, Louren<;o Marques ; Lyme, Lyme Regis ; Maastricht, Maestricht ; 
Mahanuddy, Mahanadi ; Treves, Trier ; and add Warraia {see Ermeland). 



Acarnania 
Accra 



105 


36 N 


20 E 


Aggershuus... 


17 


60IT 


5z: 


130 


6N 


IW 


Agmondesham 


.. 113 


52 N 


1 W 



C. M. H. VOL. XIV. 



10 



146 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Agnadello 


. 4 Ins. 


45 N 


10 E 


Alava 


7 


42N 


4 W 


Agogna 


94 


44 IT 


se: 


Alba 


4 Ins. 


45 N 


8E 


Agogna, R. 


. 25 


44 NT 


SB 


Alba de Tormes ... 


95 


41 N 


5 W 


Agordat 


. 130 


16 N 


37 E 


Albania 


3 


40N- 


20 E 


Agosta 


. 104 


37 N 


15 E 


Albano 


86 


42 N 


13 E 


Agout, R 


. 79 


44 N 


2E 


Albany (Austral.) ... 


128 


35 S 


118 E 


Agra 


. 64 


28 N 


78 E 


Albany (U.S.A.) ... 


70 


42 N 


74 W 


Agram (Zagrab) 


. 21 


46 N 


16 E 


Albany, R 


70 


SON 


90 W 


Agreda 


7 


42 N 


2 W 


Albarracin, Sa de... 


7 


40 N 


2 VT 


Aguascalientes 


. 134 


^OTS 


HOW 


Albemarle Sd 


74 


36 N 


76 W 


Agueda, R. ... 


. 95 


41 N 


7 W 


Alberga, The 


128 


27 S 


135 E 


Agulhas, C 


. 133 


35 S 


20 E 


Albert Nyanza 


130 


2N 


31 E 


Ahaipara 


. 129 


35 S 


173 E 


Alberta 


126 


SON 


120 W 


Ahlden 


. 62 


53 N 


10 E 


Albertine Saxony ... 


12 






Ahmadabad 


. 64 


23 N 


73 E 


Albi 


8 


44 N 


2E 


Ahmadnagar 


. 99 


19 N 


75 E 


Albiac 


19 


45 N 


2E 


Aidan, R. ... 


. 138 


58 N 


130 E 


Albis 


15 


47 N 


9E 


Aigle 


. 15 


46 N 


7E 


Albona 


4 


45 N 


14 E 


Aigues Mortes 


8 


44 N 


4E 


Alboran I. ... 


131 


36 N 


3W 


Aigueville ... 


. 81 


45 N 


6E 


Albreda 


65 


14 N 


17 W 


Aigun 


. 138 


50 N 


128 E 


Albret 


8 


44 N 


1 W 


Ain ... 


. 103 


44 TS 


4 E 


Albuera 


95 


39 N 


7 W 


Ain, R 


. 83 


46 N 


6E 


Albufera, L. 


95 


39 N 





Ain Sefra 


. 131 


33 N 





Albula Pass 


30 


47 N 


10 E 


Airds Moss 


. 23 


55 N 


4W 


Albuquerque 


95 


39 N 


7 W 


Aire (Artois) 


. 45 


51 N 


2E 


Albury 


128 


36 S 


147 E 


Aire (France) 


. 95 


44 N 





Alcala 


7 


40 N 


3W 


Aire, R. (Eng.) .. 


. 121 


54 N 


2 W 


Alcafiiz 


95 


41 N 





Aire, R. (France) .. 


. 22 


49 N 


5E 


Alcantara ... 


7 


40 N 


7 W 


Aisne 


. 103 


4817 


O 


Alcazar 


7 


39 N 


3W 


Aisne, R. ... 


8 


48Br 


O 


Alcolea 


95 


37 N 


3W 


Aivali 


. 120 


39 N 


27 E 


Alcoy 


95 


39 N 





Aix ... 


8 


43 N 


5E 


Aldan, R. ... 


139 


60 N 


130 E 


Aix, I. d' 


. 50 


46 N 


1 W 


Aldborough (York.) 


113 


54 N 


1 W 


Aix-la-Chapelle 


. 45 


51 N 


6E 


Aldborough (Suff.) 


113 


52 N 


2E 


Ajaccio 


. 26 


42 N 


9E 


Aldea de Ponte ... 


95 


40 N 


7W 


Ajmir 


. 64 


26 N 


74 E 


Alderney 


103 


50 N 


2W 


Ajuaro, R. ... 


. 132 


7N 


34 E 


Aleksinatz ... 


119 


44 N 


22 E 


Ajudia 


. 43 


16 N 


100 E 


Alemtejo 


7 


38 N 


8 W 


Akerman 


. 61 


46 N 


30 E 


Alengon 


8 


48 N 





Akhalkalaki 


. 108 


42 N 


44 E 


Aleppo 


3 


36 N 


37 E 


Akhaltsikh 


. 61 


42 N 


43 E 


Alessandria ... 


4 Ins. 


45 N 


9E 


Akhalzik {see Akhaltsikh) 






Alessio 


3 


42 N 


20 E 


Akhissar 


. 110 


39 N 


28 E 


Alet 


79 


43 N 


2E 


Akishi B 


. 140 


4oir 


1201: 


Aleutian Is. 


139 






Akkerman {see Akerman) 






Alexandretta 


110 


37 N 


36 E 


Ak Mechet 


. 136 


45 N 


65 E 


Alexandria (Am. N.) 


74 


39 N 


77 W 


Akmolinsk ... 


. 136 


51 N 


71 E 


Alexandria (Egypt) 


110 


31 N 


30 E 


Akrotiri 


. 120 


36 N 


24 E 


Alexandria (Syria) {see 






Aksu... 


. 138 


42 N 


80 E 


Alexandretta) 








Ak-su, R 


. 124 


40N- 


75E 


Alexandroff 


52 


56 N 


39 E 


Akyab 


. 125 


20 N 


93 E 


Alexandropol 


108 


40 N 


44 E 


Alabama 


. 72 


SO wr 


90 "W 


Alexandrovsk (Russia] 


108 


48 N 


36 E 


Alabama, R. 


. 70 


30N- 


SOW 


Alexandrovsk (Siberia^ 


>138 


52 N 


141 E 


Alagoas 


135 


lO s 


40 w 


Alexandrovsk (Turk- 








Alagon, R. 


. 95 


40 N 


6W 


estan) ... 


136 


44 N 


51 E 


Alaia 


. 110 


37 N 


32 E 


Alexandrovskaia ... 


138 


51 N 


142 E 


Alais 


19 


44 N 


4E 


Algarve 


7 


36 sr 


10 "WT 


Alamo, R. ... 


. 71 


26 N 


100 W 


Algeciras 


87 


36 N 


5W 


Aland Is. ... 


. 17 


60 N 


20 E 


Algeria 


131 






Alaska 


. 139 


60N 


160-W 


Algiers 


131 


3orr 





Alaska Mts ... 


139 


eoir 


leOTXT 


Algiers 


131 


37 N 


3E 


Alaska Pen. 


. 126 


50TT 


leoTXT 


Algoa B 


133 


34 8 


26 E 


Alatau Mts 


. 138 


40 N 


70 E 


Algonquins 


67 


48 N 


SOW 



Index to Maps, 



147 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long, 


Alhucemas ... 


131 


35 N 


4 W 


Altweiler 


103 


49 N 


7E 


Ali Alta 


136 


43 N 


71 E 


Altyn Tagh Mts ... 


138 


SON 


SOB 


Alicante 


95 


38 N 





Aluta, R. ... 


21 


44 N 


24 E 


Aligarh 


99 


28 N 


78 E 


Alvite 


95 


38 N 


8 W 


Alima, E. ... 


130 


IS 


15 E 


Alwar 


122 


28 N 


77 E 


Ali Masjid 


124 Ins. 




Amadeus, L. 


128 


25 8 


131 E 


Aliwal (India) 


124 


31 N 


75 E 


Amager I 


17 


55 N 


lOE 


Aliwal North 


133 


31 S 


27 E 


Amakria 


115 


42 N 


42 E 


Aliwal South 


133 


34 S 


22 E 


Amalfi 


4 


41 N 


15 E 


Alkmaar 


22 


53 N 


5E 


Amanvilliers 


118 Ins. 




Allahabad 


64 


26 N 


82 E 


Amarapura... 


125 


22 N 


96 E 


Alle, R 


92 


54 N 


20 E 


Amasia 


3 


41 N 


36 E 


Alleghany Mts 


134 


30I7 


90 W 


Amastris 


3 


42 N 


32 E 


Allen, L. ... 


27 


54 N 


8 W 


Amatola Mts 


133 


32 S 


27 E 


Allenstein ... 


92 


54 N 


20 E 


Amazon, R. 


106 






Aller, R 


33 


52 M* 


8 E 


Amazonas ... 


135 


loir 


70 W 


Allerheim 


39 


49 N 


HE 


Amballa 


64 


30 N 


77 E 


Allgau 


13 


48 N 


10 E 


Amberg 


12 


49 N 


12 E 


Allier 


103 


44 rr 


O 


Ambleteuse ... 


19 


51 N 


2E 


Allier, E 


8 


44 M* 


o 


Amboina 


43 


20 S 


120Z: 


All Saints, Bay of... 


106 


13 S 


39 W 


Amboise 


8 


47 N 


IE 


Allstedt 


12 


51 N 


HE 


Ambras 


29 


48 N 


HE 


Alma, R. ... 


115 


45 N 


34 E 


Ambriz 


130 


8S 


13 E 


Almada 


59 


39 N 


9W 


Ambur 


64 


13 N 


79 E 


Almaden 


7 


39 N 


5 W 


Amegial 


95 


39 N 


8W 


Almanza (Spain) ... 


95 


43 N 


5 W 


Ameland 


109 


53 N 


6E 


Almanza (Spain) ... 


95 


39 N 


1 W 


Amelia Ct. Ho. 


74 


37 N 


78 W 


Almaraz 


95 


40 N 


6 W 


American, R. 


72 


38 N 


122 W 


Almeida 


95 


41 N 


7W 


Amersfoort ... 


22 


52 N 


5E 


Almenara (Spain)... 


95 


40 N 





Amherstburg 


70 


42 N 


83 W 


Almenara (Spain) . . . 


95 


42 N 


IE 


Amiens 


6 


50 N 


2E 


Almonacid ... 


95 


40 N 


4W 


Amirante Is. 


130 


6S 


53 E 


Almoster 


95 


39 N 


9 W 


Ampfing 


88 


48 N 


12 E 


Alnwick 


16 


55 N 


2 W 


AmpthiU 


16 


52 N 





Alost 


22 


51 N 


4E 


Amritsar 


122 


32 N 


75 E 


Aloushta 


115 


45 N 


34 E 


Amsterdam... 


22 


52 N 


5E 


Alpes Basses 


103 


44 N* 


4 S 


Amsterdam I. 


140 


40 S 


eoE 


Alpes Hautes 


103 


44 N- 


4 £ 


Amu Daria (R. Oxus) 


124 


40I7 


60S 


Alpes Maritimes ... 


103 


44 N 


7E 


Amur (Province) ... 


136 






Alps, Australian ... 


128 


37 S 


148 E 


Amur, R 


138 


40S 


130S 


Alps, Carnic 


83 


46 N 


12 E 


Amweiler ... 


81 


49 N 


8E 


Alps, Dinaric 


119 






Anabara, R. 


139 


eoN 


lOOE 


Alps, Southern (N. Z.) 


129 






Anadyr, R. 


139 


60ir 


160E 


Alps, Transylvanian 


119 






Anadyr, G. of 


139 


eon- 


ISO 


Alpuj arras... 


7 


36 sr 


4 W 


Anagni 


4 


42 N 


13 E 


Alresford 


36 


51 N 


IW 


Anaklia 


108 


42 N 


42 E 


Alsace 


79 






Anamabo 


65 


Ins. 




Alsen 


53 


55 N 


10 E 


Anapa 


61 


45 N 


37 E 


Alsh, L 


56 


57 N 


5 W 


Anatolia 


3 






Altai Mts ... 


138 






Ancenis 


82 


47 N 


1 W 


Altai Mts, Little ... 


136 


50 N 


90 E 


Anchialos ... 


120 


43 N 


28 E 


Altamaha, E. 


68 


32 N 


83 W 


Anc6n 


135 


12 S 


77 W 


Altare 


83 


44 N 


8E 


Ancona 


4 


44 N 


14 E 


Alt Breisach 


50 


48 N 


8E 


Ancre 


22 


51 N 


6E 


Altdorf 


90 


47 N 


9E 


Ancrum Moor 


23 


55 N 


3 W 


Altenburg ... 


12 


51 N 


12 E 


Andalusia ... 


7 






Altenkirchen 


81 


51 N 


8E 


Andaman Is. 


122 


lONT 


90E 


Altmark {see Old Mark) 






Andernach 


81 


SON 


7E 


Altmark 


32 


54 N 


19 E 


Andes 


135 






Altmiihl, R. 


33 


49 N 


11 E 


Andkhui 


124 


37 N 


65 B 


Alton 


86 


51 N 


1 W 


Andorra 


7 


42 N 


IE 


Altona 


17 


54 N 


10 E 


Andover 


16 


51 N 


1 W 


Altoona 


74 


41 N 


78 W 


Andros Is 


69 


24 N 


78 W 


Altranstadt 


64 


51 N 


12 E 


Andrusovo 


52 


54 N 


32 B 



10—2 



148 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Andujar 


95 


38 N 


4W 


Appleby 


Anfo ... 


104 


46 N 


HE 


Appomattox 


Angara, R. 


138 


50N 


lOOE 


Appomattox, R, 


Angers 


8 


47 N 


1 W 


Apprica 


Anglesey 


16 


52 N 


6 W 


Apsheron Penin. ... 


Angola 


130 






Apulia 


Angora 


110 


40 N 


33 E 


Aquednok I. 


Angostura ... 


106 


8N 


64 W 


Aquila 


Angouleme (Province 


) 8 


44 TX 


4 W 


Aquileia 


Angouleme ... 


8 


46 N 





Aquino 


Angoumois ... 


79 


46 N 





Aquiry, R 


Angra 


101 


30N 


sovr 


Arabat, Tongue of 


Angra da Cintra . . . 


2 


O 


30 w 


Arabia 


Angra Pequena 


133 


27 S 


15 E 


Arabian Sea 


Anguilla 


69 


18 N 


63 W 


Arabistan ... 


Anguillara ... 


4 Ins. 


45 N 


12 E 


Aracan 


Anhalt 


12 


52 N 


12 E 


Arad 


Anhausen ... 


12 


49 N 


11 E 


Arafura Sea 


Anholtl 


87 


57 N 


11 E 


Aragon, Kingdom of 


Anhwei 


138 


30 N 


HOE 


Araguary, R. 


Anjala 


61 


61 N 


28 E 


Araguaya, R. 


Anjou 


8 


44 17 


4 W 


Aral Sea 


Anna, E. North ... 


74 


38 N 


78 W 


Aran, Is. of 


Annaly 


27 


52 17 


8 VU 


Aranda 


Annam 


138 


18 N 


106 E 


Aranjuez 


Annamabo {see Anamabo) 






Ararat, Mt 


Annan, R. ... 


121 


55 N 


3W 


Aras, R. 


Annandale ... 


23 


55 N 


3W 


Araucanians 


Annapolis (Canada) 


126 


45 N 


65 W 


Aravali Hills 


Annapolis (U.S.A.) 


74 


39 N 


76 W 


Arboga 


Anne, C. 


70 


43 N 


70 W 


Arbroath 


Annecy 


25 


46 N 


6E 


Arcadia 


Annesley B. 


130 


21 N 


40 E 


Archangel 


Annobon I 


130 


2S 


6E 


Arcis 


Annonay 


8 


45 N 


5E 


Areola 


Annone 


4 Ins. 


45 N 


8E 


Arcos 


Ansbach 


12 


49 N 


HE 


Arcot 


Anse des M^res 


67 Ins. 




Arctic Ocean 


Anse du Foulon ... 


67 Ins. 




Arcueil 


Antananarivo 


130 


19 S 


47 E 


Arda, R. 


Antibes 


79 


44 N 


7E 


Ardahan 


Anticosti I 


70 


50 N 


63 W 


Ardchatten Ab. 


Antietam 


74 


39 N 


78 W 


Ardeche 


Antigua I. 


69 


17 N 


62 W 


Ardee 


Antilles, Gtr & Lessi 


69 






Ardennes ... 


Anting 


138 Ins. 




Ardennes, The 


Antioch 


110 


36 N 


36 E 


Ardfert 


Antioquia 


135 


6N 


76 W 


Ardglass 


Antipodes I. 


139 


50 S 


178 E 


Ardoch 


Antivari 


3 


42 N 


19 E 


Ardres 


Antrim 


47 


55 N 


6W 


Ardwalton Moor ... 


Antung 


137 


40 N 


124 E 


Areg 


Antwerp 


22 


51 N 


4E 


Aremberg ... 


Aosta 


4 


46 N 


7E 


Arenas, Pta 


Apaches 


106 


20 N 


100 W 


Arenberg ... 


Apennins ... 


94 


44 at 


8E 


Arequipa 


Apennines 


83 






Arezzo 


Apenrade 


116 


55 N 


9E 


Arga, R 


Apia 


139 


20 3 


ISO 


Argaon 


Apolda 


92 


51 N 


12 E 


Argenteuil ... 


Apollonia 


65 Ins 


. 




Argentina 


Appam 


65 Ins 


, 




Argentine Confedera- 


Appenzel ... 


15 


47 N 


9E 


tion 


Appin 


56 


57 N 


5 W 


Argenton 



Map 

16 

74 

74 

30 

108 

4 

68 

4 

4 

4 

135 

115 

132 

64 
124 
125 
111 
128 
7 
135 
135 
138 

37 
7 

95 
110 
108 
106 

99 

17 

56 
105 

61 

79 

83 
7 

64 
136 

19 Ins 



Lat. 
55 N 
37 N 
37 N 
46 N 

40 N 
40SI' 

41 N 

42 N 
46 N 
41 N 
10 S 
46 N 



31 N 
20 N 
46 N 
10 S 

IN 
10 S 
45 N 
52 N 

42 N 
40 N 

39 N 

40 N 
40 S 

24 N 
59 N 
57 N 

36 N 
65 N 
49 N 
45 N 
37 N 
13 N 



119 

108 
23 

103 
27 

103 
79 
47 
27 
56 
22 
36 

131 
92 

135 
52 

106 

4 

95 

99 



42 N 

41 N 
56 N 

44 N 
54 N 

48 N 
SON 
52 N 
54 N 
56 N 

51 N 
64 N 

30IT 

52 N 

53 S 
58 N 
16 S 

43 N 

42 N 
21 N 



97 Ins. 
135 40 8 

106 Ins. 
19 47 N 



Long. 
2 W 
79 W 
79 W 
10 E 
50 E 
16 E 
71 W 
13 E 

13 E 

14 E 
68 W 
35 E 



50 E 
94 E 
21 E 

130 E 

51 W 
50 W 
60 E 

lOVI 
4W 
4W 

45 E 

46 E 
80 W 

72 E 

16 E 

3W 

20E 

41 E 

4E 

HE 

6W 

79 E 



26 E 
43 E 
5W 
4 E 
7 W 
4 E 
5E 

low 

6 W 

4W 

2E 

2 W 

O 

7E 

71 W 
22 E 

72 W 
12 E 

2 W 
77 E 

70 vr 



IE 



Index to Maps. 



149 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Arghandab, E. ... 124 


30IV 


65 E 


Ascoli 


4 


43 N 


14 E 


Argonne 


... 81 


49 N 


5E 


Aserbaijan ... 


124 


38 N 


47 E 


Argos 


3 


38 N 


23 B 


Ashanti 


130 





20 w 


Arguin I. ... 


... 130 


20 N 


17 W 


Ashburton (Eng.) ... 


113 


SON 


4W 


Argyll 


... 23 






Ashburton (Austral.) 


128 


30 s 


110 E 


Ariano 


4 


41 N 


15 E 


Ashburton, E. 


128 


30S 


110 E 


Arica 


... 106 


18 S 


70 W 


Ashford 


121 


SIN 


IE 


Ariege, E. ... 


8 


40S3' 


O 


Ashley, E 


70 


33 N 


80 W 


Arinos, E. ... 


... 135 


20 S 


60 W 


Ashridge 


16 


52 N 


1 W 


Arizona 


... 134 


33 N 


114 W 


Ashta 


122 


17 N 


74 E 


Arizona Territory ... 72 


30OT 


120 W 


Ashton 


114 


53 N 


2 W 


Arkansas . . . 


... 72 


30isr 


lOOW 


Asia Minor... 


140 


40 N 


40 E 


Arkansas, E. 


... 72 


30 3Jr 


100"W 


Asiu ... 


130 


21 N 


8E 


Arklow 


... 27 


53 N 


6 W 


Askeaton ... 


37 


S3N 


9W 


Aries 


8 


44 N 


5E 


Aspern 


94 


48 N 


16 E 


Arleux 


... 39 


SON 


3E 


Aspinwall ... 


135 


ION 


80 W 


Arlon 


... 81 


50 N 


6E 


Aspromonte 


104 


38 N 


16 E 


Arlow Wood 


... 27 


52 N 


8 W 


Assab B. 


130 


13 N 


42 E 


Armagh 


... 37 


54 N 


7 W 


Assam 


138 






Armagnac . . . 


8 


40 13^ 


o 


Assaye 


99 


20 N 


76 E 


Arm agon ... 


... 43 Ins. 




Asscbe 


45 


SIN 


4E 


Armancon, E 


... 118 


48 N 


4E 


Asseirceira 


95 


40 N 


8 W 


Armenia 


... 108 






Assens 


17 


55 N 


10 E 


Armentieres 


... 3y 


51 N 


3 W 


Assiniboine E. 


67 


SON 


100 w 


Arnau 


... 57 


51 N 


16 E 


Assiout 


130 


27 N 


31 E 


Arnau, E. ... 


... 118 


47 N 


2E 


Assua, E. ... 


132 


3N 


33 E 


Arnay-le-Duc 


... 19 


47 N 


4E 


Assuan 


132 


24 N 


33 E 


Arnheim 


... 22 


52 N 


6E 


Asti ... 


4 


45 N 


8E 


Arnhem, C. 


... 128 


12 S 


137 E 


Astorga 


95 


42 N 


6W 


Arnhem's Laud ... 128 


20S 


130Z: 


Astoria 


72 


46 N 


124 W 


Ami 


... 64 


13 N 


79 E 


Astrabad 


124 


37 N 


54 E 


Amis 


... 116 


55 N 


10 E 


Astrakhan, Govt of 


61 






Arno, E. 


4 


42 M 


lOE 


Astrakhan 


61 


46 N 


48 E 


Arnsberg . . . 


... 33 


51 N 


8E 


Asturian & Cantabrian 






Arc 


... 130 


5N 


8E 


Mts 


7 






Arolsen 


... 107 


51 N 


9E 


Asturias 


7 


42 N 


6 W 


Arques 


... 19 


50 N 


IE 


Asuncion ... 


106 


25 S 


58 W 


Arra 


... 27 


52 sr 


lOVT 


Asunden, L. 


17 


58 N 


13 E 


Arrah 


... 123 


26 N 


85 E 


Atacama, Desert of 


106 


25 S 


70 W 


Arran I. 


... 23 


56 N 


5 W 


Atbara, E. ... 


132 


17 N 


35 E 


Arras 


... 22 


50 N 


3E 


Atella 


4 


41 N 


16 E 


Arraso 


6 


50 N 


3E 


Ath 


45 


51 N 


4E 


Arriege 


... 103 


43 N 


IE 


Athabasca, L. 


126 


59 N 


HOW 


Arrow, L. ... 


... 27 


54 N 


8W 


Athabasca, E. 


126 


SO IT 


120 117 


Ars ... 


... 118 1ns. 




Athboy 


27 


54 N 


7 W 


Arta 


... 105 


39 N 


21 E 


Athenry 


37 


53 N 


9W 


Artois 


... 22 


SON 


21! 


Athens 


3 


38 N 


24 E 


Aru Is. 


... 139 


20S 


1201: 


Athlone 


37 


S3N 


8W 


Arun, E. ... 


... 121 


51 N 


1 w 


Atholl 


23 


5617 


4 W 


Arundel 


... 16 


51 N 


1 w 


Athos, Mt ... 


115 


40 N 


24 E 


Arundel Castle ... 121 


51 N 


1 w 


Athy 


37 


53 N 


7W 


Aruwimi, E. 


... 130 


IN 


25 E 


Atlanta 


74 


34 N 


84 W 


Arva 


... 21 


48 77 


16 E 


Atlas Mts, Great ... 


131 


30 nr 


low 


Arve, E. 


... 112 


46 sr 


6z: 


Atlas Mts, Sahara... 


131 






Arvert 


8 


46 N 


1 w 


Atrek, E 


124 


38 N 


55 E 


Arzeu 


... 131 


36 N 





Attock (Attok) 


123 


34 N 


72 E 


Arzila 


... 131 


35 N 


6 W 


Atuntse 


138 


29 N 


99 E 


Arzobispo .. 


... 95 


40 N 


5 W 


Aube... 


103 


4817 


4 E 


Asan 


... 137 


37 N 


127 E 


Aube, E 


79 


48 N 


4E 


Asben 


... 130 


18 N 


8E 


Auberive 


81 


49 N 


4E 


Ascension B. 


... 134 


20 N 


88 W 


Aubervilliers 


19 


Ins. 




Ascension I. 


... 130 


20S 


20 "W 


Aubigny 


8 


48 N 





Aschaffenbur 


? ... 33 


SON 


9E 


Auch 


8 


44 N 


IE 


Aschersleben 


... 55 


52 N 


12 E 


Auchterarder 


56 


56 N 


4W 



150 



Index to Maps. 



Auckland, Province of 

Auckland ... 

Auckland Is. 

Aude 

Aude, R. 

Auerstadt ... 

Augher 

Aughnanewry 

Aughrim 

Augila 

Augsburg ... 

Augusta 

Augustenburg 

Augustoff ... 

Aullagas, L. 

Aumale 

Aunis 

Aupa, R 

Auras 
Auray 

Aures Mts 

Aurillac 

Aurungabad 

Aussig 

Austerlitz ... 

Austin 

Austin, L. ... 

Austral I. ... 

Australia, Western 

Australia, South ... 

Australian Alps 

Austria, Further ... 

Austria, Lower 

Austria, Upper 

Austrian Netherlands 

Auteuil 

Autun 

Auvergne, Duchy of 

Auvergne La Tour 

Auxerre 

Auxonne 

Auzin 

Ava ... 

Avellino 

Aversa 

Averysborough 

Avesnes 

Aveyron 

Avignon 

Avila 

Avon, R. (England) 

Avon, R. (England) 

Avon, R. (England) 

Avranches ... 

Awa ... 

Axe, R, 

Axel Heiberg L ... 

Axim 

Ayacucho ... 

Ayas... 

Aylesbury ... 

Aymargues ... 

Ayr ... 

Ayr, R 



Map 

129 

129 

139 

103 

103 

94 

47 

27 

47 

130 

12 

74 

107 

108 

135 

19 

79 



Lat. 

37 S 
SOS 
43 N 
43 N 
51 N 

54 N 
53 N 

53 N 

29 N 

48 N 
33 N 

55 N 

54 N 
18 S 

50 N 
46 N 

117 Ins. 

57 51 N 

8 48 N 

30ir 

45 N 

20 N 

51 N 

49 N 

30 N 
28 S 

40S 



37 S 
48 N 
46 XT 
46 N 



118 

103 

125 

104 

4 

74 

45 

103 

8 

7 

121 

121 

121 

8 

137 

121 

126 

130 

106 

4 

16 

19 

23 

23 



Long. 

175 E 
166 E 
2E 
2 E 
12 E 
7W 
9 W 
8 W 
21 E 
11 E 
82 W 



Ayton 

Ayuthia 

Azamgarh . . . 

Azemur 

Azoff 

Azoff, Sea of 

Azores 



Map 

23 

125 

123 

131 

61 

3 

24 



131 

103 

64 

57 

94 

134 

128 

140 

128 

128 

128 

60 

12 

12 

62 

97 Ins. 

79 47 N 

8 44 N 

8 44 N 

8 48 N 

47 N 

45 N 
22 N 
41 N 
41 N 
35 N 

50 N 
44 IT 
44 N 
41 N 
52 N 

51 N 
51 N 
49 N 
34 N 

51 N 
80 N 

5N 
13 N 

46 N 

52 N 
44 N 
55 N 
55 N 



10 E 


22 E 


67 W 


2E 


1 W 


17 E 


3 W 


O 


2E 


75 E 


14 E 


17 E 


97 W 


118 E 


150 W 


148 E 


9E 


17 W 


12 W 


4E 


O 


O 


4E 


5E 


3E 


96 E 


15 E 


14 E 


78 W 


4E 


O 


5E 


5 W 


2 W 


3 W 


2 W 


1 W 


134 E 


3 W 


95 W 


2 W 


74 W 


8E 


1 W 


4E 


5 W 


5W 



Baahus ... ... 53 

Bab el Mandeb, Str. of 130 

Bacchiglione ... 94 

Bacharach ... ... 39 

Bachian I. ... ... 43 

Back, R 126 

Badagry 130 

Badajoz ... ... 7 

Badakshan ... ... 124 

Baden (Austria) ... 107 

Baden (Baden) ... 12 

Baden, Marg. of ... 12 

Baden (Svi^itzerland) 15 

Badenoch ... ... 23 

Badli Sarai 123 

Badzymin ... ... 108 

Baena ... ... 9 

Baffin Bay 126 

Baffin Land ... 127 

Baghdad (Bagdad)... 110 

Baghirnii ... ... 130 

Bagnacavallo .., 4 

Bagoe ... ... 130 

Bahama Is. ... 69 

Bahamas Channel, Old 75 

Bahawalpur ... 124 

Bahia ■ 106 

Bahia Honda ... 75 

Bahrein ... ... 124 

Bahr el-Arab ... 132 

Bahr el-Gazal ... 132 

Bahr el-Gebel ... 132 

Bahr el-Homr ... 132 

Baiche ... ... 81 

Baikal, L 138 

Baireuth ... ... 13 

Bakchiserai [see Bak- 
tschiserai) 

Bakel 130 

Baktschiserai ... 115 

Baku 61 

Balaguer ... ... 95 

Bala Hissar ... 124 

Balaklava ... ... 115 

Balaklava B. ... 115 

Balasore ... ... 64 

Balaton, L. ... 60 

Baldo, Mt 83 

Balearic Isles ... 7 

Balkan Peninsula ... 120 

Balkans ... ... 105 

Balkash, L 138 

Balkh 124 

Ballarat 128 

Ballinakill 37 

Ballinamuck ... 47 



Lat. 

56 N 
14 N 
26 N 
33 N 

47 N 

45 17 
30If 

58 N 
o 

44 N 

SON 

Ins. 

65 N 

7N 

39 N 

37 N 

48 N 

49 N 

46 N 
47 N 

57 N 
29 N 

Ins. 

38 N 

70 N 
33 N 

12 N 

44 N 

13 N 



29 N 

13 S 

23 N 

26 N 

ION 

9 N 

7N 

9N 

SON 

SON 

SON 



15 N 

45 N 

40 N 

41 N 
39 N 
44 N 

Ins. 
22 N 
47 N 

46 N 



40 N 
4017 

37 N 

38 S 

53 N 

54 N 



Long. 

2W 

100 B 

83 E 

8W 
39 E 
35X: 

sow 

11 B 
4oi: 

8 E 

8B 

106 W 
3B 
7W 
70 E 

16 B 
8B 

4 E 
8E 
4 W 
77 E 

3W 

74 E 
44 E 

17 E 

12 E 
6 W 



72 E 
38 W 
83 W 
51 E 
28 E 
28 E 
31 B 
27 E 
3 B 
100 E 
12 E 



13 W 
34 E 
SOB 
IE 
32 E 
34 E 

87 E 
18 E 
11 B 



24 E 
70E 

67 E 
144 E 
7 W 

8W 



Index to Maps. 



151 



Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


58 


49 N 


28 E 


8 


48 Iff 


4 E 


6 


48 N 


4E 


123 


20N 


90z: 


132 


ION 


30z: 


69 


13 N 


60 W 


4 


44 N 


HE 


133 


26 S 


31 B 


69 


18 N 


62 W 


130 


33 N 


22 E 


140 


23 S 


136 B 


)106 


ION 


65 W 


7 


41 N 


2E 


25 


44 N 


7E 


43 Ins. 




128 


28 S 


139 E 


128 


25 S 


144 E 


88 


46 N 


8B 


131 


37 N 


10 E 


108 


68 N 


18 E 


64 


23 N 


88 E 


122 


28 N 


79 E 


124 


37 N 


53 B 


4 


41 N 


17 E 


16 


52 N 





138 


44 N 


93 E 


8 


49 N 


5B 


128 


29 S 


119 E 


4 


41 N 


16 E 


16 


53 N 





16 


55 N 


2W 


36 


51 N 


4 W 


132 


8N 


34 E 


122 


22 N 


73 E 


122 


20 N 


70E 


128 


28 S 


125 B 


130 


15 S 


25 B 


122 


23 N 


88 B 


25 


45 N 


6E 


129 


36 S 


175 E 


95 


36 N 


6W 


139 


eon 


160W 


126 


70N 


160 W 


37 


52 Iff 


8 W 


126 


70]ff 


lOCW 


27 


52 N 


8W 


27 


52 N 


91 W 


21 


48 N 


16 E 


94 


54 N 


21 E 


21 


49 N 


21 E 


130 


14 N 


13 E 


33 


53 N 


14 E 


128 


29 S 


149 E 


12 


48 N 


8E 


133 


32 S 


29 B 


61 


50 N 


50 W 


124 


27 N 


55 E 


4 


40ir 


16E 


36 


51 N 


IW 


50 


46 N 


1 w 


128 


40 S 


146 E 


4 


46 N 


12 E 


125 


17 N 


95 B 



Ballinasloe ... 
Ballingen ... 
Ballinlig 

Ball's Bluff 

Bally castle ... 
Ballymena ... 
Ballymoe ... 
Ballyniore ... 
Ballyneety ... 
Ballyshannon 
Bally Terrain 
Balmerinoch Ab. ... 
Balrothery ... 
Balta 

Baltic Sea ... 
Baltimore (Ireland) 
Baltimore (U.S.A.) 
Baltinglass ... 
Baltringen ... 
Baluchistan 
Baluchistan Agency 
Bam (Bumm) 
Bamberg 
Bamberg, Bpc of 
Bamian 
Banagher ... 
Banana 
Banas, E. ... 
Banas, R. ... 
Banat 
Banbury 
Banda Is. ... 
Banda Neira 
Banda Oriental 
Banda Sea 
Ban del khan d [see 

Bundelkhand) 
Bandon-bridge 
Bandon, E. 
Bandu 

Banff 

Bangalore ... 

Bangkok 

Bangor (Ireland) ... 

Bangor (Wales) 

Bangweolo, L. 

Banjaluka ... 

Banjarmasin 

Banjuwangi 

Banka 

Bankot 

Banks I. 

Banks' Peninsula ... 

Banks Str. 

Bann, E. ... 

Bannockburn 

Bannow 

Banstead Downs ... 

Bantam 

Bantry 

Bantry Bay 

Bauyuls 

Bapaume 

Bar (France) 



Lat. 
63 N 
48 N 

54 N 
39 N 

55 N 
55 N 
54 N 
53 N 

53 N 

54 N 

55 N 

56 N 
54 N 
48 N 

51 N 
39 N 
53 N 

48 N 



29 N 

50 N 

46 N 

35 N 

53 N 

7S 

20]ff 

25 Iff 

44 N 

52 N 



Map 

38 

13 

38 

74 

37 

37 

38 

27 

47 

37 

27 

23 

27 
105 

17 

37 

72 

47 

13 

99 
124 
124 

12 

12 
124 

38 
140 
123 
123 
60 
113 

43 Ins. 

43 Ins. 
106 40 S 
.139 20 S 



47 

37 

123 

23 

99 

125 

27 

16 

130 

111 

100 

140 

139 

99 

126 

129 

128 

37 

56 

47 

121 

43 

37 

37 

95 

39 

97 



Long. 
8W 
9E 
8W 

77 W 
6W 

6 W 

8 W 

7 W 

9 W 

8 W 
6 W 
3 W 
6W 

30 E 

9 W 
77 W 

7W 

10 E 



58 B 

HE 

8E 

68 B 

8 W 

12 B 

70E 

75 E 

20E 

1 w 



eovr 

120E 



52 N 


9W 


52 N 


9 W 


25 N 


80 E 


56 Iff 


4 "W 


13 N 


78 E 


14 N 


100 E 


55 N 


6W 


53 N 


4W 


12 S 


30 E 


45 N 


17 E 


2S 


113 E 


8S 


117 E 


38 


108 E 


18 N 


73 E 


70N 


130W 


44 S 


173 E 


41 S 


148 E 


54N- 


8-W 


56 N 


4 W 


52 N 


7 W 


51 N 





68 


106 E 


52 N 


9W 


52 N 


low 


42 N 


3E 


50 N 


3E 


48 N 


5B 



Bar (Poland) 

Bar, Duchy of 

Bar-sur-Seine 

Barak, E. ... 

Baraka, E. 

Barbados 

Barberino . . . 

Barberton . . . 

Barbuda I. 

Barca 

Barcaldine ... 

Barcelona (America S.) 

Barcelona (Spain)... 

Barcelonnette 

Barcelor 

Barcoo or Cooper's E. 

Barcoo Eiver 

Bard 

Bardo (Africa) 

Bardo (Sweden) ... 

Bardwan 

Bareilly 

Barfrush 

Bari 

Barking Ab. 

Barkul 

Bar le Due 

Barlee, L. ... 

Barletta 

Barlings Ab. 

Barnard Castle 

Barnstaple... 

Baro, E. 

Baroda 

Baroda State 

Baron von Muller, L. 

Barotseland 

Barrackpur 

Barraux. 

Barrier I., Gt 

Barrosa 

Barrow, C... 

Barrow Pt ... 

Barrow, E. ... 

Barrow Str. 

Barry, Lord 

Barry Oge ... 

Bars 

Bartenstein 

Bartfa 

Barua 

Barwalde 

Barwan, E. 

Basel 

Bashee, E. ... 

Bashkirs 

Basidu 

Basilicata ... 

Basing House 

Basque Eoads 

Basra {see Bossorah) 

Bass Str. ... 

Bassano 

Bassein (Burma) ... 



152 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Bassein (India) 


64 


19 N 


73 E 


Beauport, R. 


.. 67 Ins. 




Basseterre 


69 


17 N 


63 W 


Beaupr^au ... 


.. 82 


47 N 


1 W 


Bassignano 


49 


45 N 


9E 


Beauvais 


8 


49 N 


2E 


Bassorah {see Bossorah) 






Beauvais, Bpc of . 


8 


48 17 


O 


Bastia 


26 


43 N 


9E 


Beauvoir 


.. 19 


47 N 


2 W 


Basutoland 


133 


30 S 


28 E 


Beaver Dam 


.. 70 


43 N 


79 W 


Batak 


119 


42 N 


24 E 


Bechuanaland Pro 


t. 133 


30 S 


2oz: 


Batala 


124 


32 N 


75 E 


Beckenried ... 


.. 15 


47 N 


8E 


Batalha 


7 


40 N 


9 W 


Bedford 


.. 16 


52 N 





Batang 


138 


30 N 


100 E 


Bedmar 


7 


38 N 


3W 


Batavia (Java) 


139 


6S 


107 E 


Bednore 


.. 64 


14 N 


75 E 


Batavia (U.S.A.) ... 


72 


43 N 


78 W 


Bedwin, Gt 


.. 113 


51 N 


2 W 


Batavian Kepublic 


89 






Beeren, Gt . . . 


.. 97 


52 N 


13 E 


Bath 


16 


51 N 


2 W 


Beeskow 


.. 62 


52 N 


14 E 


Bathurst (Africa, W.) 


130 


14 N 


17 W 


Beeston Castle 


.. 36 


53 N 


3 W 


Bathurst (N.S.W.) 


128 


33 S 


150 E 


Behar 


.. 64 


24 N 


80E 


Bathurst, C. 


139 


60I7 


140 W 


Behmaru Hills 


.. 124 1ns. 




Bathurst I. 


126 


76 N 


100 w 


Behring Sea 


.. 139 






Batna 


131 


36 N 


6E 


Behring Str. 


.. 139 


60N 


ISO 


Baton Eouge 


74 


30 N 


91 W 


Beilan 


... 110 


36 N 


36 E 


Battambang 


125 


13 N 


103 E 


Beilul 


.. 130 


13 N 


42 E 


Battle Abbey 


16 


51 N 





Beira (Africa) 


.. 133 


20 S 


35 E 


Battleford 


126 


53 N 


108 W 


Beira (Port) 


.. 95 


41 N 


8 W 


Batuecas 


95 


40 N 


6W 


Beirut 


.. 110 


34 N 


36 E 


Batum 


108 


42 N 


42 E 


Beja 


.. 95 


38 N 


8W 


Baturin 


61 


51 N 


33 E 


Bekos 


.. 110 


41 N 


29 E 


Batzlow 


57 


53 N 


15 E 


Belbeis 


... 132 1ns. 




Bau 


107 


55 N 


9E 


Belbek, R. ... 


... 115 1ns. 




Baugy 


19 


47 N 


3E 


Belchite 


.. 95 


41 N 


1 W 


Bautzen 


12 


51 N 


14 E 


Belem (Am. S.) 


.. 106 


2S 


48 W 


Bavaria 


12 






Belem (Spain) 


7 


39 N 


9W 


Bavarian Palatinate 


107 


49 N 


8E 


Belfast 


.. 37 


55 N 


6W 


Baviaans Kloof Mts 


133 


34 S 


24 E 


Belfort (France) 


.. 103 


48 N 


7E 


Bayazid 


108 


40 N 


44 E 


Belfort (Switz.) 


.. 30 


47 N 


10 E 


Bayeux 


19 


49 N 


1 W 


Belgian Congo 


.. 130 






Bayham 


16 


51 N 





Belgium 


... 141 






Bay Islands 


134 


ION 


90 W 


Belgrade 


3 


45 N 


20 E 


Baylen 


95 


38 N 


4W 


Belin 


.. 19 


44 N 


IW 


Bayonne 


7 


43 N 


2W 


Belize 


.. 69 


18 N 


88 W 


Bays 


19 


45 N 


5E 


Belize, R. ... 


.. 69 


18 N 


88 W 


Baza 


7 


38 N 


3W 


Belle Alliance 


98 Ins. 




Bazaruto I. 


133 


22 S 


36 E 


Belleek 


.. 37 


54 N 


8 W 


Bazeilles 


118 


50 N 


5E 


Bellegarde ... 


.. 79 


47 N 


5E 


Beachy Head 


121 


51 N 





Belle Isle (Canada' 


126 


SON 


60 W 


Beare 


27 


52 N 


low 


Belle Isle (France) 


79 


47 N 


3 W 


B^arn 


8 


4orr 


4 W 


Belle Isle, Str. of . 


.. 126 


SON 


60 W 


Beas, R 


124 


32 N 


76 E 


Bellencombre 


.. 19 


50 N 


IE 


Beaucaire 


8 


44 N 


5E 


Belleville (France) 


103 


46 N 


5 E 


Beaufort (Am. N.) 


74 


35 N 


76 W 


Belleville (France) 


97 Ins. 




Beaufort (Am. N.) 


70 


32 N 


81 W 


Bellinzona ... 


4 


46 N 


9E 


Beaufort (France) . . . 


19 


47 N 





Belmont (Africa, £ 


>.) 133 


30 S 


24 E 


Beaufort Sea 


140 


60I7 


150 W 


Belmont (U.S.A.) 


74 


37 N 


89 W 


Beaufort West 


133 


32 S 


23 E 


Beloi 


.. 96 


56 N 


33 E 


Beaugency 


8 


48 N 


2E 


Belsk 


.. 58 


53 N 


23 E 


Beaujolais ... 


8 


44 IT 


4 £ 


Belt, Great... 


.. 107 


56 N 


HE 


Beaulieu 


19 


47 N 


IE 


Belt, Little... 


.. 107 


55 N 


HE 


Beaulieu Ab. 


16 


51 N 


1 W 


Belturbet 


.. 47 


54 N 


7W 


Beauly Ab. 


23 


57 N 


4 W 


Belvoir Castle 


.. 36 


53 N 


1 W 


Beauly, R 


23 


57 N 


5 W 


Belyando, R. 


.. 128 


22 S 


147 E 


Beaumaris ... 


16 


53 N 


4W 


Belz 


.. 58 


50 N 


24 E 


Beaumont ... 


118 


SON 


5E 


Belzig 


.. 97 


52 N 


13 E 


Beaune 


19 


47 N 


5E 


Benares 


.. 64 


25 N 


83 E 


Beaune la Rolande 


118 


48 N 


2E 


Benavente . . . 


.. 95 


42 N 


6 W 


Beauport 


67 Ins. 




Benbecula ... 


.. 23 


57 N 


7W 



Index to Maps, 



158 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Benburb 


.. 37 


54 N 


7W 


Betwa, E, ... 


.. 123 


25 17 


75 E 


Bencoolen ... 


.. 139 


4S 


102 E 


Beuthen 


.. 12 


SON 


19 E 


Bender 


.. 61 


47 N 


30 W 


Beuthen, Lordship 


of 55 


SON 


16 E 


Bender Abbas 


.. 124 


27 N 


56 E 


Beveland, N. 


. 87 Ins. 




Bendigo 


.. 128 


37 S 


144 E 


Beveland, S. 


. 87 Ins. 




Benevento ... 


4 


41 N 


15 E 


Beverley 


.. 16 


54 N 





Benfeld 


.. 39 


48 N 


8E 


Bewdley 


.. 36 


52 N 


2 W 


Bengal 


.. 64 






Beyrout (Beyrut) . 


.. 85 


34 N 


36 E 


Bengal, Bay of 


.. 64 






B^ziers 


8 


43 N 


3E 


Bengal, Eastern . 


.. 122 






Bhagulpur ... 


.. 122 


25 N 


87 E 


Benguela 


.. 130 


13 S 


13 E 


Bhamo 


.. 138 


24 N 


97 E 


Beni, E 


.. 135 


14 S 


67 W 


Bharatpur ... 


.. 122 


27 N 


77 E 


Beni Suef ... 


.. 132 


29 N 


31 E 


Bharoch 


.. 99 


21 N 


72 E 


Benin 


. 130 


7N 


6E 


Bhima, E 


.. 122 


17 N 


76 E 


Bennington... 


. 70 


43 N 


73 W 


Bhopal 


.. 122 


23 N 


77 E 


Benon 


. 19 


46 N 


1 W 


Bhopal State 


. 122 


23 N 


77 E 


Bentheim ... 


. 107 


52 N 


7E 


Bhutan 


.. 99 


24 17 


88 E 


Bentheim, County 


of 12 


50ir 


4 E 


Biafra 


2 


O 


O 


Bentonville... 


. 74 


35 N 


78 W 


Biala 


. 92 


52 N 


23 E 


Benue, E 


. 130 


8N 


10 E 


Bialotserkoff 


.. 108 


50 N 


30 E 


Berar 


. 122 


2orr 


70E 


Bialystok ... 


.. 58 


53 N 


23 E 


Berat 


. 120 


41 N 


20 E 


Biana 


.. 64 


27 N 


77 E 


Beraun 


. 62 


SON 


14 E 


Biarritz 


. 103 


44 N 


2 W 


Beraun, E 


. 57 


50 N 


14 E 


Biban 


.. 131 


33 N 


10 E 


Berber 


. 132 


18 N 


34 E 


Biberach 


12 


48 N 


10 E 


Berbera 


. 130 


ION 


45 E 


Bicocca (Italy) 


. 11 


45 N 


9E 


Berbice, E 


. 106 


6N 


58 W 


Bicocca (Sicily) 


4 


37 N 


15 E 


Berchtesgaden 


. 89 


48 N 


13 E 


Bidassoa, E. 


. 79 


43 N 


2W 


Berd, E 


. 108 


46 N 


36 E 


Biel {see Bienne) 








Berealston ... 


. 113 


50 N 


4W 


Bielany 


. 108 Ins. 




Bere Haven 


. 47 


52 N 


low 


Bielefeld 


. 59 


52 N 


9E 


Beresina, E. 


. 58 


54 N 


29 E 


Bielgorod ... 


. 61 


51 N 


37 W 


Berezoff 


. 61 


64 N 


65 E 


Bielopolje ... 


. 119 


43 N 


20 E 


Berg 


. 12 


50N 


4 E 


Bienne 


. 90 


47 N 


7E 


Bergamo 


4 


46 N 


10 E 


Bienne, L 


. 112 


47 N 


7 E 


Bergen 


17 


60 N 


5E 


Bienwald 


. 81 


49 N 


8E 


Bergen-op-Zoom .. 


. 22 


51 N 


4E 


Big E 


70 


5onr 


80W 


Bergerac 


8 


45 N 


IE 


Big Black E. 


. 74 


33 N 


90 W 


Bergues St Vinox.. 


. 45 


51 N 


2E 


Bih^ 


. 130 


13 S 


17 E 


Bergiin 


. 30 


47 N 


10 E 


Bijapur 


. 64 


17 N 


76 E 


Berhampore 


. 123 


24 N 


88 E 


Bijiiiner 
Bilad Ghana 


. 99 


28 17 


73 E 


Berkel, E 


. 109 


52 N 


6E 


2 


O 


30^^ 


Berkeley Castle 


. 36 


52 N 


2W 


Bilbao 


. 95 


43 N 


3 W 


Berkeley, Vale of . . 


. 121 


52 N 


2W 


Bilek 


. 119 


43 N 


18 E 


Berkshire ... 


. 34 


sour 


2x: 


Bilma 


. 130 


19 N 


13 E 


Berlin 


. 12 


53 N 


13 E 


Biloxi 


. 72 


30 N 


89 W 


Bermeja, Sa 


7 


36 N 


6x: 


Bilsen 


. 45 


51 N 


5E 


Bermudas ... 


. 66 


2oir 


80 W 


Bilstein 


. 62 


51 N 


8E 


Bermyngham 


. 27 


52 N 


lO'W 


Bimlipatam... 


. 99 


18 N 


83 E 


Bern, Canton of .. 


. 15 


46ivr 


6x: 


Binasco 


. 4 Ins. 


45 N 


9E 


Bern 


. 15 


47 N 


7E 


Bingen 


. 107 


SON 


8E 


Bernardino Pass .. 


. 30 


46 17 


9 E 


Bingerville ... 


. 130 


5N 


4W 


Bernburg 


. 12 


52 N 


12 E 


Biobio, E 


. 106 


36 N 


73 W 


Bernina Pass 


. 30 


46 N 


10 E 


Bir (Mesopotamia) 


110 


32 N 


44 E 


Berry 


8 


44 IT 


O 


Bir (Syria) 


. 110 


37 N 


38 E 


Bertheaume B. 


. 91 


40N 


20^17 


Birkenfeld ... 


12 


SON 


7E 


Berwick 


. 23 


54 IT 


4 "W 


Birket el-Karun .. 


. 85 


29 N 


31 E 


Berwick-on-Tweed .. 


. 16 


56 N 


2 W 


Birks 


. 36 


56 N 


2W 


Berwick, North 


56 


56 N 


3W 


Birmingham 


. 121 


52 N 


2W 


Besan^on ... 


. 12 


47 N 


6E 


Biron 


79 


45 N 


IE 


Besika B 


. 119 


40 N 


26 E 


Birr 


. 47 


53 N 


8W 


Bessarabia ... 


. 61 


40N 


20E 


Birs, E 


. 112 


47 17 


7 E 


Bethlehem 


. 133 


28 S 


28 E 


Birse (Birze) 


. 54 


56 N 


24 E 


B^thune 


6 


51 N 


3E 


Bisamberg 


93 Ins. 





154 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Biscay 


7 


42 N 


4tVir 


Blumenau 


117 


48 N 


17 E 


Biscay, Bay of 


87 


40N 


lO w 


Bober, R 


97 


52 N 


15 E 


Bischoff, Mt 


128 


42 S 


145 E 


Boblingen 


13 


49 N 


9E 


Biserta 


IBl 


38 N 


10 E 


Bobruisk 


108 


53 N 


29 E 


Biskra 


131 


35 N 


6E 


Bocage 


82 


46 N 


2 vr 


Bismarck ... 


72 


47 N 


101 W 


Bocchetta Pass 


83 


45 N 


9E 


Bismarck Archip. ... 


139 


20S 


i40z: 


Bode, R 


57 


52 N 


12 E 


Bismarckburg 


130 


8N 


IE 


Boden 


108 


66 N 


22 E 


Bissagos Is. 


130 


UN 


16 W 


Bodmin 


16 


SON 


5 W 


Bissao 


130 


12 N 


15 W 


Boeotia 


105 


36 N 


20x: 


Bissetts 


27 


55 N 


6W 


Bogan, E 


128 


31 S 


147 B 


Bithur 


123 


27 N 


80 E 


Bogosloff 


108 


60 N 


60 E 


Bitlis 


110 


38 N 


42 E 


Bogota 


106 


4N 


74 W 


Bitonto 


26 


42 N 


17 E 


Bohemia 


111 


48 17 


12 £ 


Bitsch 


81 


49 N 


7E 


Boholl 


75 Ins. 




Biville 


94 


SON 


IE 


Bohus 


17 


55 KT 


lOE 


Biwa 


137 


35 N 


136 E 


Boialva 


95 


40 N 


8W 


Blackburn 


121 


54 N 


2 W 


Bojador, C. 


130 


27 N 


14 W 


Black Country 


121 


53 N 


2W 


Bojana, R 


105 


42 N 


19 E 


Black Forest 


39 


48 N 


8E 


Bokhara 


124 


40 N 


64 E 


Blackheath 


16 


51 N 





Bolan Pass 


124 


30 N 


67 E 


Black Mts 


121 


52 N 


4 W 


Bolivia 


135 


20 8 


70"W 


Blackness ... 


56 


56 N 


4W 


Bologna 


4 


44 N 


HE 


Black Sea 


3 






Bolton 


36 


54 N 


2 W 


Blackwater, K. (Eng.) 


121 


52 N 


IE 


Bolton Ab. 


16 


54 N 


2W 


Blackwater, E. (Ire.) 


37 


52 N 


8W 


Bolton Castle 


36 


54 N 


2W 


Blackwater, K. (Ire.) 


37 


54 7S 


8 W 


Boma 


130 


6S 


13 E 


Blackwood, R. 


128 


34 S 


116 E 


Bombay 


64 


19 N 


73 E 


Bladensburg 


70 


39 N 


77 W 


Bombay Presidency 


122 






Blagaj 


3 


43 N 


18 E 


Bon, C 


131 


37 N 


HE 


Blagovestchensk ... 


138 


50 N 


128 E 


Bona 


131 


37 N 


8E 


Blair Atholl 


23 


57 N 


4W 


Bonamargy 


27 


55 N 


6W 


Blair Castle 


56 


57 N 


4 W 


Bonavista, C. 


67 


49 N 


53 W 


Blair Port 


140 


O 


90x: 


Bondorf 


92 


48 N 


8E 


Blanc, Mt 


141 


46 N 


7E 


Bonifacio ... 


103 


41 N 


9E 


Blanca B. ... 


135 


39 S 


63 W 


Bonifacio, Str. of ... 


104 


41 N 


9E 


Blanche, L. 


128 


29 S 


140 B 


Bonn 


12 


SIN 


7E 


Blanco, C. ... 


130 


21 N 


17 W 


Bonny 


103 


48 N 


3E 


Blandford ... 


36 


51 N 


2 W 


Bonny muir... 


121 


56 N 


4W 


Blankenfeld... 


97 


52 N 


13 E 


Boomplatz ... 


133 


30 S 


26 E 


Blantyre 


130 


16 S 


35 E 


Boothia, G. of 


126 


70 N 


90 W 


Blautyre Ab. 


23 


56 N 


4 W 


Boothia 1st. 


126 


70 N 


97 W 


Blasket, Sd of 


27 


52 N 


low 


Bopfingen ... 


62 


49 N 


10 E 


Blavet 


19 


48 N 


3 W 


Bordeaux ... 


8 


45 N 


1 W 


Blavet, R. ... 


79 


48 N 


3 W 


Bordesholm 


17 


54 N 


10 E 


Blaye 


103 


45 N 


1 W 


Borghetta Pass 


81 


44 N 


9E 


Bleddin 


97 


52 N 


13 E 


Borghetto 


83 


45 N 


HE 


Bleking 


17 


5517 


15 E 


Borgne, L 


70 


30 N 


90 W 


Bleneau 


79 


48 N 


3E 


Borgo 


108 


60 N 


26 E 


Blenheim (Bavaria) 


45 


49 N 


11 E 


Borgoforte 


4Im 


5. 45 N 


HE 


Blenheim (N. Z.) ... 


129 


41 S 


174 E 


Borissoff 


96 


54 N 


28 E 


Blessington 


47 


53 N 


7 W 


Borkelo 


22 


52 N 


7 E 


Bletchingley 


113 


51 N 


OW 


Borku Abeshr 


130 


14 N 


21 E 


Bletchington House 


36 


52 N 


IW 


Borkum 


109 


54 N 


7E 


Blindheim (see Blen- 








Bormida, R. 


83 


44 N 


8 E 


heim) 








Bormio 


4 


46 N 


10 E 


Bloemfontein 


133 


29 S 


26 E 


Boma 


14 


51 N 


12 E 


Blois 


8 


48 N 


IE 


Borneo 


139 





USE 


Blonie 


108 Ins. 




Bornholm I. 


17 


55 N 


15 E 


Bludenz 


62 


47 N 


10 E 


Bornu 


130 


12 N 


12 E 


Blue Mountains ... 


128 


34 S 


150 E 


Borny 


118 Ins. 




Blue Ridge... 


74 


35 N 


80 W 


Borodino 


96 


56 N 


36 E 


Bluff Harbour 


140 


46 S 


167 E 


Boroughbridge 


113 


54 N 


1 W 


Bluii, The 


129 


47 S 


169 E 


Borovsk 


96 


55 N 


36 E 



Index to Maps. 



155 



Borston Well 

Borthwick ... 

Boshof 

Bosna, K. ... 

Bosna Serai 

Bosnia 

Bosnia Vilayet 

Bosphorus ... 

Bossiney 

Bossorah 

Boston (England) ... 

Boston (U.S.A.) ... 

Boston Harbour ... 

Boston Neck 

Bosworth ... 

Botany B. ... 

Bothnia, E. c& W. ... 

Bothnia, G. of ... 

Bothwell 

Bothwell Brig 

Botzen [see Bozen) 

Bouchain ... 

Bouchard, He 

Bouches du Ehone 

Bougainville 

Bougie 

Bouillon 

Boulay 

Boulogne 

Boulonais ... 

Bounty I. ... 

Bourbon 

Bourbon, I. de 

Bourbourg ... 

Bourg (France) 

Bourg (France) 

Bourges 

Bourgoing ... 

Bourke 

Bourne Ab. 

Boutieres 

Bou vines 

Bovey Tracey 

Bowling Green 

Boxley Ab. 

Boyaca 

Boyle 

Boyne, R. ... 

Bozen 

Brabant 

Bracciano ... 

Brackley 

Braclaw 

Bradford 

Bradock Down 

Braedalbane 

Braemar 

Braga 

Braganza ... 

Brahmani, R. 

Brahmaputra, R. ... 

Braila (Brailoff) ... 

Braine-le-Chateau ... 

Braine-le-Comte ... 



Map 

138 
23 

133 
21 

119 

3 

21 

61 

113 
43 
16 
72 



Lat. 
42 N 
56 N 
28 S 
45 N 
44 N 
40 N 
44 N 

41 N 
51 N 
30 N 
53 N 

42 N 



70 Ins. 
70 Ins. 
16 63 N 



128 
17 

108 
23 

121 



45 
19 

103 

139 

131 
79 

118 
79 
79 

139 
8 
65 
39 
79 
25 
8 
25 

140 
16 
19 
11 
36 
74 
16 

106 
74 
37 

111 
22 
26 

113 
58 
36 
36 
23 
56 
7 
95 

123 
99 

105 



34 S 



56 N 
56 N 



50 N 

47 N 

44 N 
20 S 

37 N 
SON 

49 N 

51 N 

50 N 

48 S 
44 N 

22 S 

51 N 

45 N 

46 N 

47 N 
46 N 
30 S 

53 N 

45 N 
SON 
51 N 
37 N 

51 N 
SN 

54 N 
52 17 

46 N 
SON 
42 N 

52 N 

49 N 
54 N 
51 N 
56ir 
57 N 
42 N 
42 N 

2oir 

24 N 

45 N 
98 Ins. 
98 51 N 



Long. 
107 E 
3 W 
25 E 
18 E 
18 E 

15 H 

16 E 

29 E 
5 W 

44 E 






72 W 


1 W 


152 E 


4 W 


4W 


3E 





SE 


i40x: 


SE 


SE 


7E 


2E 


2E 


179 E 


O 


56 E 


2E 





SE 


2E 


SE 


146 E 





4E 


SE 


4W 


86 W 


IE 


73 W 


8W 


B-W 


11 E 


4E 


12 E 


1 W 


29 E 


2 W 


4W 


6 "W 


3 W 


8 W 


7 W 


85 E 


88 E 


28 E 


4E 



Map 

Brainford ... ... 68 

Bramber ... ... 113 

Brampton ... ... 56 

Branco, R. (Parima) 135 
Brandaris ... ... 42 

Brandeis ... ... 33 

Brandenburg ... 33 

Brandenburg, Elect, of 12 
Brandenburg, Neu... 33 

Brandfort 133 

Brandon ... ... 126 

Brandshagen ... 29 

Brandy wine, R. ... 70 

Brantford 126 

Brasso ... ... 48 

Braunau (Austria) 57 

Braunau (Germany) 12 
Braunsberg ... 58 

Brava 65 

Bray and Gournay 8 

Braye 

Brazil 

Brazos, R. 

Brechin 

Brechin Ab. 

Brecknock ... 

Brecon 

Brecz 

Breda 

Brederode ... 

Breedevoort... 

Bregaglia, V. 

Bregenz 

Breisach 

Breisach, New & Old 

Breisgau 



Breitenfeld ... 

Breitenlee ... 

Brembana, Val 

Bremen 

Bremgarten... 

Brennans 

Brenner 

Brenner Pass 

Brenta 

Brenta, R. ... 

Brentford ... 

Brescello 

Brescia 

Breslau 

Bresse 

Brest (France) 

Brest (Russia) 

Briangon 

Bribiesca 

Bricherasio... 

Bridgetown... 

Bridgewater 

Bridgnorth 

Bridlington... 

Bridlington Ab. 

Bridport 

Brie 

Brieg 



97 

106 
72 
56 
23 
16 
16 
32 
22 
22 
22 
30 
IS 
33 

118 
12 
33 
93 
30 
12 
15 
27 
14 
83 
94 

104 
36 
4 Ins 
4 
12 
25 
79 

108 
11 
7 
25 
69 
36 
16 
36 
16 

113 
79 
12 



Lat. 
41 N 
SIN 
55 N 

2N 

53 N 
SON 
52 N 

50I7 

54 N 
29 S 
SON 
54 N 
40 N 
43 N 

46 N 

48 N 

51 N 
54 N 

IN 

49 N 
48 N 

20 8 

30N 

57 N 

57 N 

52 N 

52 N 

53 N 
52 N 
52 N 

52 N 
46 N 

47 N 

48 N 
48 N 
48 N 
SIN 

Ins. 
4517 

53 N 
47 N 

52 TS 
47 N 

47 N 

45 N 

46 N 
SIN 

45 N 

46 N 
SIN 
46 N 

48 N 

52 N 
45 N 
43 N 
45 N 
13 N 
SIN 

53 N 

54 N 
54 N 
SIN 

48 M* 
51 N 



Long. 
73 W 



3 W 
62 W 

SE 

15 E 
13 E 

12 E 
13 E 
26 E 
100 W 
13 E 
77 W 
80 W 
26 E 
13 E 

16 E 
20 E 
44 E 

2E 
7E 

60TXr 
lOOW 
3 W 
3 W 
3W 
3W 

19 E 
SE 
SE 
7E 
9E 

10 E 
8E 
8E 
8E 

12 E 

9E 

9E 
8E 
8 VT 

HE 
HE 
12 E 
12 E 

HE 
10 E 

17 E 
5 E 
4W 

24 E 
7E 
3W 
7E 

60 W 
3 W 

2 W 




3 W 

4 E 
17 E 



156 



Index to Maps, 



Map Lat. Long. 

Brienne 79 48 N 5E 

Brienz, L 90 47 N 8E 

Briey 118 49 N 6E 

Brightlingsea ... 121 52 N IE 

Brighton 16 51 N 

Brihuega 95 41 N 3W 

Brili 96 54 N 28 E 

Brill 22 52 N 4E 

Brilon 62 51 N 9E 

Brindisi 4 41 N 18 E 

Brisbane 128 27 S 153 E 

Brisighella 4 44 N 12 E 

Bristol 16 51 N 3W 

Bristol Ab 16 51 N 3 W 

Bristol Bay 139 40 BT 160W^ 

Bristol Channel ... 121 60 BT 4W 

Britanny 8 48 MT 4 W 

British E. Africa ... 132 

Brixen 12 47 N 12 E 

Broken B 100 32 S 151 E 

Broken Hill ... 128 32 S 142 E 

Bromberg 107 53 N 18 E 

Bromsebro 53 56 N 16 E 

Bronitsi 32 58 N 32 E 

Bronitzi 96 55 N 38 E 

Bronzell 107 51 N 10 E 

Brooklyn ... ... 70 Ins. 

Broos (Szasvaros)... 3 46 N 23 E 

Brouage 79 46 N IW 

Broughton Bay ... 137 40 N 128 E 

Brouwershaven ... 6 52 N 4 E 

Brownsville ... 134 26 N 98 W 

Bruchsal 12 49 N 9E 

Bruck (Austria) ... Ill 48 N 17 E 

Bruck (Styria) ... 12 47 N 15 E 

Bruges 8 51 N 3E 

Briihl 12 51 N 7E 

Bruinsburg 74 32 N 91 W 

Brulon 79 48 N 

Brunei 139 5N 115 E 

Briinig 15 47 N 8E 

Bruniquel 19 44 N 2E 

Briinn 12 49 N 17 E 

Brunnen 15 47 N 9E 

Brunswick-Calenberg 12 50 MT 8 E 
Brunswick-Gruben- 

hagen 12 SO N 8 E 

Brunswick -Liineburg 12 50 N 8 B 
Brunswick- Wolfen- 

biittel 12 SON 8E 

Brusa 8 40 N 29 E 

Brussels 22 51 N 4E 

Brzesc (Poland) ... 58 53 N 19 E 

Brzesc (Poland) ... 58 52 N 24 E 

Buccaneer Arehipel. 128 16 S 123 B 

Buccleuch 23 55 N 3 W 

Buchan 23 56 W 4W 

Buchanans 23 56 N 5W 

Bucharest 3 44 N 26 E 

Buchau 62 48 N 10 E 

Buchhorn 62 48 N 9E 

Buckeburg 107 52 N 9E 

Buckingham ... 113 52 N IW 

Buczacz 48 49 N 25 E 



Map 

Buda 3 

Buda Vilayet ... 21 

Budaun 123 

Bude 36 

Budin 57 

Budweis ... ... 29 

Buea 140 

Buen Ayre ... ... 69 

Buena Vista ... 71 

Buenaventura ... 135 

Buenos Ayres ... 106 

Buffalo (Afr. S.) ... 133 

Buffalo (Am. N.) ... 72 

Buffalo, R 65 

Buffels, R 133 

Bug, R. (Poland) ... 58 

Bug, R. (Russia) ... 61 

Bugey ... ... 25 

Bugia 7 



Bukovina (Bukowina) 111 

Bulawayo ... ... 133 

Bulgaria ... ... 3 

Buller R 129 

Bulloo, R 128 

Bull Run, R. ... 74 

Bultfontein 133 

Bundelkhand ... 64 

Bundrowes ... ... 27 

Bungo 137 

Bungo Str. ... 137 

Bun-hoa . ... ... 125 

Bunker Hill ... 70 

Bunratty 27 

Buntzlau 107 

Bunzelwitz ... ... 57 

Bunzlau (Bohemia) [see 

Buntzlau) 

Bunzlau (Silesia) ... 107 

Burdekin, R. ... 128 

Burdwan ... ... 122 

Burg (Prussia) ... 59 

Burg (Switzerland) 15 

Burgas 105 

Burgau (Austria) ... 60 

Burgdorf 90 

Burghausen ... 62 

Burghersdorp ... 133 

Burgos ... ... 7 

Burgundy, County of 6 

Burgundy, Duchy of 8 

Burhanpur... ... 122 

Burkersdorf ... 57 

Burkes 27 

Burke's Sta. ... 74 

Burketown 128 

Burlington ... ... 70 

Burlos, L 132 

Burma, Lower ... 122 

Burma, Upper ... 122 

Burnett, R. ... 128 

Burntisland ... 36 

Burra Burra ... 128 

Burra Pt 133 

Burren 27 



Lat. 

47 N 
44 N 

28 N 

51 N 
SON 

49 N 
4N 

12 N 

25 N 

4N 

35 S 

28 S 
43 N 

29 S 

30 S 
S2 N 

48 N 
46 N 

Ins. 
48 N 
20 S 

42 S 

28 S 
39 N 

29 S 
24 N 
54 N 
33 N 

32 N 
UN 
Ins. 

52 N 

50 N 

51 N 



51 N 
19 S 
23 N 

52 N 
48 N 
42 N 
48 N 

47 N 

48 N 
31 S 

42 N 
44 rr 

44 N 

21 N 

51 N 

52 N 
37 N 
18 S 

43 N 
31 N 



25 S 
56 N 
34 S 
24 S 
52 IS 



Long. 
19 E 
16 E 

79 E 
5 W 

14 E 

15 E 
9E 

68 W 
102 W 
77 W 
58 W 
30 E 

79 W 
18 E 
18 E 

20 E 

30 W 

6E 

26 E 
29 E 

172 E 
144 E 
77 W 
25 E 

80 E 
8W 

132 E 

132 E 

107 E 

low 

15 E 

16 E 



16 E 

146 E 

88 E 

12 E 
9E 

28 E 

10 E 

8E 

13 E 
26 E 

4W 

4 E 

4 E 

76 E 

16 E 

low 

78 W 
HOE 
80 W 
31 E 



152 N 
3 W 

139 E 
36 E 
lOVT 



Index to Maps. 



157 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Buru 


139 


20 S 


1201: 


Calgary 


126 


52 N 


114 W 


Bury 


114 


54 N 


2 W 


Calicut 


64 


UN 


76 E 


Bury St Edmunds... 


16 


52 N 


IE 


California ... 


72 


SON 


120-W 


Busaco 


95 


40 N 


8W 


California, G. of ... 


139 


20 N 


120W 


Bushire 


124 


29 N 


51 E 


California, Lower ... 


71 






Bushman, E. 


133 


34 S 


26 E 


California, Upper ... 


71 






Bussa 


130 


ION 


5W 


Callabonna, L. 


128 


30 S 


HOE 


Bussira, E.... 


130 


IS 


21 E 


Callan 


47 


53 N 


7W 


Bussolengo 


88 


45 N 


HE 


Callao 


106 


12 S 


78 W 


Butler 


47 


54 N 


7W 


Callington 


113 


50 N 


4W 


Butler 


27 


52 Iff 


8-W 


Calmar 


53 


57 N 


16 E 


Buton 


140 


8N 


126 E 


Calne 


113 


51 N 


2 W 


Biitow 


69 


54 N 


17 E 


Calshot 


16 


51 N 


1 W 


Butri 


65 Ins. 




Calvados 


103 


48IT 


4'W 


Butrinto 


3 


40 N 


20 E 


Calvi (Corsica) 


79 Ins 


. 42 N 


9E 


Buxar 


64 


25 N 


84 E 


Calvi (Italy) 


104 


41 N 


14 E 


Buxtehude 


62 


53 N 


10 E 


Calvinet 


19 


45 N 


2E 


Buzalla 


4 


45 N 


9E 


Cam, E 


121 


52 N 





Buzenval ... 


118 


49 N 


2E 


Cambay 


64 


23 N 


72 E 


Byeturni, E. 


123 


20 N 


85 E 


Cambay, G. of 


99 


20 N 


72 E 


Byland Ab 


16 


54 N 


1 W 


Camber Castle 


16 


51 N 


IE 


Byron, C 


128 


29 S 


154 E 


Cambodia ... 


125 


ION 


100 E 










Cambrai (Cambray) 


79 


50 N 


3E 


Cabello, Pto 


106 


ION 


68 W 


Cambresis 


22 


SON 


2x: 


Cabezas de San Juan 


95 


37 N 


6W 


Cambridge ... 


16 


52 N 





Cabinda 


130 


5S 


12 E 


Cambridge (U.S.A.) 


70 Ins. 




Cabot Str 


126 


47 N 


60 W 


Camden 


70 


34 N 


81 E 


Cabrieres ... 


8 


44 N 


6E 


Camelford 


113 


51 N 


5W 


Cabul (Kabul) 


100 


35 N 


69 E 


Camerino ... 


4 


43 N 


13 E 


Cacellas 


95 


37 N 


8W 


Camerons ... 


23 


56 N 


6"W 


Cadiz 


7 


37 N 


6W 


Cameroon, Mt 


130 


5N 


10 E 


Cadore 


94 


46 N 


12 E 


Cameroons ... 


130 








Cadsand 


22 


51 N 


3E 


Caminlia 


95 


42 N 


9W 


Caen 


8 


49 N 





Cammin, Bishopric of 40 


54 N 


16 E 


Caesar's Camp 


81 


50 N 


3E 


Cammin [see Kammin) 






Caesmes 


81 


SON 


4E 


Camonica, Val 


30 


46 N 


10 E 


Caffa 


3 


45 N 


35 E 


Campech6 


134 


20 N 


90 W 


Cagliari 


4 


39 N 


9E 


Campeche Bay [see 








Cahirconlish 


47 


63 N 


8W 


Campeachy Bay) 








Cahokia 


67 


38 N 


90 W 


Campagna ... 


104 


41 N 


15 E 


Cahors 


8 


44 N 


IE 


Campbell I. 


139 


66 S 


167 E 


Caianello ... 


104 


41 N 


14 E 


Campbells ... 


23 


5617 


evr 


Caicos Is 


69 


22 N 


74 W 


Campbells ... 


23 


56 N 


7W 


Cairns 


128 


17 S 


146 E 


Campeachy Bay ... 


69 


20 N 


94 W 


Cairo (Am. N.) 


74 


37 N 


89 W 


Camperdown 


87 


52 N 


4E 


Cairo (Egypt) 


110 


30 N 


31 E 


Campitch 


81 


51 N 


5E 


Caistor 


16 


53 N 





Campo Formio 


83 


46 N 


13 E 


Caithness 


23 


5817 


4 W 


Carapo Santo 


49 


45 N 


HE 


Cajet, E 


130 


UN 


15 W 


Canada, Lower 


70 






Calabar 


140 


6N 


9E 


Canada, Upper 


70 






Calabria 


4 


38 N 


I6I: 


Canadian, E. 


72 


36 N 


100 W 


Calaf at 


119 


44 N 


23 E 


Canary, Grand 


24 


28 N 


15 W 


Calais 


8 


51 N 


2E 


Canary Is 


24 


20 N 


20 w 


Calais, Pas de 


103 


481ff 





Cancale, B. 


50 


49 N 


2E 


Calatafimi ... 


104 


38 N 


13 E 


Canche, E. 


45 


SON 


2E 


Calatayud 


7 


41 N 


2W 


Candahar (Kandahar) 


100 


32 N 


66 E 


Calatrava ... 


7 


39 N 


4W 


Candeish ... 


64 


i6ir 


72X: 


Calavry ta 


3 


38 N 


22 E 


Candia 


3 


35 N 


26 E 


Calcutta 


99 


23 N 


88 E 


Candy {see Kandy) 








Caldera 


140 


27 S 


70 W 


Canea 


105 


36 N 


24 E 


Calderon 


106 


4S 


70 W 


Cannanor 


43 Ins. 




Caldiero 


83 


45 N 


11 E 


Cannes 


103 


44 N 


7W 


Caledon, E. 


133 


30 S 


27 E 


Canosa 


4 


41 N 


16 E 


Calenberg 


62 


62 N 


10 E 


Canso 


67 


45 N 


61 W 



158 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Ganso, C 


67 


45 N 


61 W 


Canso, Str. of 


70 


46 N 


62 W 


Cantal 


103 


44 17 


O 


Canterbury (Eng.)... 


16 


51 N 


IE 


Canterbury (N.Z.)... 


129 


44 IS 


168 1: 


Canterbury Bight... 


129 


48 B7 


172 E 


Canterbury Plains . . . 


129 


48 DT 


168 B 


Canton 


138 


23 N 


113 E 


Canton, E. (Bogue) 


138 


24 N 


113 E 


Cao-Bang ... 


125 


23 N 


106 E 


Cap Francois 


69 


20 N 


70 W 


Cap Eouge 


67 


47 N 


71 W 


Capdena 


19 


44 N 


3E 


Cape Breton I. 


70 


47 N 


61 W 


Cape Clear ... 


27 


51 N 


9 W 


Cape Coast Castle... 


130 


5N 


1 W 


Cape Cruz 


75 


20 N 


78 W 


Cape Henry 


70 


37 N 


76 W 


Cape Horn 


106 


56 S 


67 W 


Cape of Good Hope 


133 


34 S 


18 E 


Cape Maria vanDiemen 129 


34 S 


173 E 


Cape St Vincent ... 


7 


37 N 


9 W 


Cape Town 


133 


34 S 


18 E 


Cape Verde Is. 


24 


lOST 


SOW 


Capitanata ... 


4 


40I«7 


14 E 


Capo d'Istria 


4 


45 N 


14 E 


Capraja 


104 


43 N 


10 E 


Caprera 


104 


41 N 


10 E 


Capri 


87 


40 N 


14 E 


Capua 


4 


41 N 


14 E 


Carabobo ... 


106 


9N 


68 W 


Caracas 


66 


ION 


67 W 


Caralis, L 


3 


35 N 


30E 


Caravaggio ... 


4 Ins. 


45 N 


10 E 


Carberry Hill 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Carbery 


27 


52 N 


9W 


Carbisdale 


23 


58 N 


4 W 


Carbury 


27 


54 BT 


lO w 


Carcare 


83 


44 N 


8E 


Carcassonne 


8 


43 N 


2E 


Cardaillac 


19 


45 N 


2E 


Cardedeu 


95 


44 N 


2E 


Cardenas 


75 


23 N 


81 W 


Cardiff 


121 


51 N 


3 W 


Cardigan 


16 


52 N 


5 W 


Cardigan Bay 


87 


sost 


lOE 


Cardona 


7 


42 N 


2E 


Cardwell 


128 


18 S 


146 E 


Carelia 


61 


62 N 


30 E 


Carentan ... 


19 


49 N 


IW 


Caribbean Sea 


69 






Carignano 


4 


46 N 


8E 


Carinthia ... 


12 


46 N 


121! 


Carinthie ... 


94 


44 -^ 


i2z: 


Carisbrook Castle . . . 


36 


51 N 


1 w 


Carlingford 


37 


54 N 


6W 


Carlisle 


16 


55 N 


3 W 


Carlow 


37 


53 N 


7 W 


Carlowitz ... 


111 


45 N 


20 E 


Carlsbad 


54 


50 N 


13 E 


Carlsruhe 


62 


49 N 


8E 


Carmagnola 


25 


45 N 


8E 


Carmarthen 


16 


52 N 


4W 


Carmel, Mt 


85 


33 N 


35 E 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Carnarvon 


16 


53 N 


4W 


Carnatic 


64 






Carnic Alps 


83 


46N 


12E 


Carniola 


12 


46 N 


14 E 


Carniole 


94 


44 N 


12 E 


Carolina, N. 


72 


30IT 


90 W 


Carolina, S. 


72 


3onr 


SOW 


Caroline Is. 


139 


o 


140E 


Caroline Is. 


139 


10 s 


169 W 


Caroni, E. ... 


135 


6N 


62 W 


Carpathian Mts ... 


111 






Carpentaria, G. of... 


128 


14 S 


140 E 


Carpentras ... 


79 


44 N 


5E 


Carpi 


4 Ins. 


45 N 


HE 


Carraca 


95 


36 N 


6W 


Carrara 


26 


44 N 


10 E 


Carrick (Ireland) ... 


47 


52 N 


7 W 


Carrick (Scotland) 


23 


55 N 


5W 


Carrickfergus 


37 


55 N 


6W 


Carrick 's Ford 


74 


39 N 


79 W 


Carrigaholt 


38 


53 N 


low 


Carrigfoyle 


37 


53 N 


9 W 


Carriglea 


37 


55 N 


7 W 


Carrion, E. 


95 


42 N 


5W 


Carrizal Baja 


140 


28 S 


70 W 


Cartagena (Am. S.) 


66 


UN 


76 W 


Cartagena (Spain) 


7 


38 N 


1 W 


Cartaxo 


95 


39 N 


9 W 


Carysf ort ... 


47 


53 N 


6W 


Casablanca... 


131 


34 N 


8 W 


Casaccia 


30 


46 N 


10 E 


Casale 


25 


45 N 


8E 


Casana Pass 


30 


47 N 


10 E 


Cascade Eange 


139 


40I7 


140TXr 


Cascaes 


7 


39 N 


9 W 


Cascaes Bay 


24 


30N 


low 


Casentino ... 


4 


44 N 


12 E 


Caseros, Mte 


135 


30 S 


56 W 


Caserta 


86 


41 N 


14 E 


Cashel 


37 


52 N 


8 W 


Casiquiar 


135 


O 


70"W 


Caspian Sea 


62 






Cassano (Italy) 


4 


41 N 


17 E 


Cassano (Italy) 


49 


46 N 


10 E 


Cassel (Flanders) ... 


45 


51 N 


2E 


Cassel (Hesse) 


12 


51 N 


9E 


Cassillis 


23 


55 N 


5 W 


Cassino, Mte 


4 


42 N 


14 E 


Castalla 


95 


39 N 


IW 


Castel 


81 


50 N 


8E 


Castel Branco 


95 


40 N 


7W 


Castel Delfino 


25 


45 N 


7E 


Castel dell Uovo ... 


86 


41 N 


14 E 


Castelfidardo 


104 


43 N 


14 E 


Castelfranco 


4 


46 N 


12 E 


Castel Jaloux 


19 


44 N 





Castellamare 


26 


41 N 


14 E 


Castelnau ... 


19 


44 N 





Castelnaudary 


79 


43 N 


2E 


Castel Nuovo 


86 


41 N 


14 E 


Castel St Elmo ... 


86 


41 N 


14 E 


Castelsagrat 


19 


44 N 


IE 


Castets 


19 


45 N 





Castiglione 


4 Ins. 


45 N 


10 E 







Index to Maps, 






159 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Castile 


7 






Cephalonia 


3 


35 N 


20i: 


Castillon 


19 


45 N 





Ceprano 


4 


42 N 


14 E 


Castlebar ... 


47 


54 N 


9W 


Ceram 


139 


20S 


120S 


Castleconnell 


37 


53 N 


8W 


Cerdagne 


7 


42 N 


O 


Castledermot 


47 


53 N 


7 W 


Ceresole 


4 


45 N 


7E 


Castlefinn ... 


47 


55 N 


8W 


Cerignola ... 


4 


41 N 


16 B 


Castle Haven 


24 


5orr 


ICW 


Cerigo 


105 


36 N 


23 E 


Castle I. (Am. N.)... 


68 


42 N 


71 W 


Cerro de Pasco 


135 


US 


76 W 


Castlemaine 


128 


37 S 


144 E 


Cerro Gorda 


71 


19 N 


97 W 


Castlemartyr 


47 


52 N 


SW 


Cervetri 


4 


42 N 


12 E 


Castle Rising 


113 


53 N 





Cervi 


105 


37 N 


23 E 


Castle Savage 


27 


54 N 


6 W 


Cervia 


4 


44 N 


12 E 


Castres 


79 


44 N 


2E 


Cesawa, R. 


92 Ins. 




Castries 


134 


14 N 


61 W 


Cesena 


4 


44 N 


12 E 


Castro 


26 


40 N 


18 E 


Cetinje 


3 


42 N 


19 E 


Castro Perugia 


26 


43 N 


12 E 


Cette 


103 


43 N 


4E 


Castro Vireyna 


106 


14 S 


75 W 


Ceuta 


50 


36 N 


5W 


Catalonia 


7 






Ceva 


25 


44 N 


8E 


Catamarca ... 


106 


28 S 


67 W 


Ceylon 


64 


8N 


80 E 


Catania 


4 


37 N 


15 E 


Cezimbra B. 


95 


38 N 


9W 


Cataract 1st (R. Nile) 


132 


24 N 


33 E 


Chabarovsk 


138 


49 N 


135 E 


„ 2nd „ 


132 


22 N 


31 E 


Chablais 


25 


46 N 


6E 


„ 3rd „ 


132 


20 N 


30 E 


Chacabue ... 


106 


33 S 


71 W 


„ 4th „ 


132 


19 N 


32 E 


Chaco 


106 


24 S 


60 W 


5th „ 


132 


18 N 


34 E 


Chad, L 


130 


13 N 


14 E 


„ 6th „ 


132 


16 N 


33 E 


Chadda, R. 


130 


9N 


12 E 


Catawaba, R. 


70 


35 N 


81 W 


Chaferinas I. 


131 


35 N 


2W 


Cateau-Cambresis ... 


22 


SON 


3E 


Chagos Is 


140 


20S 


eoB 


Catoche, C. 


65 


22 N 


87 W 


Chakdarra ... 


124 


35 N 


72 E 


Cattaro 


111 


42 N 


19 E 


Chalcis 


3 


38 N 


24 E 


Cattaro, Bocche di 


105 


42 N 


19 E 


Chaleurs, Bay of ... 


70 


48 N 


66 W 


Cattegat 


53 


55N- 


lOE 


Chalgrove ... 


36 


52 N 


1 W 


Catton 


121 


53 N 


2W 


Challans 


82 


47 N 


2W 


Caub 


97 


50 N 


8E 


Chalons- sur-Marne 


8 


49 N 


4E 


Cauca, R. ... 


135 


8N 


75 W 


Chalons-sur-Saone 


8 


47 N 


5E 


Caucasus ... 


61 


40ir 


40i: 


Cham 


40 


49 N 


13 E 


Caudebec 


19 


50 N 


IE 


Chaman 


124 


31 N 


67 E 


Caumont ... 


19 


45 N 





Chambal, R. 


99 


24 N 


72 E 


Caura, R. ... 


135 


6N 


65 W 


Chambersburg 


74 


40 N 


78 W 


Caussade ... 


19 


44 N 


2E 


Ch^mb6ry 


25 


46 N 


6E 


Causse 


19 


44 N 


3E 


Chamblee ... 


70 


45 N 


74 W 


Cauvery, R. 


99 


8N 


72 E 


Chambord 


19 


48 N 


IE 


Cavan 


37 


54 N 


7W 


Champagne 


8 


48 N* 


4 E 


Cavite 


75 Ins. 




Champaubert 


97 


49 N 


4E 


Oavour 


25 


45 N 


7E 


Champigny 


118 


47 N 





Cawnpore ... 


99 


26 N 


80 E 


Champions Hill ... 


74 


32 N 


91 W 


Cawood 


16 


54 N 


1 W 


Champlain Canal ... 


72 


43 N 


73 W 


Cawsand B. 


16 


SON 


6 W 


Champlain, L. 


72 


44 N 


73 W 


Caya, R 


95 


39 N 


7W 


Chaiiaral ... 


140 


26 S 


70 W 


Cayenne 


106 


5N 


52 W 


Chancellorsville ... 


74 


38 N 


78 W 


Cazis 


30 


47 N 


9E 


Chan-chai-gai Mts 


138 


40 N 


90 E 


Ceara 


135 


3S 


39 W 


Chandernagore 


64 


23 N 


88 E 


Cecora 


20 


47 N 


28 E 


Changama 


64 


12 N 


78 E 


Cedar Creek 


74 


39 N 


78 W 


Channel Is. 


94 


48 N 


4W 


Celaya 


106 


20 N 


101 W 


Chantilly 


79 


49 N 


2E 


Celebes 


139 





120 E 


Chantonnay 


84 


47 N 


1 W 


Celebes Sea 


139 


O 


120X: 


Chapelle St Lambert 


98 Ins. 




Celle 


12 


53 N 


10 E 


Chappu B. ... 


138 


20 N 


108 E 


Cemetery Ridge ... 


74 


40 N 


77 W 


Chapu 


138 


31 N 


121 E 


Ceneda 


4 


46 N 


12 E 


Chapultepec 


71 


20 N 


99 W 


Cenis, Mt 


4 


45 N 


7E 


Charasia 


124 Ins. 




Centallo 


25 


44 N 


8E 


Charbonnieres 


25 


45 N 


6E 


Central Provinces... 


122 






Charcas 


106 


17 N 


68 W 


C^pet 


87 


42 N 


6E 


Chard 


16 


51 N 


3 W 



160 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Charente Inf^r. ... 


103 


46 N 





Chentabun ... 


. 125 


12 N 


102 E 


Charente, K. 


103 


46 N 





Cher, E 


8 


44 IV 


O 


Charenton ... 


79 


49 N 


2E 


Cherasco 


. 25 


45 N 


8E 


Charlemont (France) 


103 


50 N 


5E 


Cheraw 


74 


35 N 


80 W 


Charlemont (Ireland; 


37 


54 N 


7 W 


Cherbourg ... 


79 


50 N 


2W 


Charleroi ... 


45 


50 N 


4E 


Cherchen ... 


138 


38 N 


85 E 


Charleston ... 


72 


33 N 


80 E 


Chereia 


96 


55 N 


29 E 


Charlestown 


70 Ins. 




Cheriton 


36 


51 N 


IW 


Charlestown Neck 


70 Ins. 




Chernaya 


115 Ins. 




Charleville (Australia) 140 


26 S 


147 E 


Chernaya Dolina ... 


61 


46 N 


34 E 


Charleville (France) 


79 


50 N 


5E 


Chernigoff 


61 


51 N 


31 E 


Charleville (Ireland) 


47 


52 N 


9W 


Cherokees 


68 


34 N 


85 W 


Charlotte I., Qn ... 


139 


40ir 


140^7 


Cherso 


4 


45 N 


14 E 


Charlotte Sd, Qn ... 


139 


40N- 


140W 


Chesapeake, B. 


72 


37 N 


76 W 


Charlottenburg 


92 


53 N 


13 E 


Cheshire 


113 


52 N 


4 "W 


Charlottesville 


74 


38 N 


78 W 


Chester 


16 


53 N 


3 W 


Charlottetown 


126 


46 N 


63 W 


Chesterfield 


121 


53 N 


IW 


Charolais ... 


10 


40igr 


O 


Chesterfield Inlet ... 


126 


60sr 


lOO^XT 


CharoUes 


8 


46 N 


4E 


Cheviot Hills 


56 


55 N 


3W 


Charter 


133 


19 S 


31 E 


Chevreuse 


8 


48 IT 


o 


Charters Towers ... 


128 


20 S 


146 E 


Chiapa 


106 


20 S 


68 W 


Chartley 


16 


53 N 


2 W 


Chiapas 


134 


lOBT 


lOCW 


Chartres 


8 


48 N 


IE 


Chiapas, E. 


134 


lOir 


lOCW 


Chasniki 


96 


55 N 


29 E 


Chiari 


49 


46 N 


10 E 


Chateaubriand 


8 


48 N 


1 W 


Chiavenna 


4 


46 N 


9E 


Chateau d'lf 


79 


43 N 


5E 


Chicago 


72 


42 N 


88 W 


Chateau de Meudon 


97 Ins. 




Chicago, E. 


67 


42 N 


88 W 


Chateau Gontier ... 


82 


48 N 


1 W 


Chichester ... 


16 


51 N 


1 W 


Chateauneuf 


19 


46 N 





Chickahominy, E. ... 


74 


37 N 


77 W 


Chateau Porcien ... 


79 


50 N 


4E 


Chickamauga 


74 


35 N 


85 W 


Chateau Renard ... 


19 


48 N 


3E 


Chidley, C 


126 


60 N 


64 W 


Chateauroux 


103 


47 N 


2E 


Chieri 


25 


45 N 


8E 


Chateau-Thierry . . . 


19 


49 N 


3E 


Chiesa 


30 


46 N 


10 E 


Chatellerault 


19 


47 N 


IE 


Chiese, E. ... 


89 


44 N 


8E 


Chatham 


50 


51 N 


IE 


Chieti 


4 


42 N 


14 E 


Chatham I. 


139 


44 S 


183 E 


Chifu 


138 


37 N 


121 E 


Chatillon (France) . . . 


82 


47 N 


IW 


Chignecto, 1st. of... 


70 


46 N 


64 W 


Chatillon (Piedmont) 


88 


46 N 


8E 


Chihuahua 


134 


29 N 


106 W 


Chatillon-sur-Indre 


19 


47 N 


IE 


Chihh 


139 


aoir 


llOE 


Chatillon-sur-Marne 


97 


49 N 


4E 


Chikuzen 


137 


33 N 


130 E 


Chatillon-sur-Seine 


103 


48 N 


5E 


Chile 


135 






Chatsworth 


16 


53 N 


2 W 


Chilianv^ala 


124 


33 N 


74 E 


Chattahochee, E. ... 


74 


32 N 


85 W 


Chiloe I 


106 


43 S 


74 W 


Chattanooga 


74 


35 N 


85 W 


Chilpantzingo 


134 


18 N 


99 W 


Chaudi^re, E. 


67 Ins. 




Chiltern Hills 


121 


52 N 


1 W 


Chauka, E. 


123 


25 N 


box: 


Chimborazo 


135 


IS 


79 W 


Chaumont ... 


103 


48 N 


5E 


Chimkent ... 


136 


42 N 


70 E 


Chaux de Fonds, La 


112 


47 N 


7 E 


China 


138 






Chaves 


95 


42 N 


7W 


China Sea 


139 


O 


lOOE 


Chebreiss ... 


85 


31 N 


31 E 


Chincha Is. 


135 


13 S 


76 W 


Chechen, E. 


137 


40 N 


126 E 


Chindwin, E. 


138 


20 N 


90 E 


Cheh-kiang 


138 


29 N 


120 E 


Chinhai 


138 


30 N 


122 E 


Chelles 


19 Ins. 




Chinhat 


123 


27 N 


81 E 


Chelm (Bosnia) 


3 


40 17 


15 E 


Chining Chow 


138 


37 N 


118 E 


Chelm (Poland) ... 


58 


51 N 


23 E 


Chin-Kiang 


138 


32 N 


120 E 


Chelmer, E. 


121 


52 N 





Chinko, E 


132 


6N 


24 E 


Chelmsford ... 


16 


52 N 





Chinnampo... 


137 


39 N 


125 E 


Cheltenham 


121 


52 N 


2W 


Chinon 


79 


47 N 





Chelyuskin, C. 


140 


60N 


90z: 


Chinsurah ... 


64 


23 N 


88 E 


Chemnitz ... 


33 


51 N 


13 E 


Chioggia 


4 


45 N 


12 E 


Chemulpo ... 


137 


37 N 


127 E 


Chios 


3 


35 N 


25 E 


Chenab, E.... 


99 


32 N 


72 E 


Chippenham 


121 


51 N 


2 W 


Cheng 


136 


41 N 


lllE 


Chippewa ... 


70 


43 N 


79 W 


Cheng-tu-fu 


138 


31 N 


104 E 


Chipping Wycombe 


114 


52 N 


1 W 



Index to Maps. 



161 



Map Lat. Lonjr. 

Chiquitos 106 16 S 60 W 

Ghiriguanos ... 106 16 S 65 W 

Chisholms .. ... 23 56 N 6W 

Chisone, E. ... 25 45 N 7E 

Chita 136 52 N 113 E 

Chitral 122 36 N 72 E 

Chittagong 64 22 N 92 E 

Chiuse 49 45 N HE 

Chivasso 25 45 N 8E 

Chiz6 19 46N 

Chlum 57 50 N 16 E 

Chobe 133 18 S 24 E 

Chocim (Choczim) 61 48 N 27 E 

Choco Indians ... 106 8 N 74 W 

Cboga, L 132 IN 33 E 

Choiseul 139 20 S 140 E 

Cholet 82 47 N IW 

Choshiu 137 34 N 131 E 

Chota Nagpur ... 123 23 N 85 E 

Chotusitz 57 SON 15 E 

Chouans 94 48 N 4 "W 

Christchurch (Eng.) 113 51 N 2 W 

Christchurch (N. Z.) 129 44 S 173 E 

Christiania 17 60 N HE 

Christiansand ... 17 55 N 6 E 

Christiansborg ... 65 Ins. 

Christmas I. (Ind. Oc.) 139 20 8 lOO E 

Christmas I. (Pacific) 139 2 N 162 W 

Chrudim 57 SON 16 E 

Chu, K 138 40N 70E 

Chubut 135 SOS 70 "W 

Chubut, R 135 50 8 70 "W 

Chuguchak 136 47 N 83 E 

Chuguieff 108 50 N 36 E 

Chulym, R. ... 138 50 N 80 E 

Chung King ... 138 29 N 106 E 

Chuquisaca 106 20 S 64 W 

Chur 15 47 N 10 E 

Church, States of the 104 40 N 12 E 

Churchill, Fort ... 126 59 N 94 W 

Churchill, K. ... 126 56 N 100 W 

Churubusco ... 71 19 N 99 W 

Churwalden ... 30 47 N 10 E 

Chusan 1 138 30 N 122 E 

Cialina, R 117 Ins. 

Cienfuego 75 22 N SOW 

Cilento 104 40 N 15 E 

Cili (Cilli) ... Ill 46 N 15 E 

Cincinnati 72 39 N 85 W 

Cintra 95 39 N 9W 

Circars 64 16 N 80 E 

Circassia 108 44 N 40 E 

Cirencester 16 52 N 2W 

Cisalpine Republic 86 

Cittadella 4 46 N 12 E 

Citta di Castello ... 4 43 N 12 E 

City Point 74 37 N 77 W 

Ciudad Real .. 95 39 N 4W 

Ciudad Rodrigo ... 95 41 N 6 W 

Civita Castellana ... 86 43 N 12 E 

Civita Vecchia ... 4 42 N 12 E 

Civitella 4 42 N 13 E 

Clackmannan ... 23 56 N 4W 

Clady Bay, and Is. 27 55 N 8 W 



Map 

Cladyford ... ... 47 

Clairac ... ... 19 

Clairvaux ... ... 103 

Clamecy ... ... 103 

Clancolman ... 27 

Glandehoye ... ... 27 

Clane 27 

Clanmaurice ... 27 

Clan Ranald ... 23 

Clan Ranald ... 23 

Clanricard ... ... 27 

Clanricard, Earl of 27 

Clare 38 

Clarence, R- (Australia) 128 

Clarence, R. (N. Z.) 129 

Clarke, R 126 

Claverhouse ... 23 

Clearwater, R. ... 72 

Cleeve Ab 16 

Clermont (Languedoc) 19 

Clermont (Oise) ... 8 
Clermont-en-Argonne 
Clermont Ferrand... 
Cleve (Germany) ... 

Cleve 



Clew Bay ... 
Clippcrton I. 
Clisson 
Clitheroe 
Clogher 
Clonakilty ... 
Cloncurry, R. 
Clones 

Clones Ab. ... 
Clonlish 
Clonmacnoise 
Clonmel 
Cloone 
Cloudy Bay 
Cloyne 
Clutha, R. ... 
Clyde, R. ... 
Clydesdale ... 
Cnossus 
Coa, R. 
Coahuila 
Coanza, R.... 
Coast Range 
Coblenz 
Coburg 
Cocconata . . . 
Cochabamba 
Cochin 

Cochin China 
Cockermouth 
Cod, Cape ... 
Coeverden . . . 
Gogan, Lord 
Coggeshall Ab. 
Cognac 
Coimbatore . . . 
Coirabra 
Colberg 
Colchester ... 



79 
8 

12 
62 
37 

139 
82 

113 
37 
47 

128 
37 
27 
37 
37 
37 
47 

129 
37 

129 
23 
23 

110 
95 

106 

130 

139 
12 
12 
25 

106 
64 

125 

113 
68 
45 
27 
16 
8 

122 

7 

62 

16 



Lat. 
55 N 
44 N 

48 N 
47 N 
53 N 

55 N 
53 N 

52 N 

56 N 

56 N 
52 nr 

52 li 

53 N 
30 S 

44 8 

4onr 

57 N 
46 N 

51 N 

44 N 

49 N 

49 N 

46 N 
50X7 

62 N 

54 N 
O 

47 N 
54 N 
54 N 

52 N 
20 S 
54 N 
54 N 

52 N 

53 N 
52 N 

54 N 
41 S 
52 N 
46 S 
56 N 
56 N 
35 N 

41 N 
20 N 

Ins. 
40 N 

50 N 
50 N 

45 N 
17 S 
ION 
ION 

55 N 

42 N 
52 N 
52 N 
52 N 

46 N 
UN 
40 N 
54 N 
52 N 



Long. 
8 W 


5E 
4E 
8W 

6 W 
7W 

low 

6W 

8 W 

lo vr 

lO TUT 

9 W 
153 E 

172 E 
120"^ 

3 W 
116 W 

3 W 
4E 
2E 
5E 
3E 

4 E 
6E 

low 
120 vr 

1 w 

2 W 

7 W 
9 W 

141 E 
7 W 

7 W 
9W 

8 W 
8W 
8 W 

174 E 

8 W 
170 E 

5W 
4 W 
25 E 

7 W 
100 W 

120 W 

8E 

11 E 

8E 

66 W 

76 E 
lOOE 

3 W 
70 W 

7E 

9 W 
IE 
W 

77 E 

8 W 
16 E 

IE 



C. M. H. VOL. XIV. 



11 



162 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Colchester Ab. 


16 


52 N 


IE 


Conflans (France) ... 


46 


42 N 


2E 


Col d'Argentiere ... 


4 


44 rsr 


6 E 


Conflans (Savoy) ... 


83 


46 N 


6E 


Col d'Assiette 


49 


45 N 


7 E 


Congo (Angola) 


130 


20S 


O 


Col de la Perche ... 


95 


42 N 


2E 


Congo, Belgian 


130 


20 S 


20 H 


Cold Harbour 


74 


38 N 


77 W 


Congo, French 


130 


20 S 


O 


Col di Tarvis 


83 


46 17 


12 £ 


Congo, Middle 


130 








Col di Tenda 


83 


44 N 


8E 


Congo, R 


130 


2N 


20 E 


Coldstream ... 


121 


56 N 


2 W 


Coni 


83 


44 N 


8E 


Coldstream Ab. 


23 


56 N 


2 W 


Conjeveram 


64 


13 N 


80 E 


Col du Perthus 


95 


42 N 


3E 


Conn, L 


27 


54 N 


lOE 


Colenso 


133 


29 S 


30 E 


Connaught 


27 






Coleraine ... 


37 


55 N 


7W 


Connecticut 


72 


40zar 


80"W 


Coleroon, R. 


64 


12 N 


80 E 


Connecticut, R. ... 


70 


44 N 


72 W 


Colesberg ... 


133 


31 S 


25 E 


Connells 


27 


22 N 


10"W 


Colima 


134 


19 N 


103 W 


Connewitz ... 


971 


ns. 




Colinton 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Connor 


47 


55 N 


6 W 


Coll 


23 


57 N 


7W 


Constance ... 


12 


48 N 


9E 


Colle 


4 


43 N 


11 E 


Constance, L. of ... 


15 


46 N 


8E 


CoUioure 


7 


43 N 


3E 


Constantine, Depart- 








Colmar 


12 


48 N 


7E 


ment of 


131 


30ir 


O 


Colmars 


79 


44 N 


7E 


Constantine 


131 


36 N 


7E 


Cologne 


12 


51 N 


7 E 


Constantine, C. 


115 Ins. 




Coloma 


72 


39 N 


121 W 


Constantinople 


3 


41 N 


29 E 


Colombey ... 


118 


49 N 


6E 


Constantsa ... 


119 


44 N 


29 E 


Colombia ... 


155 


O 


SOB 


Conti 


79 


50 N 


2E 


Colombo 


64 


7N 


80 E 


Contreras ... 


71 


19 N 


99 W 


Colon (Aspinwall) ... 


135 


9N 


80 W 


Conway 


16 


53 N 


4 W 


Colonia del Sacramento 106 


34 S 


58 W 


Conz... 


62 


SON 


7 E 


Colooney ... 


47 


54 N 


8 W 


Cook Is 


139 


20 S 


160 W 


Colorado 


72 


SON 


llO w 


Cook, Mt 


129 


44 S 


171 E 


Colorado, E. (Am. N.) 


66 


2017 


lOOW 


Cook's Strait 


129 


44 S 


172 E 


Colorado, R. (Am. S.) 


135 


40S 


70W 


Cooktown ... 


128 


16 S 


USE 


Colorno 


49 


45 N 


10 E 


Coolavin 


27 


54 N 


9W 


Golquhouns ... 


23 


56 N 


5 W 


Coolgardie 


128 


31 S 


121 E 


Coltbridge ... 


56 


56 N 


3 W 


Coomassie ... 


130 


6N 


2 W 


Columbia (S. C.) ... 


74 


34 N 


81 W 


Coonagh 


27 


52 N 


lO VT 


Columbia (Tenn.)... 


74 


36 N 


87 W 


Cooper R. ... 


70 


33 N 


80 W 


Columbia (Va.) 


74 


38 N 


78 W 


Cooper's R. 


128 


28 S 


140 E 


Columbia, British... 


126 


50IV 


iso-w 


Coorg 


99 


12 N 


76 E 


Columbia, Dist. of... 


72 


39 N 


78 W 


Copenhagen 


17 


56 N 


13 E 


Columbia, R. 


72 


46 N 


122 W 


Copman's I. 


27 


55 N 


6 W 


Columbus (Kent.)... 


74 


37 N 


89 W 


Coppermine R. 


126 


60 17 


120 "W 


Columbus (Ohio) ... 


74 


40 N 


83 W 


Coppet 


103 


46 N 


6E 


Comacchio ... 


4 


45 N 


12 E 


Coquet, R. ... 


121 


55 N 


2W 


Comanches ... 


106 


30 N 


100 W 


Coquimbo ... 


106 


30 S 


71 W 


Combe Ab. ... 


16 


52 N 


1 W 


Coral Sea ... 


128 


20 S 


140Z: 


Comfort Pt 


66 


36 N 


76 W 


Corbeil 


19 


49 N 


2E 


Commercy ... 


97 


49 N 


6E 


Corbie 


19 


SON 


3E 


Comminges... 


8 


40N 


O 


Corcomroe ... 


27 


52 N 


lO w 


Como 


4 


46 N 


9E 


Cordoba 


106 


31 S 


64 W 


Como, L. of 


104 


44 N 


8 E 


Cordova (Spain) ... 


95 


36 N 


8 E 


Comoe, R. ... 


130 


9N 


4 W 


Cordova (Spain) ... 


95 


38 N 


5W 


Comorin, G. 


64 


8N 


77 E 


Corentin, R. 


134 


4N 


58 W 


Comoro Is — 


130 


12 S 


43 E 


Corfe 


16 


51 N 


2W 


Compiegne 


79 


49 N 


3-E 


Corfe Castle 


36 


SIN 


2W 


Concepcion ... 


106 


37 S 


73 W 


Corfu 


3 


40 N 


20 E 


Concepcion, B. de la 


67 


48 N 


53 W 


Corinth (Morea) ... 


3 


38 N 


23 E 


Concord 


70 


43 N 


72 W 


Corinth (U.S.A.) ... 


74 


35 N 


89 W 


Concordia ... 


4 


45 N 


HE 


Corinth, G. of 


105 


36 N* 


20i: 


Condamine, R. 


128 


28 S 


148 E 


Corinto 


140 


13 N 


87 W 


Condore 


64 


14 N 


79 E 


Cork 


37 


52 N 


8W 


Conegliano 


4 


46 N 


12 E 


Corkvaskin ... 


27 


52 N 


lO'W 


Conflans, County of 


8 


49 N 


2E 


Cormentine.. 


65 Ins. 




Conflans (France) ... 


1181ns. 




Cornice Road 


83 


44 N 


8E 



Index to Maps, 



163 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Cornuda 


. 104 


46 N 


12 E 


Cricklade ... 


113 


52 N 


2 W 




Cornwall 


16 


50N 


6 W 


Crieff 


56 


56 N 


4 W 




Coro 


106 


UN 


70 W 


Crimea 


115 


44 N 


32 £ 




Corocoro 


106 


15 S 


74 W 


Croatia 


21 


45 N 


16 E 




Coromandel Coast.. 


. 64 


8N 


80i: 


Croatie civile 


94 


44 sr 


12 E 




Coron 


3 


37 N 


22 E 


Croatie militaire ... 


94 


44 nr 


12 E 




Coronel and Lota . . 


140 


38 S 


73 W 


Crocodile R. (Afr. S.) 


133 


25 S 


27 E 




Corpus Christ! 


71 


28 N 


97 W 


Crocodile R. (Afr. S.) 


133 


25 S 


31 E 




Corpus Christ! B. ... 


66 


20N 


lOCW 


Croe R 


56 


57 N 


5 W 




Correggio 


4 Ins, 


45 N 


11 E 


Groisie 


50 


48 N 


2W 




Correze 


103 


44 N 


o 


Croix aux Bois 


81 


49 N 


5E 




Corrib, L 


27 


52 N 


low 


Croix, I. de 


50 


48 N 


3 W 




Corrichie 


23 


57 N 


3 W 


Cromarty 


23 


58 17 


6 IXT 




Corrientes ... 


106 


27 S 


59 W 


Cromarty Firth ... 


23 


56 N 


6 \xr 




Corrientes, C. 


134 


21 N 


106 W 


Cropredy Bridge ... 


36 


52 N 


1 w 




Corrj'arrack 


56 


57 N 


4W 


Crosolo 


94 


44 T7 


8E 




Corsica 


4 


42 N- 


8E 


Crowland Ab. 


16 


53 N 







Corunna 


7 


43 N 


8W 


Crown Pt 


74 


44 N 


74 W 




Corupa 


106 


2N 


52 W 


Croxon 


24 


48 N 


6W 




Corvey 


107 


52 N 


9E 


Croydon 


121 


51 N 







Cosenza 


104 


39 N 


16 E 


Cuba 


69 


20I7 


80 "W 




Cossacks, Don 


. 61 


40N' 


40E 


Cubango, R. 


133 


17 S 


18 B 




Cosseria 


83 


44 N 


8E 


Cuddalore ... 


64 


12 N 


80 E 




Costa Rica ... 


69 


ION 


84 W 


Cuddapah 


64 


14 N 


79 E 




Coteau du Prairie 


126 


40N 


no w 


Cuenca 


7 


40 N 


2W 




Cote d'Or 


103 


44 N 


4 "W 


Cujavia 


58 


52 N 


16 E 




Cotentin 


79 


48 17 


4 W 


Culiacan 


134 


25 N 


108 W 




Cotes du Nord 


103 


48 M 


4 IV 


Cullen 


56 


58 N 


3 W 




Cotopaxi 


135 


IS 


79 W 


Culloden 


56 


58 N 


4 W 




Cotrone 


104 


39 N 


17 E 


Culm 


58 


53 N 


18 E 




Cotswold Hills .. 


36 


52 N 


2 W 


Culmbach 


55 


50 N 


12 B 




Cottbus 


12 


52 N 


14 E 


Culmerland, W. ... 


58 


52 17 


16 E 




Coucy 


19 


49 N 


3E 


Culmland 


55 


5or7 


16 E 




Coulmiers ... 


118 


48 N 


2E 


Culmore 


37 


55 N 


7W 




Courcelles ... 


118 


49 N 


6E 


Cumana 


66 


ION 


64 W 




Courland 


58 


56 N 


24 E 


Cumberland (Am. N.) 


68 


40 N 


79 W 




Courtra! (Courtray) 


22 


51 N 


3E 


Cumberland (Eng.) 


16 


54 17 


4 W 




Cousin, R. ' 


118 


48 N 


4E 


Cumberland Gap ... 


74 


35 17 


85 "W 




Coutances ... 


8 


49 N 


1 W 


Cumberland, R. ... 


72 


36 N 


86 W 




Coutras 


19 


45 N 





Cumbernauld 


23 


56 N 


4 W 




Coventry 


16 


52 N 


1 W 


Cunene 


133 


17 S 


14 E 




Coveripak 


64 


13 N 


80 E 


Cuneo 


25 


44 N 


8E 




Cowan, L. ... 


128 


32 S 


122 E 


Cunningham 


23 


56 N 


5 W 




Cowes 


16 


51 N 


1 W 


Cupar Ab. 


23 


56 N 


3W 




Cowpens 


70 


35 N 


82 W 


CuraQoa 


69 


12 N 


69 W 




Crab I 


75 


loir 


70 W 


Curlew Mts 


37 


54 N 


8W 




Cracow 


61 


50 N 


20 E 


Curtatone 


104 


45 N 


11 B 




Craigmillar 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Curzola 


4 


43 N 


17 E 




Crail 


56 


56 N 


3 W 


Cushendun 


37 


55 N 


() W 




Crajova 


60 


44 N 


24 E 


Custozza 


104 


45 N 


HE 




Cranganor ... 


43 Ins. 




Ciistrin 


12 


53 N 


15 E 




Craonne 


97 


49 N 


4E 


Cuxhaven ... 


107 


54 N 


9E 




Crato 


7 


39 N 


8W 


Cuyaba 


106 


16 S 


56 W 




Crawford 


23 


55 N 


4W 


Cuyo 


106 


32 S 


68 W 




Crediton 


16 


51 N 


4W 


Cuyuni, R. 


69 


8N 


60 W 




Creek Indians 


70 


SON 


sovr 


Cuzco 


106 


14 S 


72 W 




Crefeld 


107 


51 N 


7 E 


Cyclades (Aegean S. ) 


105 


36 N 


24 E 




Crema 


4 


45 N 


10 E 


Cyclades (Pacific 0.) 


140 


20 S 


150E 




Cremona 


4 


45 N 


10 E 


Cyprus 


3 


35 -n 


30E 




Crepy 


. 11 


49 N 


3E 


Czarnovo ... 


92 


53 N 


21 E 




Crete 


. 105 


32 N 


24 E 


Czaslau 


12 


50 N 


15 E 




Creuse 


103 


44 17 


O 


Czenstochowa 


32 


51 N 


19 E 




Creusot 


. 103 


47 N 


4E 


Czernovitz ... 


108 


48 N 


26 E 




Crevecoeur 


. 39 


62 N 


5E 


Czersk 


58 

( 


52-^^ : 


-21^: , 

ST. ^r-c^; 

Col : 





/ // 



t J 



164 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Dabo 


124 


25 N 


69 E 


Dartmouth 


36 


50 N 


4W 


Dacca 


64 


24 N 


90 E 


Dasht-i-Lut 


124 


30 N 


55 E 


Dadar 


124 


29 N 


68 E 


Dasht-i-Margo 


124 


30 N 


60 E 


Daghestan 


61 


40N 


40 E 


Daubi, R. ... 


137 


44 N 


132 E 


Dago 


61 


59 N 


23 E 


Dauphin I 


67 


BON 


88 W 


Dahme 


81 


49 N 


8E 


Dauphine ... 


8 


44 nr 


4 E 


Dahna 


124 


24 N 


52 E 


Daventry ... 


36 


52 N 


1 w 


Dahomey ... 


130 


ION 


2E 


Davis Str 


126 


60N 


60 vr 


Daiguiri 


75 


20 N 


76 W 


Davos 


30 


47 N 


10 E 


Dairen 


137 


39 N 


121 E 


Dawson 


126 


64 N 


140 W 


Dakkar (Dakar) ,. 


130 


15 N 


17 W 


Dawson, R. 


128 


24 S 


150 E 


Dakota, N. 


72 


48 N 


100 W 


Dayton 


72 


40 N 


84 W 


Dakota, S 


72 


45 N 


100 w 


De Aar 


133 


31 S 


24 E 


Dakota, R 


126 


44 N 


98 W 


Deal 


16 


51 N 


1 E 


Dalecarlia 


17 


60 17 


15 E 


Deanston ... 


121 


56 N 


4W 


Dalkeith 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Debateable Land ... 


23 


55 N 


3 W 


Dalkey 


27 


53 N 


6W 


Debbeh 


132 


18 N 


31 E 


Dalm 


. 103 


49 N 


8E 


Debreczen ... 


21 


47 N 


22 E 


Dalmatia 


3 


40N 


15 E 


Decapolis 


110 


30 N 


35 E 


Dalmatie 


94 


44 N 


16 E 


Deccan 


99 






Dalny {see Dairen) 








Dee, R. (Scotland)... 


23 


56 N 


4 V7 


Dalton 


74 


35 N 


85 W 


Dee, R. (Wales) ... 


121 


53 N 


3 W 


Daltons 


27 


52 N 


8 V7 


Deer Ab 


23 


58 N 


2 W 


Daly, R 


. 128 


14 S 


131 E 


Deer, L 


139 


40N 


i20vr 


Damanhur ... 


. 85 


31 N 


30 E 


Deggendorf 


57 


49 N 


13 E 


Damaon (see Damau 


n) 






Dego 


83 


45 N 


8E 


Damaraland 


133 


22 S 


17 E 


De Grey, R. 


128 


21 S 


120 E 


Damascus 


110 


33 N 


36 E 


Deim Zubeir 


132 


8N 


26 E 


Damaun 


. 64 


21 N 


73 E 


Deinze 


6 


51 N 


4E 


Damietta 


110 


31 N 


32 E 


Delagoa Bay 


133 


26 S 


33 E 


Damm 


59 


53 N 


15 E 


Delaware ... 


72 


30N 


80"«r 


Damodar, R. 


123 


20 N 


85 E 


Delaware, R. 


72 


39 N 


75 W 


Dampier Archip. .. 


128 


21 S 


117 E 


Del Chaco 


135 


30 S 


70 1^" 


Dampier Land 


128 


17 S 


123 E 


Delf shaven 


22 


52 N 


4E 


Damvillers ... 


11 


49 N 


5E 


Delft 


22 


52 N 


4E 


Dan, R 


70 


37 N 


80 W 


Delgado, C. 


130 


10 S 


40 E 


Danewerk ... 


116 


54 N 


9E 


Delhi 


64 


29 N 


77 E 


Dangan 


27 


53 N 


7W 


Deligrad 


119 


44 N 


22 E 


Dangan Hill 


37 


53 N 


7W 


Delitsch 


107 


52 N 


12 E 


Danilograd ... 


119 


43 N 


19 E 


Delmenhorst 


12 


53 N 


9E 


Dannenberg 


. 12 


53 N 


HE 


Demavend Mt 


124 


36 N 


52 E 


Dansai 


125 


17 N 


101 E 


Dembe Wielkie 


108 Ins. 




Danube, R.... 


111 






Demer, R. ... 


45 


51 N 


5E 


Danube, Cir. of Up. 


111 


44 N 


16 E 


Demerara ... 


91 


8N 


58 W 


Danube, Cir. of Lr. 


111 


44 N 


16 E 


Demerara, E. 


69 


8N 


58 W 


Danube, Mouths oft 


be 105 


44 N 


28 E 


Demidoff 


108 


58 N 


60 E 


Danubyu 


125 


17 N 


96 E 


Demmin 


33 


54 N 


13 E 


Danville 


74 


37 N 


79 W 


Demonte 


25 


44 N 


7 E 


Danzig (Dantzig) .. 


62 


54 N 


19 E 


Denaiu 


45 


50 N 


3 E 


Dara (Egypt) 


132 


12 N 


25 E 


Denbigh 


121 


53 N 


3W 


Dara (Morea) 


3 


38 N 


22 E 


Dender, R 


109 


51 N 


4E 


Dardanelles 


. 61 


40 N 


26 E 


Dendermonde 


22 


51 N 


4E 


Dar-es-Salaam 


. 130 


7S 


39 E 


Dendre 


81 


51 N 


4E 


Dar-fur 


132 


lour 


20E 


Denia 


7 


39 N 





Dargai 


. 124 Ins. 




Denison, Port 


140 


20 S 


149 E 


Darien, G. of 


. 66 


8N 


77 W 


Denkera 


65 Ins. 




Darjeeling 


. 138 


27 N 


88 E 


Denmark ... 


1 






Darling Downs 


. 128 


28 S 


151 E 


Denmark Str. 


126 


60N 


30 W 


Darling, R 


. 128 


40 S 


140 E 


Dennewitz ... 


97 


52 N 


13 E 


Darlington ... 


. 121 


55 N 


2 W 


Denshawi ... 


132 


31 N 


31 E 


Darmstadt ... 


. 12 


50 N 


9E 


D'Entrecasteaux Is. 


128 


lOS 


150E 


Dart, R 


. 121 


50 N 


4W 


Denver 


72 


40 N 


105 W 


Dartford 


. 36 


51 N 





Deogaon 


99 


21 N 


76 E 


Daitmoor 


. 121 


51 N 


4W 


Deptford 


36 


51 N 






Index to Maps, 



165 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Derajat 


99 


32 N 


72 E 


Dinghu 


138 


40 N 


106 E 


Derbent 


61 


42 N 


48 E 


Dingle 


47 


52 N 


low 


Derby 


16 


53 N 


1 W 


Dingle Bay 


37 


52 N 


low 


Derg, L. (Ireland)... 


27 


52 N 


low 


Dingolfing 


57 


49 N 


13 E 


Derg, L. (Ireland)... 


27 


55 N 


8W 


Dinkelbsbiihl 


62 


49 N 


10 E 


Derinbach 


117 


51 N 


10 E 


Dinwiddle Ct. Ho. 


74 


37 N 


77 W 


Derrinlaur ... 


37 


52 N 


8W 


Dir 


124 


35 N 


72 E 


Derver 


27 


54 N 


6W 


Dirk Hartog I, 


128 


26 S 


113 E 


Derwent, K. (Austral.) 


128 


43 S 


146 E 


Disentis 


30 


47 N 


9E 


Derwent, R. (Eng.) 


121 


55 N 


3 W 


Disna 


96 


56 N 


28 E 


Derwent, R. (Eng.) 


121 


53 N 


1 W 


Ditmarschen 


12 


54 N 


9E 


Derwent, R. (Eng.) 


121 


54 N 


1 W 


Diu I 


64 


23 N 


71 E 


Deseado, R. 


135 


50 3 


70 W 


Dive, R 


19 


47 N 





Desima I. ... 


137 


33 N 


130 E 


Divi 


64 


16 N 


81 E 


Desirade I. ... 


69 


16 N 


61 W 


Dividing Range, Gt 


128 


26 S 


150 E 


Desire, R 


139 


40 S 


92 W 


Dixcove 


65 Ins. 




Des Moines 


72 


42 N 


9iW 


Dixmuyden 


39 


51 N 


3E 


Des Moines, R. 


70 


42 N 


94 W 


Djask, C 


124 


26 N 


5SE 


Desmond 


27 


52 N- 


10"W 


Djokjokarta 


139 


7S 


HOE 


Desmond, Earls of ... 


27 


52 N 


low 


Djunis 


119 


44 N 


22 E 


Desna, R 


58 


52 N 


32 E 


Djurdjura, R. 


131 


37 N 


SE 


Despefia Perros ... 


95 


38 N 


3W 


Dnieper, R. 


61 


40]Nr 


30z: 


Dessau 


12 


52 N 


12 E 


Dniester, R. 


108 


48 N 


29 E 


Detmold 


95 


52 N 


9E 


Doab 


99 


24 17 


72 B 


Detroit 


72 


42 N 


83 W 


Dobre 


108 Ins. 




Detroit, R 


70 


42 N 


83 W 


Dobrudja ... 


105 


44 IT 


28 E 


Dettingen 


57 


SON 


9E 


Dobrzyn 


58 


S3N 


19 E 


Deux Nethes 


94 


51 N 


4E 


Doce, R. 


106 


20 S 


40 W 


Deux Sevres 


103 


44 m 


4'W 


Doel 


62 


SIN 


4E 


Deventer 


22 


52 N 


6E 


Dogger Bank, The 


50 


50N 


O 


Devernaki, Defile of 


105 


38 N 


23 E 


Dohna 


97 


51 N 


14 E 


Deveron, R. 


23 


56 N 


4W 


Doire 


94 


44 IT 


4 E 


Devicota 


64 


UN 


80 E 


Dol 


83 


49 N 


2W 


Devizes 


16 


51 N 


2W 


Dole 


79 


47 N 


SE 


Devon 


16 






Dolgelly 


16 


53 N 


4W 


Devonport ... 


114 


50 N 


4W 


Dolitz 


97 Ins. 




Dhamra 


123 


21 N 


87 E 


Dolores 


106 


22 N 


101 W 


Dharmsala 


122 


32 N 


76 E 


Dombes 


8 


46 N 


5E 


Dhoipur 


124 


27 N 


78 E 


Domfront 


19 


49 N 


1 W 


Diamantina, R. 


128 


25 S 


140 E 


Dominica ... 


69 


15 N 


61 W 


Diamond, C. 


67 Ins. 




Domitz 


33 


53 N 


11 E 


Diamond Hill 


133 


26 S 


29 E 


Domleschg, R. 


30 


47 N 


9E 


Diamond Rock 


69 


14 N 


61 W 


Dommel, R. 


39 


SIN 


5E 


Dibra 


120 


41 N 


21 E 


Domo d'Ossola 


4 


46 N 


8E 


Die 


8 


45 N 


SE 


Domokos ... 


119 


39 N 


22 E 


Diedenhofen 


11 


49 N 


6E 


Domstadtl 


57 


SON 


17 E 


Diego Suarez 


140 


12 S 


50 E 


Don, R. (England) 


121 


54 N 


IW 


Diekirch 


109 


SON 


6E 


Don, R. (Russia) ... 


61 


40IT 


40z: 


Diepholz 


12 


53 N 


8E 


Don, R. (Scotland) 


23 


56 N 


4 W 


Dieppe 


8 


SON 


IE 


Donaueschingen . . . 


88 


48 N 


8E 


Dieren 


22 


52 N 


6z: 


Donauried 


13 


48 N 


8 E 


Diese, R 


39 


52 N 


SE 


Donauworth 


12 


49 N 


11 E 


Diest 


22 


SIN 


5E 


Doncaster ... 


16 


54 N 


1 W 


Dietz 


107 


SON 


8E 


Donchery ... 


118 


SON 


5 W 


Dig 


99 


27 N 


77 E 


Doncourt ... 


118 Ins. 




Digne 


103 


44 N 


6E 


Donegal 


37 


55 N 


8W 


Dijon 


8 


47 N 


5E 


Donegal Ab. 


37 


55 N 


8W 


Dillenburg 


12 


51 N 


8E 


Donegal Bay 


37 


55 IT 


low 


Dillingen 


12 


49 N 


10 E 


Doneraile ... 


47 


52 N 


9 W 


Dillons 


27 


52 N 


8W 


Donetz, R 


61 


49 N 


38 E 


Dinan 


19 


48 N 


2W 


Dongola, New 


132 


19 N 


30 E 


Dinant 


6 


SON 


5E 


Dongola, Old 


132 


18 N 


31 E 


Dinapur 


123 


26 N 


85 E 


Donjon 


103 


46 N 


4E 


Dindings 


125 


5N 


100 E 


Donnington Castle... 


36 


SIN 


IW 



166 



Index to Maps, 



Doon, E 

Doom Kop ... 

Dora Baltea, K. ... 

Dorchester (Am. N.) 

Dorchester (England) 

Dorchester Heights 

Dorchester Neck ... 

Dordogne ... 

Dordogne, E. 

Dordrecht ... 

Dormans 

Dornburg ... 

Dornoch 

Dorpat 

Dorset 

Dorsten 

Dort 

Dortmund ... 
Dospad Dagh 
Douay (Douai) 

Doubs, E 

Douglas (I. of Man) 

Douglas (Scotland) 

Doules 

Doullens 

Dourdan 

Douro, E 

Dove, E 

Dover 

Dover (Cocheco) ... 

Dover, Str. of 

Dovey, E. ... 

Down 

Downpatrick 

Downs, The 

Downton 

Draa, E. 

Dragashan 

Draguignan 

Draheim 

Drakenberg 

Drakenberg Mts ... 

Drama 

Drance, E. 

Drave, E. ... 

Drenthe 

Dresden 

Dreux 

Drin, E 

Drina, E. ... 

Drissa 

Drogheda ... 

Droitwich ... 

Drome 

Dromore 

Drottningholm 

Drucz, E. ... 

Druia 

Drumclog ... 

Drumcru 

Drummonds 

Druse, Mt ... 

Dry burgh ... 

Diiben 



Map 
121 
133 
104 
68 
16 



Lat. 
55 N 
26 S 
46 N 
42 N 
51 N 



70 Ins. 
70 Ins. 



103 

8 

22 

19 

92 

23 

61 

16 

39 

6 

12 

119 

22 

79 

121 

23 

103 

103 

19 

7 

121 

16 

68 

121 

121 

47 

47 

16 

113 

131 

105 

103 

59 

12 

133 

105 

25 

21 

22 

12 

19 

119 

21 

96 

37 

113 

103 

47 

108 

54 

96 

37 

37 

23 

110 

23 

33 



44 IS 
44 N 

52 N 

49 N 

51 N 

58 N 

58 N 

52 N 
52 N 

52 N 

42 N 

50 N 
47 N 
54 N 
56 N 
44 N 

50 N 
49 N 

40N' 

53 N 

51 N 

43 N 
51 N 

53 N 

54 sr 

54 N 
50Nr 

51 N 
28 N 
45 N 

44 N 
54 N 

53 N 

41 N 
46N' 
44 N 

52 N 

51 N 
49 N 

42 N 
44 N 
56 N 

54 N 

52 N 
44 N 

54 N 

59 N 

54 N 
56 N 
56 N 

55 N 

56 N 
33 N 
56 N 
52 N 



Long. 

4W 
28 E 

7E 
71 W 

2W 



o 
o 

5E 

4E 

12 E 

4 W 
27 E 

7E 

5 E 
7E 

24 E 
3E 
6 
4 
4 
4 
2 
2 



E 
W 
W 
E 
E 
E 
ICW 
2 W 

1 E 
71 W 

IE 
4W 
6 vr 
6W 
o 

2 W 
9 W 

24 E 
6E 

16 E 
9E 

24 E 
61! 

IGE 
6E 

14 E 
IE 
20 E 
19 E 
28 E 
6 W 

2 W 
4 S 

6 W 
18 E 
30 E 
27 E 

4 W 

7 W 
4 W 

37 E 

3 W 
13 E 



Dubienka ... 

Dubino 

Dubitza 

Dublin 

Ducie I. 

Duddingston 

Duderstadt . . . 

Dudley 

Dudosa I. ... 

Duem 

Duffel 

Dufferin 

Duich, L. ... 

Duifken Point 

Duisburg ... 

Dulcigno 

Duleek 

Duluth 

Dumbarton 

Dumbovitsa, E. 

Dum Dum ... 

Dumet I. 

Dumfries . . . 

Dun 

Diina, E. ... 

Diinaburg . . . 

Dunamon ... 

Dunamiinde 

Dunbar 

Dunblane ... 

Dunblane Ab. 

Dunboy Castle 

Duncannon 

Dundalk 

Dundalk Bay 

Dundee (Africa, S.) 

Dundee (Scotland) 

Dundrennan Ab. 

Dunedin 

Dunfermline Ab. 

Dungannon 

Dungarvan . . . 

Dunge Ness 

Dunkeld 

Dunkeld Ab. 

Dunkirk 

Dunleer 

Dunluce 

Dunnottar Castle 

Dunrobin . . . 

Duns 

Dunse Law 

Dunseverick 

Dunstable ... 

Dunstaffnage 

Dunwich 

Diippel 

Durance, E. 

Durango 

Durazzo 

Durban 

Diiren 

Durham 

Durlach 



Map 
58 
30 

105 
37 

139 
56 
29 

114 

139 

132 
22 
27 
56 
43 
22 

105 
47 
72 
23 

119 

123 
50 
23 
45 
58 
58 
38 
61 
23 
56 
23 
37 
37 
37 
27 

133 
23 
23 

129 
23 
37 
47 
50 
56 
23 
22 
47 
27 
23 
56 
23 
36 
27 
16 
56 
16 

116 
8 

95 
3 

133 
22 
16 
12 



Lat. 
51 N 

46 N 

45 N 
53 N 

40S 

56 N 
51 N 

53 N 
20 8 

14 N 
51 N 

54i^r 

57 N 
10 S 

51 N 

42 N 

54 N 

47 N 
56 N 

44 N 
23 N 
47 N 

55 N 
49 N 

56 N 

56 N 
54 N 

57 N 
56 N 
56 N 
56 N 

52 N 
52 N 
54 N 

54 N 
28 S 

56 N 

55 N 

46 S 

56 N 
55 N 
52 N 
51 N 

57 N 

57 N 

51 N 

54 N 

55 N 

57 N 

58 N 

56 N 
66 N 

55 N 

52 N 

56 N 
52 N 
55 N 

44 nr 

43 N 
41 N 
30 S 
51 N 
55 N 
49 N 



Long. 
24 E 

9E 
17 E 

6 W 
140W 

3 W 
10 S 

2 W 

32 E 
4E 
6V7 
6 W 
141 B 
7E 

19 E 
6 W 

92 W 

5 W 
24 E 
88 E 

3 W 
4W 
5E 

24 E 

27 E 
8W 

24 E 
3 W 
4W 
4W 

10 w 
7W 
6W 

6 W 

30 E 

3 W 

4 W 
171 B 

3 W 

7 W 
8W 
IE 
4W 
4W 
2E 
6W 
7 W 
2 W 

4 W 
2 W 

2 W 
6 W 

1 W 
5W 
2E 

10 E 
4E 

3 W 
19 E 

31 E 
6E 

2 W 
8E 



Index to Maps, 



167 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Dursey I. ... 


37 


52 N 


low 


Einsiedeln ... 


15 


47 N 


9E 


Diisseldorf 


62 


51 N 


7B 


Eisch, R 


88 


46 N 


HE 


Dussindale ... 


16 


53 N 


IE 


Eisenach 


12 


51 N 


10 E 


Dutoitspan 


133 


29 S 


25 E 


Eisleben 


12 


52 N 


12 E 


Dvina, E. ... 


. 52 


eoKT 


40z: 


Ekatareenograd 


108 


44 N 


44 E 


Dyea 


126 


69 N 


135 W 


Ekaterinodar 


108 


45 N 


39 E 


Dyle 


94 


48 17 


4 E 


Ekaterinoslav (Ekat- 








Dyle, R 


45 


51 N 


5E 


erinoslaff) 


61 


48 N 


35 E 


Dzikowa 


58 


54 N 


19 E 


Elands R 


133 


25 S 


29 E 


Dzungarei 


138 


40N 


80E 


Eiandslaagte 


133 


28 S 


30 E 










EI Arish (Egypt) ... 


110 


31 N 


34 E 


Earlham 


121 


53 N 


IE 


El Arish (Morocco) 


131 


35 N 


6W 


Earn, R 


23 


56 N 


^vr 


El Aruat 


130 


34 N 


3W 


East Africa Protec. 


130 





40 E 


Elba I 


4 


42 N 


lOE 


East Brenny 


27 


54 N 


8W 


Elbe, R 


29 


52 IS 


8E 


East C. (N. Z.) ... 


129 


38 S 


178 E 


Elberfeld 


107 


51 N 


7E 


East, C. (Sib.) ... 


139 


66 N 


170 W 


Elbing 


55 


54 N 


19 E 


East Hampstead ... 


16 


51 N 


1 W 


El Bodon 


95 


40 N 


7W 


East London 


133 


33 S 


28 E 


Elbs 


12 


50D3' 


12 E 


East March 


23 


56 N 


2 W 


Elburz 


124 


35 M- 


50E 


Easton 


72 


41 N 


75 W 


El Caney Hts 


75 


20 N 


76 W 


Eastport 


70 


45 N 


67 W 


El Erg 


131 






East R 


70 


41 N 


74 W 


Eleuthera I. 


69 


25 N 


76 W 


Eauze 


19 


44 N 





Elf 


141 


60I7 


20E 


Ebala, R 


132 


3N 


21 E 


Elfsborg 


17 


58 N 


12 E 


Ebernberg ... 


12 


50 N 


8E 


Elfsnabben ... 


53 


59 N 


18 E 


Ebersberg ... 


88 


48 N 


12 E 


Elgin 


23 


58 N 


3 W 


Ebersdorf 


93 Ins. 




Elgin and Forres ... 


23 


56 17 


4U5r 


Ebro, R 


7 


40I7 


2 "W 


El Goleah 


131 


31 N 


3E 


Eccles Ab. ... 


23 


56 N 


2W 


Elgon, Mt 


132 


IN 


34 E 


Eehallens 


25 


47 N 


7E 


El Gran Ciiaco ... 


135 


30 8 


70"W 


Echemin, R. 


67 Ins. 




El Haza 


124 


26 N 


50 E 


Echigo 


137 


36 N 


136 1! 


Elie 


56 


56 N 


3 W 


Ecbuca 


128 


36 S 


145 E 


EHzabeth, R. 


74 


36 N 


77 W 


Eckeren 


45 


51 N 


4E 


Elk, R 


70 


40 N 


76 W 


Eckernforde 


116 


54 N 


10 E 


El Kef 


131 


36 N 


10 E 


Eckmiihl 


94 


49 N 


12 E 


El Kobeh, W. 


132 


12 N 


26 E 


Ecuador 


135 


10 8 


80 W 


Ellandonan 


56 


57 N 


5 W 


Edam 


22 


53 N 


5E 


Ellesmere Land ... 


126 


78 N 


80 W 


Eden, R 


121 


54 N 


4W 


Ellice Is 


139 


20S 


160 E 


Edenkoben ... 


81 


49 N 


8E 


Ellwangen 


12 


46 17 


8E 


Edge Hill 


36 


52 N 


1 W 


Elmina 


130 


5N 


2W 


Edinburgh 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


El Obeid 


132 


13 N 


30 E 


Edmonton 


126 


53 N 


114 W 


El Paso 


71 


32 N 


106 W 


Edolo 


30 


46 N 


10 E 


Elsass 


29 


48 17 


4 E 


Edward Nyanza ... 


130 





30 E 


Elsfleth 


93 


53 N 


8E 


Eferding 


13 


48 N 


14 E 


Elsinore 


17 


56 N 


13 E 


Eger (Erlau) 


21 


48 N 


20 E 


Elster, R 


97 


51 N 


12 E 


Eger 


33 


50 N 


12 E 


El Teb 


132 


19 N 


38 E 


Eger, R 


33 


48 N 


12 B 


Elvas 


7 


39 N 


7 W 


Eglinton 


23 


56 N 


5 W 


Ely (England) 


16 


52 N 





Egmont 


22 


53 N 


5E 


Ely (Ireland) 


27 


53 N 


8B 


Egmont, C. 


129 


39 S 


174 E 


Embabeh ... 


85 


30 N 


31 E 


Egmont, Mt 


129 


39 S 


174 E 


Embrun 


79 


45 N 


7E 


Egmont, Port 


106 


51 S 


60 W 


Emden 


12 


53 N 


7E 


Egypt, Lower, Middle 








Emilia 


4 


44 17 


lOE 


and Upper 


132 






Emly 


27 


52 N 


8 W 


Ehingen 


62 


48 N 


10 E 


Emme, R. 


90 


47 N 


8E 


Ehrenberg 


14 


47 N 


HE 


Empire, The 


1 






Ehrenbreitstein 


33 


50 N 


8E 


Empoli 


104 


44 N 


HE 


Eichsfeld 


12 


SON 


8E 


Ems 


107 


50 N 


8E 


Eichstedt 


12 


49 N 


HE 


Ems, Occidental ... 


94 


53 N 


7 E 


Eider, R 


107 


54 N 


9E ' 


Ems, Oriental 


94 


53 N 


7B 


Einbeck 


12 


52 N 


10 E ! 


Ems Superieur 


94 


52 N 


8E 



168 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


liong. 


Ems, E 


22 


53 N 


7E 


Esmau 


125 


23 N 


101 E 


Enckhuysen 


22 


53 N 


5 E 


Esneh 


132 


25 N 


33 E 


Encounter Bay 


128 


36 S 


189 E 


Espinosa 


95 


43 N 


4W 


Endeavour Str. 


128 


lis 


142 E 


Espirito Santo 


135 


20 S 


40 W 


Endermo 


140 


42 N 


142 E 


Esquimau ... 


139 


47 N 


156 W 


Engadine ... 


15 






Essek 


3 


46 N 


19 E 


Engen 


88 


48 N 


9E 


Essen 


31 


51 N 


7E 


Enghien 


98 


51 N 


4E 


Essequibo, E. 


106 


5N 


58 W 


English Channel ... 


42 






Essex 


16 






Enkhuizen [see Enck- 








Essling 


93 Ins. 




huysen) 








Esslingen 


12 


49 N 


9E 


Ennis 


37 


53 N 


9 W 


Essonnes 


19 


49 N 


2E 


Enniscorthy 


37 


52 N 


7 W 


Estampes 


8 


48 N 


2B 


Euniskillin ... 


37 


54 N 


8W 


Estcourt 


133 


29 S 


30 E 


Enns, E 


57 


48 N 


14 E 


Esthonia 


61 


50EI 


20i: 


Ensalah 


130 


27 N 


2E 


Estrelha, Sa de ... 


7 


40 N 


8W 


Ensisheira ... 


12 


48 N 


7E 


Estremadura 


7 


38 37 


8 vr 


Entebbe 


140 





33 E 


Eszek 


111 


4GN 


19 E 


Entlebuch 


112 


47 N 


8E 


Esztej-gom 


111 


48 N 


18 E 


Entre Minho e Douro 


7 


40^ 


lO W 


Etaples 


19 


51 N 


2E 


Entre Eios 


106 


32 S 


60 W 


Etawah 


123 


27 N 


79 E 


Entschede ... 


22 


52 N 


7E 


Etna, Mt 


4 


38 N 


15 E 


Euz, E 


118 


49 N 


9E 


Etoger 


97 


49 N 


4E 


Enzersdorf 


93 Ins. 




Eton 


121 


51 N 


1 W 


Enzheim 


45 


48 N 


7E 


Etropol 


121 


43 N 


24 E 


Eperies (Eperjes) ... 


111 


49 N 


21 E 


Etruria, Kingdom of 


92 


43 N 


HE 


Epernay 


19 


49 N 


4E 


Ettenheim 


39 


48 N 


8E 


Epidaurus ... 


105 


38 N 


23 E 


Eu 


8 


48 N 


O 


Epinal 


103 


48 N 


6E 


Euboe 


105 


39 N 


24 E 


Epirus 


105 


36 N 


20 E 


Eucia 


128 


32 S 


129 E 


Epworth 


121 


54 N 


1 W 


Eupatoria or Kosloff 


61 


45 N 


33 E 


Eraghtichan 


27 


54 TS 


B-W 


Euphrates, E. 


3 


35 17 


40x: 


Eregli (Karaman) ... 


3 


38 N 


34 E 


Eure 


103 


48 N 


o 


Eregli (Turkey) ... 


120 


41 N 


28 E 


Eure et Loir 


103 


48 rr 


o 


Eretrea 


130 


15 N 


40 E 


Eureka 


128 


38 S 


144 E 


Erfurt 


12 


51 N 


11 E 


Eutaw Springs 


70 


34 N 


80 W 


Ergeue, E 


119 


40ir 


24 E 


Eutritsch 


97 Ins. 




Erie Canal ... 


72 


43 N 


76 W 


Everest, Mt 


138 


28 N 


86 E 


Erie, L 


72 


40I7 


90 -W 


Evesham 


36 


52 N 


2 W 


Erinpura 


123 


25 N 


73 E 


Evesham Ab. 


16 


52 N 


2 W 


Eriska 


56 


57 N 


7 W 


Evora 


7 


39 N 


8W 


Eritrea {see Eretrea) 








Evora, Monte 


95 


39 N 


8 W 


Erivan 


108 


40 N 


45 S 


^vreux 


79 


49 N 


IE 


Erlangen 


107 


50 N 


HE 


Exe, E 


121 


51 N 


4 W 


Erlau {see Eger) 








Exeter (America, N.) 


68 


43 N 


71 W 


Ermeland ... 


55 


54 nr 


20E 


Exeter (England) ... 


16 


51 N 


4 W 


Erne, L 


37 


54 N 


8 E 


Exilles 


25 


45 N 


7E 


Ernestine Saxony... 


12 






Exmoor 


121 


51 N 


4W 


Er Eebia, W. 


131 


33 N 


9 W 


Exmouth Gulf 


128 


22 S 


114 E 


Errestfer 


54 


58 N 


27 E 


Eye 


113 


52 N 


IE 


Errol 


32 


45 N 


3W 


Eylau 


94 


54 N 


21 E 


]tlrsekujvar 


48 


48 N 


18 E 


Eyne 


45 


51 N 


4E 


Erzerum 


3 


40 N 


41 E 


Eyre, L 


128 


28 S 


137 E 


Erz Gebirge 


117 Ins. 




Eyre's Peninsula ... 


128 


33 S 


136 E 


Esbjerg 


107 


55 N 


8E 










Escaut 


94 


51 N 


4E 


Faenza 


4 


44 N 


12 E 


Escaut, Bouches de 1' 


94 


51 N 


4E 


Fahlun 


53 


61 N 


16 E 


Escorial 


95 


41 N 


4 W 


Faie-la-Viuense 


19 


47 N 





Esher 


16 


51 N 





Fair Foreland 


27 


55 N 


6 W 


Esk, E., N.and S.... 


23 


56 £7 


4 vir 


Fair I 


24 


50N 


lO w 


Esk, E. 


23 


55 N 


3W 


Fair Oaks 


74 


38 N 


77 W 


Eskdale 


23 


55 N 


3 W 


Falkland 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Eskilstuna ... 


53 


59 N 


16 E 


Falkland Is. 


106 


52 S 


58 W 


Esla, E 


95 


42 N 


5 W 


Falkoping 


17 


58 N 


13 E 



Index to Maps, 



169 



Map Lat. Long. 

Falmouth (Am. N.) 70 44 N 70 W 

Falmouth (England) 36 50 N 5 W 

False B 133 34 S 19 E 

Falster 1 17 55 N 12 E 

Famagosta 8 35 N 34 E 

Famars 81 SON 3E 

Fanning 1 139 160 W 

Fano 4 44 N 18 E 

Farah 124 32 N f32 E 

Farah, K 124 SOW 60 E 

Farewell, C. (Green- 
land) 126 60 N 44 W 

Farewell, C. (N. Z.) 129 40 S 173 E 

Farnham 36 51 N IW 

Faro 95 37 N 8W 

Faroe Is 1 60 N \0 "W 

Farquharsons ... 23 57 N 3 W 

Farrukhabad ... 99 28 N 80 E 

Fars 124 25 N 50 E 

Fasher 132 14 N 26 E 

Fashoda 182 ION 32 E 

Fatehgarh 123 27 N 80 E 

Fatehpur 123 26 N 81 E 

Fatehpursikri ... 99 27 N 78 E 

Faucigny 25 44 N 6E 

Faversham 121 51 N IE 

Fayal 140 38 N 29 W 

Fayetteville ... 74 35 N 79 W 

Fayoum 132 29 N 31 E 

Fays 27 54 N 7W 

Fear, K., Cape ... 72 34 N 78 W 

Fecamp 19 50 N 

Federal Hill ... 74 39 N 77 W 

Federated Malay States 140 O 90 E 

Fehrbellin 33 58 N 13 E 

Feldkirch 30 47 N 10 E 

Feldkirchen ... 12 47 N 14 E 

Feldsberg Ill 49 N 17 E 

Feltre 4 46 N 12 E 

Felus, R 132 7N 82 E 

Femarn (Femern) ... 62 54 N HE 

Feuestrelles ... 79 45 N 7E 

Fengliwangcheng ... 137 40 N 124 E 

Fengtai 138 1ns. 

Fenshui Pass ... 187 41 N 128 E 

Fens, The 121 52 K" 2 1?/ 

Fercullen 37 52 Iff 8 "W 

Fere-en -Tardenois ... 19 49 N 4E 

Ferghana 124 35 W 70 E 

Ferical Inegan ... 27 53 N 8W 

Ferket 132 21 N 30 E 

Fermanagh 37 54 10" 3 "W 

Fermer Sound ... 29 54 N HE 

Fermo 86 43 N 14 E 

Fern Ab 23 58 N 4 W 

Fernam do Po (Fer- 
nando Po) ... 2 4 N 9 E 
Fernandina ... 74 31 N 82 W 

Fernie 126 49 N 115 E 

Ferrara 4 45 N 12 E 

Ferri^res (France)... 103 48 N 3E 

Ferrieres (France)... 118 49 N 3E 

Ferrol 7 43 N 8W 

Ferte-sous-Jouarre 19 49 N 3 E 



Map Lat, 

Fert^ Vidame, La... 19 49 N 

Fethard (Ireland) ... 47 52 N 

Fethard (Ireland) ... 47 52 N 

Fews, The 27 54 N 

Fez 131 34 N 

Fezzan 130 20 N 

Fiesole 4 44 N 

Figeac 19 45 N 

Figueras 95 42 N 

Fiji Is 139 18 8 

Filipstad 53 60 N 

Finale 25 44 N 

Findhorn, R. ... 23 57 N 

Finisterre 103 48 N 

Finisterre, C. ... 7 43 N 

Finke, R 128 25 S 

Finkenstein ... 92 54 N 

Finland 17 

Finland, G. of ... 17 55 PT 

Finmark 17 70 N 

Finn, R 37 54 N 

Finsbury 114 52 N 

Fiolente, C. ... 115 Ins. 

Fiorenzuola ... 4 Ins. 45 N 

Firando 43 32 N 

Firozpur 123 31 N 

Firozshahr 124 31 N 

Fischingen 15 47 N 

Fish, R 133 33 S 

Fisher's Hill ... 74 39 N 

Fismes 79 49 N 

Fitzgeralds 27 52 N 

Fitzgeralds 27 53 N 

Fitzgihbon, White 

Knight ... 27 52 N 

Fltzmaurice, Lord 27 52 N 

Fitzroy, R. ... 128 18 S 

Fiume Ill 45 N 

Five Forks ... 74 37 N 

Flamborough Head 121 54 N 

Flanders 22 50 N 

Flattery, C. ... 128 15 S 

Flavigny 

Fleix (France) 

Fleix (Spain) ... 95 41 N 

Flensburg 17 55 N 

Fleurus ... ... 45 50 N 

Flims 30 47 N 

Flinders B. ... 128 35 S 

Flinders I. ... 128 40 S 

Flinders, ii. ... 128 20 S 

Flinders Range ... 128 31 S 

Flint 16 53 N 

Flodden 16 56 N 

Florence ... ... 4 44 N 

Flores (Azores) ... 24 40 N 

Flores (E. Indies)... 139 20 S 

Florida 72 

Florida Str. ... 134 26 N 

Floritsdorfif ... 117 48 N 

Fliiela, R 30 47 N 

Flushing 22 51 N 

Fly, R 128 8S 

Focktchany ... 105 46 N 



118 Ins. 

19 47 N 



Long. 
IE 
8W 
7 W 
7 W 
5 W 

O 

HE 

2E 

3E 

180 E 

14 E 
8E 
4 W 

4 W 
9 W 

134 E 
19 E 

20E 

25 E 

8W 


lOE 

130 E 

75 E 

75 E 

9E 

26 E 
78 W 

4E 

low 

7 W 

8W 

low 

124 E 
14 E 
77 W 


2E 
145 E 

IE 
IE 
9E 

5 E 
9E 

115 B 
148 E 
142 E 
139 E 
;•. W 

2 W 
11 E 
31 W 
120E 

SOW 

16 E 

10 E 

4 E 

142 E 

27 E 



170 



Index to Maps, 



Foggia 

Foix 

Foix, County of ... 

Folkestone 

Folembray ... 

Foligno 

Fombio 

Fominskoie 

Fondi 

Fonseca B. 

Fontainebleau 

Fontaine Frangaise 

Fontenay ... 

Foochow 

Forbach 

Forbes 

Forcados ... 

Ford Ab 

Fore 

Foreland, N. 
Foreland, S. 
Forest of Dean ... 

Forets 

Forez 

Forli 

Formartin ... 
Formosa 

Formosa (Am. S.)... 
Formosa Str. 
Fornovo 
Fort Akabah 
Fort Albany 
Fort Alexander 
Fort Augustus 
Fort Barraux 
Fort Beausejour ... 
Fort Belgica 
Fort Bourbon 
Fort Boyer 
Fort Brown 
Fort Charles 
Fort Chartrfs 
Fort Crevecoenr ... 
Fort Cumberland... 
Fort Dauphin 

(Madagascar) ... 
Fort Dauphine 

(America, N.) 
Fort de I'Ecluse ... 
Fort del Ore 
Fort Donelson 
Fort Duquesiie 
Fort Edward 

Fort Erie 

Fortescue E. 
Fort Fisher 
Fort Frontenac ... 
Fort Gaines 
Fort Garry 
Fort George 
Fort Gor^e 
Fort Haake 
Fort Henry 
Forth, Firth of ... 



Map 

104 

19 

8 

42 

19 

104 

83 

96 

4 

134 

8 

19 

8 

138 

103 

23 

140 

16 

47 

16 



Lat. 

41 N 

43 N 

40?7 

51 N 
SON 
43 N 

45 N 
55 N 
41 N 
13 N 

48 N 
47 N 

46 N 
26 N 

49 N 
57 N 

6N 
51 N 
54 N 
51 N 



87 Ins. 



52 N 
48sr 

44 N 

44 N 
56 N 

20]P7 

24 S 

25 N 

45 N 
29 N 
52 N 



121 

94 
8 
4 

23 
138 
135 
138 
4 
132 

67 
115 Ins. 

56 57 N 

19 45 N 

67 46 N 

43 Ins. 

67 53 N 

70 30 N 

71 26 N 
2 33 N 

67 38 N 
65 Ins. 
67 40 N 



Long. 


15 E 


2E 


O 


IE 


3E 


13 E 


10 E 


37 E 


13 B 


88 W 


3E 


5E 


1 W 


119 B 


7E 


3W 


5 E 


3W 


7 W 


IE 


3 W 


4E 


4E 


12 E 



4 W 

120X; 

60 W 

120 E 

10 E 

35 E 

82 W 

5 W 
6E 

64 W 

99 W 
88 W 
97 W 
80 W 
90 W 

79 W 



65 25 S 47 E 



67 
25 
24 
74 
70 
67 
70 

128 
74 
67 
74 

101 
70 

101 



52 N 

46 N 
52 N 
37 N 
41 N 
43 N 

43 N 
22 S 
34 N 

44 N 
30 N 

47 N 
41 N 
15 N 



87 Ins. 
74 36 N 
23 56 N 



100 W 
6E 

low 

88 W 
80 W 
74 W 
79 W 
117 E 

78 W 
77 W 
88 W 
97 W 

79 W 
16 W 

87 W 
4 W 



Forth, E 

Fort James 
Fort James 
Fort Joux ... 
Fort Kazalinsk 
Fort Kuropatkin ... 
Fort la Eeine 
Fort le Bceuf 
Fort Maurepas 
Fort McAllister ... 
Fort Meigs 
Fort Miamis 
Fort Mimms 
Fort Monroe 
Fort Moose 
Fort Morgan 
Fort Mulgrave 
Fort Nassau (Banda) 
Fort Nassau (Mouree) 
Fort Niagara 
Fort Ninety-Six ... 
Fort Orange (Am. N.) 
Fort Orange(Sekondi) 
Fort Peccais 
Fort Penthievre ... 
Fort Perovski 
Fort Picken 
Fort Pillow 
Fort Pitt (Am. N.) 
Fort Pulaski 
Fort Eandolph 
Fort Eouge 
Fort Eoyal Bay .. 
Fort Eupert 
Fort Sandusky 
Fort St Charles ... 
Fort St David 
Fort St George ... 
Fort St Louis 
Fort Stanwix 
Fort Sumter 
Fort Toronto 
Fort William (Ont.) 
Fort William (Scot.) 
Fort William Henry 

Fort York 

Fort Zelandia 
Fotheringay 
Foug^res ... 
Foule Pointe 
Fountains Ab. 
Fourmies ... 
Foveaux Str. 
Fowey 
Fox Channel 

Fox Is 

Fox E 

Foxes 

Foyle, Lough 

Foyle, E 

Foz (Portupjal) 
Foz (Spain) 
Fraele Pass 
Framlinghara 



Map Lat. 
23 56 M 
65 14 N 
65 Ins. 



103 
136 
137 
67 
67 
67 
74 
70 
67 
70 
74 
67 
74 
87 



47 N 
47 N 
39 N 

50 N 
42 N 

51 N 
32 N 
41 N 
41 N 
31 N 
37 N 

52 N 
30 N 
44 N 



43 Ins. 
65 Ins. 

67 43 N 
70 34 N 

68 43 N 
65 Ins. 



19 
87 
136 
74 
74 
67 
74 
74 
67 
69 
67 
70 
67 
64 
64 
65 
70 
74 
67 
126 
56 
67 
67 
43 
16 
82 
65 
16 
103 
129 
36 
139 
139 
67 
27 
37 
27 
95 
95 
30 
16 



44 N 

48 N 

45 N 
30 N 
36 N 
41 N 

32 N 
36 N 
SON 
15 N 

52 N 
41 N 

49 N 

12 N 

13 N 
19 N 

41 N 

33 N 
44 N 
48 N 
57 N 

43 N 
57 N 
24 N 

53 N 
48 N 
17 S 

54 N 
SON 
47 S 
SON 
66 N 

40T7 

42 N 

53 N 

54 N 

55 N 
41 N 

44 N 
47 N 
52 N 



Long. 
4 W 

16 W 

6E 
62 E 
121 E 
98 W 

SOW 
96 W 
81 W 
83 W 
85 W 
88 W 
76 W 
81 W 
88 W 
6E 



79 W 

82 W 
74 W 

4E 

4 W 
65 E 
87 W 
90 W 

80 W 

81 W 
90 W 
97 W 
61 W 

78 W 

83 W 
95 W 
80 E 
80 E 
16 W 
76 W 
80 W 

79 W 
90 W 

5 W 
74 W 
92 W 

120 E 


1 W 
50 E 

2 W 
4E 

168 E 
5 W 

SOW 
180 

89 W 

8 W 
BVH 
7 W 

9 W 
7W 

10 E 
IE 



Index to Maps. 



171 



Map Lat. 

Francavilla ... 26 38 N 

Franche Comt^ ... 12 46 ET 

Francisco, San ... 72 38 N 

Franconia ... ... 14 

Franconian Knights 12 46 rv 

Franeker 22 53 N 

Frankenhausen ... 12 51 N 

FrankentLal ... 12 50 N 

Frankfort (Ger.) ... 12 52 N 

Frankfort, G. D. of 94 48 II 

Frankfort-on-Main 12 50 N 

Frankfort (U.S.A.) 74 38 N 

Franklin (Canada) 126 72 N 

Franklin (U.S.A.) 74 37 N 

Franz Joseph Land 136 80 N 

Franzens Kanal ... Ill 46 N 

Frascati 104 42 N 

Fraser 1 128 25 S 

FraserK 126 50 N 

Frasers 23 5611 

Frasnes ... ... 98 Ins. 

Frauenberg ... 57 

Frauenfeld 90 

Fraustadt ... ... 54 



49 N 

48 N 
52 N 

39 N 
31 N 
56 N 

52 N 
38 N 
46 N 



Long. 

15 E 

4 E 

122 W 

an 

6 E 

11 E 

8E 

15 E 
8x: 
9E 

85 W 
90 W 
87 W 
70 E 
19 E 

13 E 
153 E 
130 W 

ew 

14 E 
9E 

16 E 

77 W 

82 W 
10 E 

14 E 
77 W 

67 W 



65 Ins. 

53 56 N 10 E 



Frazer R. {see Fraser R.) 

Frederic 74 

Frederica ... ... 68 

Fredericia ... ... 116 

Frederick William 

Canal 59 

Fredericksburg ... 74 

Frederictou ... 70 
Frederiksborg 
Frederiksodde 
Fredrikshald (Fred- 

erikshald) ... 54 59 N HE 

Fredrikshamn ... 61 61 N 28 E 

Fredrikstad ... 54 60 N HE 

Fredriksten ... 108 59 N 12 E 

Freehold Ct. Ho.... 70 40 N 74 W 

Freetown 130 9N 8W 

Freiberg (Saxony)... 38 51 N 13 E 

Freiburg (Breisgau) 12 48 N 8 E 

Freiburg, Canton of 15 46 N" 6 E 

Freiburg (Saxony)... 92 51 N 12 E 

Freiburg (Switz.) ... 15 47 N 7E 

Freising 12 48 N 12 E 

Frejus 79 43 N 7E 

Fremantle 128 32 S 116 E 

French Indo-China 140 O 90E 

French Sudan ... 132 

Frenchtown ... 70 42 N 84 W 

Frew 56 56 N 4W 

Freystadt 13 49 N 15 E 

Fribourg (see Freiburg) 

Frichemont ... 98 Ins. 

Frick 90 48 N BE 

Fridericia {see Fred- 
ericia) 

Friedburg 12 SON 9E 

Friedland (Bohem.) 12 51 N 15 E 
Friedland(Mecklenb.) 57 54 N 13 E 

Friedland (Prus. E.) 92 54 N 21 E 

Friedland (Silesia)... 29 50 N 18 E 



Map Lat. Long. 

Friedlingen ... 45 48 N 8 E 

Friedrichsfelde ... 107 52 N 13 E 

Friedrichsruhe .. 107 53 N 10 E 

Friedrichstadt ... 116 54 N 9E 

Friedwald 14 51 N 10 E 

Friendly Is. ... 139 20 S 180 

Friesland, E. & W. 12 SOUff 4E 

Frio, C 133 18 S 12 E 

Frisches Haft ... 32 54 N 20 E 

Frise 94 52 N 4E 

Frisia, E 29 52!?I 4E 

Friuli 4 4611 12 E 

Frohsdorf 107 48 N 16 E 

Frome 114 51 N 2W 

Frome, L 128 31 S 140 B 

Frontier Prov.,N.W. 124 SON 70B 

Frosinone 4 42 N 13 B 

Fucino, L 104 42 N 14 E 

Fuenterabia ... 7 43 N 2W 

Fueutes d' Ouoro... 95 41 N 7W 

Fuentes, Ft ... 30 46 N 9E 

Fulda 33 51 N 10 B 

Fulek 10 48 N 20 E 

Fulta 64 22 N 88 B 

Funchal 130 33 N 16 W 

Fundy, B. of ... 68 40N' 70 "W 

Fiinen 1 107 52 N 8E 

Fiinfkirchen (Pecs) 3 46 N 18 E 

Fureedpore 123 24 N 90 B 

Furnes 39 51 N 3B 

Furness 16 54 N 3W 

Furrah {see Farah) 

Fiirstenau 30 47 N 9E 

Fiirstenberg (Ger.) 12 48 N 9 B 

Fiirstenberg (Ger.) 33 52 N 15 E 

Fiirth 33 49 N HE 

Furva, Val 30 46 N lO E 

Fusan 137 35 N 129 B 

Fushimi 137 35 N 136 E 

Fiissen 57 48 N 11 B 

Fyen I. {see Fiinen) 

Fyvie Ab 23 57 N 2 W 

Fyzabad 64 27 N 82 B 

Gabbard 42 52 N 2B 

Gabes 131 34 N 10 E 

Gabes, G. of ... 131 34 N 10 E 

Gaboon 130 12 B 

Gacko 119 43 N 18 E 

Gadebusch 54 54 N 11 B 

Gaeta 4 41 N 14 B 

Gafgenberg 97 Ins. 

Gainsborough ... 16 53 N 1 W 

Gairdner, L. ... 128 32 S 135 B 

Gairlock 56 58 N 6W 

Galabat 132 13 N 36 E 

Galapagos Is. ... 135 91 W 

Galata 3 41 N 29 E 

Galatz 61 45 N 28 B 

Galicia 61 49 N 23 E 

Galicia (Spain) ... 7 43 N 8W 

Galicia, New ... 106 21 N 104 W 

Galicia, West ... 60 48 N" 20E 

Galilee, Sea of ... 85 33 N 36 B 



172 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat, 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Galita 


131 


38 N 


9E 


Gelt, R 


16 


54 N 


4 vr 


Gallaland 


130 


7N 


40 E 


Gelves, Los 


7 Ins. 




Galle 


64 


6N 


80 E i 


Gemaurhof 


54 


56 N 


24 E 


Gallinas Point 


135 


12 N 


72 W 


Gembloux 


22 


51 N 


SE 


Gallipoli (Italy) ... 


104 


40 N 


18 E 


Genappe 


98 Ins. 




Gallipoli (Turkey) 


3 


40 N 


27 E 


Generaliteitsland ... 


62 


48 17 


4 E 


Gallo, C 


120 


37 N 


22 E 


Genes 


94 


44 XT 


8 B 


Galloper Sand 


42 


52 N 


2E 


Geneva 


IS 


46 N 


6E 


Galloway ... 


23 




j 


Geneva, L. of 


15 


46 N 


6 £ 


Galveston 


72 


29 N 


95 W 


Genevois ... 


25 


44 m 


6 S 


Galway 


37 


53 N 


9W 


Genevre, Mont 


25 


45 N 


7E 


Galway Bay 


37 


52 Bsr 


lO w 


Gengenbach 


62 


48 N 


8E 


Gambia 


130 


19 N 


17 W 


Genii, R 


95 


37 N 


5 W 


Gambia, K. 


65 


14 N 


13 W 


Gennep 


39 


52 N 


6E 


Gambler 


128 


3S S 


141 E 


Genoa 


4 


44 N 


9E 


Gambron ... 


65 


27 N 


57 E 


Genoa, G. of 


50 


40IT 


O 


Gandamak 


124 


34 N 


70 E 


Gen-san 


137 


39 N 


127 E 


Gandia 


7 


39 N 





George, L. ... 


70 


43 N 


74 W 


Gandja 


108 


41 N 


46 E 


Georgetown (Am. S. ) 


135 


7N 


58 W 


Gando 


130 


12 N 


5E 


Georgetown (Tas.) 


128 


41 S 


147 E 


Ganges, R 


64 






Georgetown (Tobago) 


69 


UN 


61 W 


Ganges, Mths of the 


123 


20 N 


90 E 


Georgia (Russia) ... 


61 


4orr 


40x: 


Ganjam 


123 


19 N 


85 E 


Georgia (U.S.A.) ... 


72 


30I7 


9 W 


Gap 


103 


45 N 


6E 


Georgia I., Sth. ... 


135 


60S 


40 W 


Gara, L 


27 


54 N 


8 W 


Georgian B. 


126 


45 N 


81 W 


Gard 


103 


44 N 


4E 


Georgina, R. 


128 


22 S 


138 E 


Garda, L 


104 


46 N 


HE 


Geraldtou ... 


128 


29 S 


USE 


Gardikis 


3 


37 N 


22 E 


German Confed., N. 


118 






Garfagnana 


92 


44 N 


10 E 


German Confed., S. 


118 






Garigliano, R. 


104 


41 N 


13 E 


Germanic Confed. . . . 


107 






Garioch 


23 


56 NT 


4 W 


German Order 


1 


50 N 


20 E 


Garonne, Haute (et 








Germantown 


70 


40 N 


75 W 


Tarn ; et Lot) 


103 






Germersheim 


29 


49 N 


8E 


Garonne, R. 


8 


44 N 





Gerona 


95 


42 N 


3E 


Garz 


33 


53 N 


14 E 


Gers 


103 


44 N 





Gascony 


8 






Gers, R 


103 


44 N 


IE 


Gascoyne, R. 


128 


25 S 


115 E 


Gertruydenberg [see 








Gaspe 


67 


40I7 


70'W 


Geertruidenberg) 








Gaspe Bay 


126 


49 N 


64 W 


Gette, R 


98 


SON 


4E 


Gastein 


107 


47 N 


13 E 


Gettysburg ... 


74 


40 N 


77 W 


Gata, Sa de 


7 


40N 


8 W 


Gewitsch 


57 


SON 


17 E 


Gateshead 


114 


55 N 


2 W 


Gex 


15 


46 N 


6E 


Gatschina ... 


61 


59 N 


30 E 


Ghadames 


131 


30 N 


9E 


Gatton 


113 


51 N 





Ghaggar, R. 


122 


29 N 


74 E 


Gaverin 


45 


51 N 


4E 


Ghats, Eastern 


99 






Gavi 


88 


45 N 


9E 


Ghats, Western ... 


99 






Gavre 


22 


51 N 


4E 


Ghazipur ... 


64 


25 N 


84 E 


Gavutu 


140 


20 S 


150 E 


Ghazni 


124 


34 N 


68 E 


Gawilgarh ... 


99 


21 N 


77 E 


Ghent 


8 


51 N 


4E 


Gawler 


128 


35 S 


139 E 


Ghiara d'Adda 


4 Ins. 


45 sr 


9 E 


Gawler Range 


128 


33 S 


136 E 


Ghilian [see Gilyan) 








Gaza 


110 


32 N 


35 E 


Ghir, C 


131 


31 N 


low 


Gdoff 


32 


59 N 


28 E 


Ghizeh 


85 


30 N 


31 E 


Gedaref 


132 


14 N 


35 E 


Giant's Causeway... 


24 


55 N 


7 W 


Geelong 


128 


38 S 


USE 


Gibraltar 


87 


36 N 


5W 


G eertruidenberg 


22 


52 N 


5E 


Gibson's Desert ... 


128 


SOS 


i20x: 


Gefle 


17 


61 N 


17 E 


Gien 


79 


48 N 


3E 


Gehr, W 


131 


31 N 


2W 


Gien, County of 


8 


44 rr 


O 


Geislingen ... 


45 


49 N 


10 E 


Giengen 


62 


49 N 


10 E 


Gelderland ... 


12 


50I7 


4 E 


1 Giessen 


97 


SIN 


9E 


Gelders, Up. 


59 


51 N 


6E 


j Gignas 


19 


44 N 


4E 


Gelders {see Gelderland) 






1 Gilan 


124 


37 N 


49 E 


Gellivare 


108 


67 N 


21 E 


Gilbert Is 


139 


O 


160E 


Gelnhausen 


12 


SON 


9E 


Gilbert R 


128 


18 S 


142 E 



Index to Maps, 



178 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Giles, L. 


128 


30 S 


120 E 


Goito 


104 


45 N 


HE 


Gilgit 


138 


36 N 


74 E 


Golconda ... 


64 


17 N 


78 E 


Gilolo 


43 Ins. 




Goldbach, R. 


92 Ins. 




Gilyan 


52 


SON 


40E 


Goldberg ( Mecklenb. ) 


33 


54 N 


12 E 


Gingi 


64 


12 N 


80 E 


Goldberg (Prussia) 


20 


51 N 


16 E 


Gippsland 


128 


38 S 


147 E 


Gold Coast 


130 


5N 


2 W 


Girgeh 


132 


26 N 


32 E 


Golden Bay 


129 


41 S 


173 E 


Girgenti 


26 


38 N 


14 E 


Goldsborough 


74 


35 N 


78 W 


Gironde 


103 


44 N 


4 W 


Goletta 


10 


37 N 


10 E 


Gironde, R. 


79 


44 N 


4 VI 


Goliad 


71 


29 N 


97 W 


Gisborne 


129 


39 S 


178 E 


Gollersdorf 


33 


48 N 


16 E 


Gislikon 


112 


47 N 


8E 


Golluow 


59 


54 N 


15 E 


Gitschin 


12 


SON 


15 E 


Golombo 


32 


51 N 


22 E 


Givet 


103 


50 N 


5E 


Golymin 


92 


53 N 


21 E 


Giza (see Ghizeh) 








Gomera I. .. 


2 


O 


30W 


Gjatsk 


96 


56 N 


35 E 


Gomera I 


131 


35 N 


4 W 


Glace B 


126 


46 N 


60 W 


Gomera, Peiion de la 


7 Ins. 




Gladstone 


128 


24 S 


152 E 


Gomor 


21 


48 N 


20 E 


Glamorgan ... 


16 






Gondar 


130 


13 N 


37 E 


Glan, R 


118 


SON 


8 E 


Gondokoro 


132 


5N 


32 E 


Glanfynne 


37 


55 N 


8W 


Goodwin Sands ... 


42 


51 N 


2E 


Glarus 


15 


47 N 


9E 


Gooiland 


22 


52 N 


5E 


Glasgow 


23 


56 N 


4W 


Gora 


93 


52 N 


21 E 


Glastonbury 


16 


51 N 


3W 


Gordon 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Glastonbury Ab. ... 


16 


51 N 


3W 


Gordon Castle 


56 


58 N 


3 W 


Glatz 


12 


SON 


17 E 


Gordons 


23 


56 N 


4W 


Glencairn 


23 


55 N 


4 W 


Goree, I. of 


65 


15 N 


17 W 


Glencan 


27 


54 N 


7 W 


Gorey 


47 


52 N 


6 W 


Glencoe (Africa, S.) 


133 


28 S 


30 E 


Gorgast 


57 


53 N 


15 E 


Glencoe (Scotland) 


23 


57 N 


5W 


Gorge 


118 Ins. 




Glenconkein 


27 


54 N 


8 vr 


Gorinchem 


22 


52 N 


5E 


Glen Elchaig 


56 


57 N 


5 W 


Gorki 


96 


56 N 


37 E 


Glenfinnan 


56 


57 N 


5W 


Gorlitz 


12 


SIN 


15 E 


Glenflesk 


27 


52 N 


low 


Gorschen 


97 


SIN 


12 E 


Glengariff 


27 


52 N 


low 


Gorz 


12 


46 N 


14 E 


Glengarry 


56 


57 N 


5W 


Goshenland 


133 


26 S 


25 E 


Glen Grey District 


133 


32 S 


27 E 


Goslar 


12 


52 N 


10 E 


Glenluce Ab. 


23 


55 N 


5W 


Gota, R 


17 


55 sr 


lOE 


Glenmalier ... 


27 


53 N 


7W 


Goteborg ... 


116 


58 N 


12 E 


Glenmalure 


37 


52 sr 


8 VT 


Gotenyama 


137 


36 N 


140 E 


Glen Shiel 


56 


57 N 


5W 


Gotha 


12 


51 N 


11 E 


Glinzendorf 


93 Ins. 




Gotha, R 


53 


58 N 


12 E 


Glogau 


12 


52 N 


16 E 


Gothland, E. and W. 


17 


55 N 


lOE 


Gloucester (Eng. ) . . • 


16 


52 N 


2 W 


Gothland I, 


53 


55 N 


i5x: 


Gloucester (U.S.A.) 


70 


37 N 


77 W 


Gotoshima I. 


137 


33 N 


129 E 


Glubokoie 


96 


55 N 


28 E 


Gotteshaus 


30 






Gliicksburg 


116 


55 N 


10 E 


Gottingen 


12 


52 N 


10 E 


Gliickstadt 


12 


54 N 


9E 


Gottorp 


12 


54 N 


9E 


Glynnes, The 


27 


54 N 


6 W 


Gouda 


6 


52 N 


5E 


Gmiind 


12 


49 N 


10 E 


Goulburn ... 


128 


35 S 


150 E 


Gnesen 


107 


53 N 


18 E 


Gourara 


131 


29 N 


IE 


Goa 


64 


16 N 


74 E 


Gouria 


108 


42 N 


42 E 


Gobi Desert 


138 


4onr 


lOOE 


Gournay (and Bray) 


8 


49 N 


2E 


Goch 


39 


52 N 


6E 


Governolo ... 


104 


45 N 


HE 


Godavery, Mths of 








Gowran 


47 


53 N 


7 W 


the K. 


99 


17 N 


82 E 


Gowrie 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Goding 


111 


49 N 


17 E 


Goyaz 


135 


20 8 


50W 


Godollo 


111 


48 N 


19 E 


Graaf Reinet 


133 


32 S 


24 E 


Godra 


64 


23 N 


74 E 


Grabow 


62 


53 N 


HE 


Gogra, R 


64 


26 N 


84 E 


Grabusa 


48 


36 N 


24 E 


Gohad 


99 


26 N 


78 E 


Graces 


27 


52 IV 


8W 


Gohlis 


97 Ins. 




Gracias a Dios, C. 


69 


15 N 


83 W 


Gohlsdorf ... 


97 


52 N 


13 E 


Gradletz 


117 Ins. 




Gohrde 


97 


53 N 


HE 


Grado 


4 


46 N 


13 E 



174 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Grafton 


74 


39 N 


80 W 


Greece 


141 






Grahams 


. 23 


56 IT 


6'W 


Green Bay 


67 


45 N 


87 W 


Grabamstown 


133 


33 S 


26 E 


Greencastle 


27 


54 N 


6W 


Grahovo 


105 


43 N 


19 E 


Greenland ... 


126 






Grain Coast 


130 


5N 


low 


Greenland Sea, E. 


140 






Gramido 


. 95 


41 N 


8W 


Greensborough 


74 


36 N 


SOW 


Grampound 


121 


50 N 


5 W 


Greenwich ... 


16 


51 N 





Gran 


3 


48 N 


19 E 


Gregory, L. 


128 


29 S 


139 E 


Gran, R. ... 


. Ill 


48 N 


19 E 


Greifenhagen 


33 


53 N 


15 E 


Granada (New Spain 


) 106 


O 


80 W 


Greifswald 


12 


54 N 


13 E 


Granada (Spain) .. 


7 


37 N 


4W 


Greiz 


62 


51 N 


12 E 


Granard 


47 


54 N 


7W 


Grenada I 


69 


12 N 


62 W 


Gran Canaria 


130 


28 N 


15 W 


Grenadine Is. 


69 


13 N 


61 W 


Grand Banda I. .. 


43 Ins. 




Grenelle 


81 


49 N 


2E 


Grand Cul de Sac B 


69 


14 N 


61 W 


Grenoble 


8 


45 N 


6E 


Grande, R. 


135 


20 S 


48 W 


Greyerz 


15 


47 N 


7E 


Grand Gulf 


74 


32 N 


91 W 


Grey town ... 


133 


29 S 


31 E 


Grand Pr6 


81 


49 N 


5E 


Grimsby 


121 


■54 N 





Grandson ... 


15 


47 N 


7E 


Grinstead, E. 


113 


51 N 





Grange 


23 


58 N 


3W 


Gripsholm 


17 


59 N 


17 E 


Gran Para... 


106 


20 8 


60W 


Griqualand, E. 


133 


30 S 


29 E 


Granson 


6 


48 N 


7E 


Griqualand, W. ... 


133 


30 8 


20E 


Grantham 


16 


53 N 


1 W 


Gris Nez, C. 


87 Ins. 




Grants 


23 


56 N- 


evr 


Grisons (Graubiinden 


15 






Granville 


82 


49 N 


2 W 


Grivobo 


120 


39 N 


21 E 


Grao Para [see Grar 


1 






Grochoff 


108 Ins. 




Para) 








Grodno 


58 


54 N 


24 E 


Graspan 


133 


29 S 


25 E 


Grodzisk 


108 Ins. 




Gratz 


62 


47 N 


15 E 


Groeuloo (Groll) ... 


22 


52 N 


7E 


Gratz 


62 


SON 


18 E 


Groningen 


12 


53 N 


7E 


Graudenz ... 


58 


53 N 


19 E 


Groote Eylandt ... 


128 


14 S 


137 E 


Grave 


22 


52 N 


6E 


Groote, R 


133 


33 S 


24 E 


Gravelines ... 


22 


51 N 


2E 


Grosotto 


30 


46 N 


10 E 


Gravelotte ... 


118 


49 N 


6E 


Grossenbrode 


29 


54 N 


HE 


Graverau ... 


82 


47 N 


1 W 


Grosseto 


26 


42 N 


HE 


Gravesend 


16 


51 N 





Grossfriedrichsburg 


65 Ins. 




Gravosa 


. 26 


43 N 


18 E 


Gross Hennersdorf 


57 


51 N 


15 E 


Gray 


8 


47 N 


6E 


Gross Jagerndorf ... 


57 Ins. 




Great Abaco I. 


134 


27 N 


77 W 


Grosswardein (Varad) 


21 


47 N 


22 E 


Great Ardes 


27 


54 KT 


6W 


Grottammare 


4 


43 N 


14 B 


Great Austral. Bighl 


b 128 


34 S 


130 E 


Grozny 


108 


43 N 


46 B 


Great Barrier Reef 


128 


20S 


140Z: 


Grubenhagen 


62 


54 N 


12 B 


Great Bear L. 


139 


68 N 


120 W 


Griiningen ... 


15 


47 N 


9E 


Great Berg R. 


. 133 


33 S 


19 E 


Griisch 


30 


47 N 


10 E 


Great Beeren 


97 


52 N 


13 E 


Grussau 


57 


51 N 


16 E 


GreatBushman Lan 


i 133 


30 S 


20 E 


Gruyeres 


25 


46Sr 


6z: 


Great Cayman 


131 


19 N 


81 W 


Gruyeres 


25 


47 N 


7E 


Great DividingRang 


e 128 


26 S 


150 E 


Guadalajara ( Am. N.) 


106 


21 N 


103 W 


Great Fish R. .. 


65 


33 S 


27 E 


Guadalajara (Spain) 


7 


41 N 


3W 


Great Fish R. 


139 


60IV 


120-W 


Guadalaviar, R. ... 


7 


3810' 


2vr 


Great Harts R. .. 


133 


27 S 


25 E 


Guadalcanal 


7 


38 N 


6W 


Great Inagua I. .. 


134 


20sr 


80W 


Guadalquivir, R. ... 


7 


36 N 


6txr 


Great Karroo 


132 


33 S 


23 E 


Guadalupe Hidalgo 


71 


20 N 


99 W 


Great Meadows .. 


67 


38 N 


80 W 


Guadalupe, Sa de 


7 


389r 


6W 


Great Salt Lake .. 


126 


41 N 


113 W 


Guadarrama Pass... 


95 


41 N 


5 W 


Great Salt Steppe 


124 


35 N 


55 E 


Guadarrama, R. ... 


95 


ION 


5W 


Great Sandy Deser 


t 128 


30S 


120Z: 


Guadarrama, Sa de 


7 


40ir 


4TV 


Great Slave Lake.. 


139 


60ir 


izovir 


Guadeloupe 


69 


16 N 


62 W 


Great Tew 


121 


52 N 


1 W 


Guadiana, R. 


7 


38N 


8W 


Greatwater R. 


27 


54 N 


7W 


Guaimia, R. 


135 


2N 


68 W 


Great Western Runr 


I 124 


24 N 


70 E 


Guam 


139 


O 


140I: 


Great Whale R. .. 


126 


SON 


80W 


Guamanga ... 


106 


13 S 


73 W 


Great Zwarte Mt .. 


133 


33 S 


22 E 


Guanajuato 


103 


21 N 


101 W 


Gredos, Sa de 


7 


40N 


6 W 


Guancavelica 


106 


12 S 


75 W 



Index to Maps. 



175 



Guanica 
Guantauamo 
Guapar^, R. 
Guaranis 
Guarda 
Guardafui, C. 
Guaso Nyiro 
Guastalla ... 
Guatemala ... 
Guayabero, R. 
Guayaquil ... 
Guayaquil, G. of ... 
Guaymas ... 
Guben 
Gucben 
Guden Aa, R. 
Gud-i-Zirreh 
Guelders {see Gelder- 

land) 
Gu6rande ... 
Gueret 
Guerrero 
Guetaria 
Gueugnon ... 
Guiana 
Guiana, British, 

Dutch, French 
Guildford ... 
Guildford Ct. Ho. ... 
Guinea, French ... 
Guinea, Gulf of ... 
Guinea, Portuguese 
Guinegaste ... 
Guines 
Guipuscoa ... 
Guise 
Guise, County of ... 

Gujarat 

Gujerat 

Gullberg 

Gulsha R 

Gum Coast... 
Gumti 
Gundava 
Gunduk, R. 
Gunfleet 
Giins (Koszeg) 
Guntersville 
Gunzburg ... 

Gurk 

Gusiuje 
Giistrow 
Guttstadt ... 
Guyenne 

Gwalior 

Gwalior 

Gympie 

Gyor 



Map 

75 
134 
135 
106 

95 
130 
132 
104 

69 
135 
106 
135 
134 

62 
138 
116 
124 



79 
134 

44 

79 

106 

135 

121 

70 

130 

130 

130 

6 

6 

7 

11 

8 

124 

64 

53 

124 

65 

99 

124 

122 

42 

21 

74 

12 

12 

119 

12 

92 

8 

64 

122 

128 

21 



Haarlem 22 

Habra, W 131 

Habsburg, Dominions 

of House of ... 10 
Hacha 106 



Lat. 

18 N 

20 N 

20 S 

22 S 

40 N 

12 N 

IN 

45 N 

15 N 

4N 

2S 

3S 

28 N 

52 N 

44 N 

56 N 

SON 



47 N 

46 N 
18 N 
43 N 

47 N 
O 

O 

51 N 
36 N 
ION 

o 

12 N 
51 N 

51 N 
42 sr 

SON 

48 17 

33 N 
24 N 

58 N 

41 N 
20 N 

24 VI 
29 N 
26 N 

52 N 

47 N 

34 N 

48 N 

47 N 

42 N 
54 N 
54 N 

26 N 
20IT 

26 S 

48 N 

52 N 

35 N 



Lonp:. 
67 W 
75 W 
70 W 
55 W 
7 W 
51 E 
38 E 
HE 
91 W 
72 W 
SOW 
80 W 
111 w 
15 E 
90 E 
10 E 
62 E 



2 W 

2E 

100 W 

2E 

4E 

eovr 

1 w 
sow 
low 
o 

15 W 
2E 
2E 
4 W 
4E 
O 

74 E 

72 E 

12 E 

73 E 

18 W 

SOB 

67 E 

84 E 

IE 

17 E 
86 W 
10 E 
14 E 
20 E 
12 E 
20 E 

78 E 
70z: 

153 E 

18 E 

5E 
1 W 



UN 73 W 



Hadamar ... 
Hadden Rig 
Haddington 
Hadersleben 

Hadj, The 

Hadjach 
Hadramaut... 

HaS, Great 

Hagelsberg ... 

Hagenau (Haguenau) 

Hague 

Haicheng ... 

Haidarabad (Haid.) 

Haidarabad (Sind) 

Haidarabad State 

Haifa 

Hai-fong 

Hainan 

Hainault 

Hainkoi 

Hainspach ... 

Haiphong ... 

Haiti 

Hai-yang 

Hakalzai 

Hakodate 

Hal 

Halberstadt... 
Halberstadt, Bpc of 

Haleb 

Hales Ab. ... 

Halicz 

Halifax (England)... 

Halifax (Nov. Scot.) 

Halil, R 

Halisz (see Halicz) 

Hall 

Halland 

Halle 

Hallve, R 

Halmstad ... 

Ham... 

Hamadan ... 

Hamah 

Hamar 

Hambach ... 

Hambledon Hill ... 

Hamburg ... 

Hameln 

Hami 

Hamilton (Ontario) 

Hamilton (Scotland) 

Hamilton Inlet 

Hamilton, R. 

Hamm 

Hammelburg 

Hampshire, New ... 

Hampton 

Hampton Court ... 

Hampton Roads ... 

Hamun-i-Mashkil ... 

Hamun-i-Sawaran. . . 

Han, R 

Hanau 



Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


107 


50 N 


8E 


23 


56 N 


2W 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


17 


55 N 


9 E 


132 


20ir 


30 E 


64 


50 N 


34 E 


140 


o 


SOS 


33 


54 N 


14 E 


97 


52 N 


12 E 


29 


49 N 


8E 


22 


52 N 


4 E 


137 


41 N 


123 E 


99 


17 N 


78 E 


99 


25 N 


68 E 


99 


16 N 


72 E 


87 


33 N 


35 E 


140 


18 N 


118 E 


138 


19 N 


HOE 


22 


50 N 


4E 


119 


43 N 


26 E 


57 


51 N 


14 E 


125 


21 N 


107 E 


134 


ION 


BOW 


137 


40 N 


125 E 


124 


31 N 


67 E 


137 


42 N 


141 E 


45 


51 N 


4E 


33 


52 N 


HE 


12 


50N 


8£ 


110 


36 N 


37 E 


16 


52 N 


2 W 


58 


49 N 


25 E 


16 


54 N 


2W 


70 


45 N 


64 W 


124 


25 N 


55 E 


12 


49 N 


10 E 


17 


55 Tt 


lOE 


12 


51 N 


12 E 


118 


50 N 


2E 


53 


57 N 


13 E 


79 


SON 


3E 


124 


35 N 


49 E 


110 


35 N 


37 E 


17 


61 N 


HE 


107 


49 N 


8E 


36 


51 N 


1 W 


12 


54 N 


10 E 


29 


52 N 


9E 


138 


43 N 


93 E 


126 


43 N 


SOW 


23 


56 N 


4W 


126 


54 N 


58 W 


70 


50 N 


70 W 


62 


52 N 


SE 


117 


50 N 


10 E 


72 


40 N 


SOW 


68 


43 N 


71 W 


16 


51 N 





72 


37 N 


76 W 


124 


28 N 


63 E 


124 


31 N 


62 E 


137 


38 N 


126 E 


33 


50 N 


9B 



176 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Hanau, County of 


12 


SON 


BE 


Hawke's Bay 


129 


40 8 


176 E 


Hang-chau B. 


137 


30 N 


121 E 


Hawkesbury 


129 


46 S 


171 E 


Hangchow 


138 


30 N 


120 E 


Hawkesbury, R. ... 


100 


33 S 


152 E 


Hang-kow ... 


140 


30 N 


115 E 


Haworth 


16 


54 N 


2W 


Hanka, L 


137 


44 N 


132 E 


Hawthornden 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Hankow 


138 


31 N 


114 E 


Hay, R 


128 


24 S 


137 E 


Hanoi 


138 


21 N 


106 E 


Hayd 


57 


50 N 


13 E 


Hanover 


12 


52 N 


10 E 


Haye Sainte 


98 Ins. 




Hants 


16 






Hayti 


106 


19 N 


72 W 


Hanyang 


138 


30 N 


114 E 


Hazara 


124 


34 N 


73 E 


Harau 


94 


50 N 


9E 


Hazrat 


136 


43 N 


66 E 


Harbarovsk... 


126 


49 N 


135 E 


Head of Howth ... 


27 


53 N 


6W 


Harbin 


137 


48 N 


127 E 


Hebrides, Western 


23 






Harbottle 


16 


55 N 


2W 


Hechingeu ... 


107 


48 N 


8E 


Harburg 


12 


52 N 


10 E 


Hedjaz 


132 


20N 


30 E 


Harderwijk 


22 


52 N 


6E 


Hedon 


113 


54 N 





Hardy's Camp (Quebec) 67 Ins. 




Heemstade 


68 


41 N 


73 W 


Harfleur 


19 


49 N 





Hegau 


13 


48 N 


9E 


Hari Eud 


124 


35 N 


61 E 


Hegyes 


111 


46 N 


20 E 


Harlech 


36 


53 N 


4W 


Heidelberg (Afr. S.) 


133 


26 S 


28 E 


Harlingen 


109 


53 N 


5E 


Heidelberg (Ger.) ... 


12 


49 N 


9E 


Harmer, Fort 


72 


39 N 


82 W 


Heilbron (Afr. S.) ... 


133 


27 S 


28 E 


Harmignies 


22 


50 N 


4E 


Heilbronn (Ger.) ... 


12 


49 N 


9E 


Harpers' Ferry 


74 


39 N 


78 W 


Heiligenstadt 


12 


51 N 


10 E 


Harpeth, R. 


74 


37 N 


87 W 


Heiligerlee 


22 


53 N 


7E 


Harrar 


130 


9N 


42 E 


Heilsberg ... 


54 


54 N 


21 E 


Harris 


23 


58 N 


7W 


Heilung Kiang 


138 


SON 


120E 


Harrisburg (Pa.) ... 


72 


40 N 


77 W 


Helder 


22 


53 N 


5E 


Harrisburg (Texas) 


71 


30 N 


95 W 


Helena (Ark.) 


74 


35 N 


91 W 


Harrismith 


133 


28 S 


29 E 


Helena (Mont.) ... 


140 


46 N 


113 W 


Harrisonburg 


74 


38 N 


79 W 


Heligoland 


94 


54 £ 


8E 


Harrison's Landing 


74 


37 N 


77 W 


Heliopolis ... 


132 Ins. 




Harristown 


47 


53 N 


7 W 


Helmand, R. 


124 


30N 


60E 


Harrow 


121 


52 N 





Helmstadt ... 


117 


50 N 


10 E 


Harsany 


48 


46 N 


19 E 


Helmstedt 


12 


52 N 


HE 


Hartebeest, R. 


133 


29 S 


21 E 


Helsingborg 


17 


56 N 


13 E 


Hartford 


70 


42 N 


72 W 


Helsingfors ... 


61 


60 N 


25 E 


Harud, R 


124 


30 N 


60 E 


Helston 


113 


50 N 


5 W 


Harwich 


121 


52 N 


IE 


Helvetic Republic... 


88 






Harz Mountains ... 


29 


52 N 


HE 


Helvoetsluys 


50 


52 N 


4E 


Haslach 


92 


49 N 


10 E 


Henneberg 


12 


50 N 


10 E 


Haslemere ... 


113 


51 N 


1 W 


Henrico 


66 


38 N 


78 W 


Hasli Thai 


15 


46 17 


8 E 


Heppenheim 


107 


SON 


9E 


Hasselt 


109 


51 N 


5E 


Herat 


124 


34 N 


62 E 


Hassenhausen 


92 


51 N 


12 E 


Herault 


103 


43 N 


3E 


Hastenbeck 


57 


52 N 


9E 


Herborn 


12 


51 N 


8E 


Hastings 


121 


51 N 


IE 


Herbsthausen 


39 


49 N 


10 E 


Hatfield 


16 


52 N 





Hereford 


16 


52 N 


3 W 


Hatteras, C. 


74 


35 N 


75 W 


Herenthal ... 


22 


51 N 


5E 


Hatteras Inlet 


74 


35 N 


76 W 


Herford 


12 


52 N 


9E 


Hauraki, G. 


129 


36 S 


175 E 


Hericourt ... 


79 


48 N 


7E 


Hauran 


110 


33 N 


37 E 


Herisau 


112 


47 N 


9E 


Hansen 


117 


50 N 


10 E 


Herjedalen 


17 


60N 


lOE 


Hausruckviertel 


13 


48 N 


14 E 


Hermannstadt (Nagy 








Haussen 


93 


49 N 


HE 


Szeben) 


21 


46 N 


24 E 


Havana 


69 


23 N 


82 W 


Hermitage 


23 


55 N 


3 W 


Havel, R 


29 


52 N 


12 E 


Hermosillo ... 


134 


29 N 


111 W 


Havelberg ... 


12 


53 N 


12 E 


Hern ad, R. 


111 


48 N 


21 E 


Haverfordwest 


121 


52 N 


5 W 


Herrenberg ... 


13 


49 N 


9E 


Havre 


79 


49 N 





Herrenhausen 


62 


52 N 


10 E 


Hawaii Is. ... 


139 


20^ 


160 W 


Herrnhut 


62 


51 N 


15 E 


Hawash, R. 


132 


9N 


40 E 


Hersfeld 


12 


51 N 


10 E 


Hawea, L. ... 


129 


44 S 


170 E 


Hersu Ho 


137 


43 N 


124 E 


Hawick 


56 


55 N 


3W 


Hertford 


16 


SON 


2 W 



Index to Maps. 



177 





Map 


Lat. 


Long, 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Hertford 


16 


52 N 





Holland, County of 


22 


52 rr 


4 E 


Hertogenbosch 


6 


52 N 


5E 


Hollenthal ... 


45 


48 N 


8E 


Hervey B 


128 


25 S 


153 E 


Holmby Ho. 


36 


52 N 


1 W 


Herzegovina 


3 


40N 


15 E 


Holme Cultram Ab. 


16 


55 N 


8W 


Hesdin 


11 


50 N 


2E 


Holowczyn ... 


54 


54 N 


30 E 


Hesse 


12 


SON 


8z: 


Holstein 


12 


54 N 


10 E 


Hesse- Cassel 


29 


48 N 


8 z: 


Holy cross 


37 


53 N 


8 W 


Hesse-Darmstadt ... 


29 


48 N 


8B 


Holyhead ... 


121 


53 N 


5 W 


Hesse-Homburg ... 


107 


48 N 


8E 


Holywood Ab. 


23 


55 N 


4W 


Hetzendorf ... 


111 


48 N 


16 E 


Holzhausen 


97 Ins. 




Hexham 


16 


55 N 


2W 


Homberg 


12 


51 N 


9E 


Heytesbury 


113 


51 N 


2 W 


Homburg ... 


12 


50 N 


9E 


Hidalgo 


134 


21 N 


99 W 


Home Ab 


23 


56 N 


2W 


Hierapetra 


120 


35 N 


26 E 


Horns 


110 


35 N 


37 E 


Higham Ferrars ... 


113 


52 N 


1 W 


Honan 


138 


30ir 


llOE 


Hikone 


137 


35 N 


136 E 


Honau 


112 


47 N 


8E 


Hildburghausen 


62 


SON 


HE 


Hondo 


137 






Hildesheim . . . 


12 


52 N 


10 E 


Hondo, R 


69 


18 N 


89 W 


Hill R 


126 


50zr 


lOO w 


Hondschoote 


81 


51 N 


3E 


Hillsborough (Ireland 


47 


54 N 


6W 


Honduras ... 


69 


ION 


90 W 


Hillsborough (U.S.A.) 


70 


36 N 


79 W 


Honduras B. 


69 


16 N 


88 W 


Hilzingeu ... 


13 


48 N 


9E 


Honduras, C. 


69 


16 N 


86 W 


Himalaya Mts 


64 






Hontieur 


19 


49 N 





Hindon 


121 


51 N 


2W 


Hongg 


15 


47 N 


9E 


Hindu Kush Mts ... 


124 


36 N 


70 E 


Hong-kong 


138 


22 N 


114 E 


Hindustan 


99 






Honiton 


113 


51 N 


3W 


Hinter Rhein, The 


30 


46 IT 


9 £ 


Honolulu 


139 


20sr 


leow 


Hiogo 


137 


35 N 


135 E 


Hont 


21 


48 N 


19 E 


Hirosaki 


137 


41 N 


140 E 


Honton 


121 


51 N 


IW 


Hiroshima 


137 


34 N 


132 E 


Hooghly 


64 


23 N 


88 E 


Hirschberg 


59 


51 N 


16 E 


Hooghly, R. 


64 


22 N 


88 E 


Hispaniola ... 


69 


19 N 


70 W 


Hooglide 


81 


51 N 


3E 


Hizen 


137 


33 N 


130 E 


Hoogstraeten 


22 


51 N 


5E 


Hoang Ho (Yellow R.) 


139 


20N 


lOOE 


Hook Head 


27 


52 N 


7W 


Hobart 


128 


43 S 


147 E 


Hook of Holland .». 


109 


52 N 


4E 


Hobkirk Hill 


70 


34 N 


81 W 


Hoorn 


22 


53 N 


5E 


Hochberg ... 


62 


48 N 


8 E 


Hopton Heath 


36 


53 N 


2 W 


Hochelaga ... 


2 


43 N 


73 W 


Horki 


61 


52 N 


33 E 


Hochkirch 


57 


51 N 


15 E 


Hormuz 


2 


27 N 


56 W 


Hochst 


29 


50 N 


9E 


Horn 


12 


49 N 


16 E 


Hochstadt 


45 


49 N 


11 E 


Hornby 


36 


54 N 


3W 


Hoedic 


87 


47 N 


3W 


Horncastle ... 


36 


53 N 





Hoen Ho, R. 


136 


40 N 


116 E 


Horodlo 


108 


51 N 


24 E 


Hof 


97 


50 N 


12 E 


Horsens 


17 


56 N 


10 E 


Hof wyl 


90 


47 N 


7E 


Horsham ... 


113 


51 N 





Hogenau 


12 


49 N 


8E 


Horst 


22 


51 N 


6E 


Hogland I. 


61 


60 N 


27 E 


Hosiwu 


138 Ins. 




Hogue, C. la 


50 


50 N 


2W 


Hostalrich ... 


95 


44 N 


3E 


Hohenberg ... 


62 


48 N 


9E 


Hostieradek 


92 Ins. 




Hohenelbe ... 


57 


51 N 


16 E 


Houat 


87 


47 N 


3E 


Hohenfriedberg 


57 


51 N 


16 E 


Houdan 


19 


49 N 


2E 


Hohenlinden 


94 


48 N 


12 E 


Hougoumont 


98 Ins. 




Hohenlohe 


12 


46 IT 


8E 


Hounslow 


121 


51 N 





Hohenstein 


12 


52 N 


HE 


Houston 


71 


30 N 


95 W 


Hohentwiel 


39 


48 N 


9E 


Howe, C. ... 


128 


38 S 


150 B 


Hohenzollern 


107 


48 N 


8z: 


Howe Is., Lord ... 


128 


31 S 


159 E 


Hokianga 


129 


35 S 


173 E 


Howick 


121 


55 N 


2 W 


Hokitika 


129 


43 S 


171 E 


Howtushih 


137 


39 N 


122 E 


Hokitika, R. 


129 


43 S 


171 E 


Hoxter 


29 


52 N 


9E 


Hokutai 


137 


41 N 


123 E 


Hoya 


62 


53 N 


9E 


Holkar 


99 


24 N 


70 E 


Hoyerswerda 


97 


51 N 


14 E 


Holiabrunn 


48 


49 N 


16 E 


Hradisch 


62 


49 N 


17 E 


Holland 


141 






Hsiuyen 


137 


40 N 


123 E 


Holland, Canal of 


109 


52 If 


4 S 


Huallaga R. 


106 


8S 


76 W 



C. M. H. VOL. XIT. 



12 



178 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Huaqui 


106 


16 S 


59 W 


Iguassa, R. 


135 


26 S 


52 W 


Hubertusburg 


57 


51 N 


13 E 


Ikerin 


27 


53 N 


8W 


Huddersfield 


121 


54 N 


2W 


Ilanz 


30 


47 N 


9E 


Hudson B. 


70 






Ilchester 


113 


51 N 


3 W 


Hudson Bay Co. ... 


70 






tie d'Yeu 


82 


47 N 


2W 


Hudson, R. 


72 


42 N 


74 W 


ties Pomegues 


19 


43 N 


5E 


Hudson Str. 

Hu6 

Huesca 


139 

125 

9 


60N 

16 N 

42 N 


Bovr 

108 E 



111, R. (Austria) ... 
Ill, R. (France) ... 
Ille et Yilaine 


112 
112 
103 


47N 
47N 
48N 


9i: 

7E 
4W 


Hughenden 


128 


21 S 


144 E 


Iller, R 


107 


48 N 


10 E 


Hiihnerwasser 


117 


51 N 


15 E 


Illinois 


72 


40 N 


90 W 


Hui li chau 
Huine, R 


138 
118 


27 N 
48 N 


102 E 
IE 


Illyrian Provinces... 
Ilmen, L. ... 


97 
108 


4417 

58 N 


i2z: 

31 E 


Hull 


16 


54 N 





Iloilo 


140 


ION 


123 E 


Hull 


126 


45 N 


76 W 


Imaile 


27 


53 N 


7W 


Hulst (Germany) ... 


39 


51 N 


7E 


Imam Ghar 


124 


26 N 


69 E 


Hulst (Neth.) 


22 


51 N 


4E 


Iman, R. 


137 


46 N 


135 E 


Humber 

Humenchai 


34 

138 


52 St 

23 N 


O 

114 E 


Imayne 
Imbros 


27 
3 


53 N 
40 N 


8W 
26 E 


Hummelhof 


54 


58 N 


26 E 


Imeritia 


61 


42 N 


43 E 


Hunan 


138 


2onr 


llOE 


Imokilly 


37 


52 N 


8 W 


Hundheim 


117 


50 N 


9E 


Imola 


4 


44 N 


12 E 


Hungary 


1 






Inchaffray Ab. 
Inchicronan 


23 


56 N 


4 W 


Hungtse hu 


137 


32 N 


116 E 


38 


53 N 


9W 


Hun Ho 


137 


42 N 


124 E 


Inchinnan ... 


23 


56 N 


4 W 


Hun Ho 

Hiiningen ... 


138 Ins. 

107 48 N 


8E 


India Agcy, Central 
Indiana 


122 

72 


20I7 
40N 


70z: 

90W 


Hunsdon 

Hunter, R. 


16 
100 


52 N 
32 S 



151 E 


Indianapolis 
Indian Desert 


72 
99 


40 N 
24 N 


86 W 
72E 


Huntingdon 
Huntly 


16 
23 


52 N 

57 N 



3 W 


Indian Territory ... 
Indigirka, R. 
Indore 


73 
139 


30N 
60If 


lOO*^ 
140X: 


Hunyani, R. 


133 


17 S 


31 E 


122 


201V 


70E 


Hupe 


138 


30N 


llOE 


Indore 


64 


23 N 


76 E 


Huron, L 


72 


40N 


©cw 


Indre 


103 


44 ir 


O 


Hurons 


67 


40N 


90 W 


Indre et Loire 


103 


44 N 


o 


Hurst Castle 


16 


51 N 


2 W 


ludre, R. ... 


103 


46 N 


2E 


Hussula 


61 


61 N 


26 E 


Indus, R. ... 


123 






Husum 


17 


54 N 


9E 


Ingogo 

Ingolstadt 

Ingria 

Inhambane 


133 


27 S 


30 E 


Huy 

Hwang Ho 


22 
138 


51 N 

38 N 


5E 
106 E 


12 
52 


49 N 
60 N 


HE 

30 E 


Hwayuenkow 


137 


40 N 


123 E 


140 


24 S 


35 E 


Hydra 


105 


37 N 


24 E 


Inisbofin I. 


37 


54 N 


low 


Hy^res Is. d' 


79 


43 N 


6E 


Inishannon 


37 


52 N 


9W 


Hythe 


16 


51 N 


1 E 


Inishkea 


27 


54 N 


low 










Inishowen ... 


37 


55 N 


8 W 


lar-connacht 


27 


53 N 


low 


Inistioge 


47 


52 N 


7W 


laroslavl 


61 


58 N 


40 E 


Inistrahull I. 


27 


55 N 


7 W 


lea, R. (Putumayo) 


135 


3S 


70 W 


Inkerman 


115 


45 N 


34 E 


Iceland 


141 


68 N 


20 W 


Inkerman Mt 


115 Ins. 




Ichang 


138 


31 N 


lllE 


Inn, R 


12 


47 N 


12 E 


Idaho 


72 


40I7 


120W 


Innsbruck 


12 


47 N 


HE 


Idapa, R 


135 


2N 


66 W 


Innviertel ... 


60 


48 N 


12 E 


Idrone 


27 


53 N 


7W 


Inowraclaw 


58 


53 N 


18 E 


Idstedt 


107 


55 N 


9E 


Insalah [see Ensalah) 








Idstein 


12 


SON 


8E 


Interlaken ... 


15 


47 N 


8E 


Ifelymye 


27 


52 N 


8W 


Inverary 


56 


56 N 


5W 


Ifni 


131 


29 N 


low 


Invercargill 


129 


46 S 


168 E 


Iganie 


108 


52 N 


22 E 


Inverey 


56 


57 N 


3W 


Igharghar, W. 


131 


31 N 


7E 


Inverlocky 


23 


57 N 


5W 


Igiden, W. 


131 


29 N 


4W 


Inverness ... 


56 


57 N 


4W 


Igis 


30 


47 N 


10 E 


Inverurie 


56 


57 N 


2W 


Iglau 


12 


49 N 


16 E 


lona Ab. 


23 


56 N 


7W 


Igli 


131 


SON 


2 W 


Ionian Is. ... 


105 


39 N 


20 E 


Iguala 


106 


18 N 


100 W 


Iowa 


72 


40N 


lOOW 



Index to Maps, 



179 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Ipek 


120 


43 N 


20 B 


Ithaka 


105 


38 N 


21 E 


Ipswich (Amer. N.) 


68 


43 N 


71 W 


Iton, E 


118 


49 N 


IE 


Ipswich (England) . . . 


16 


52 N 


IE 


Ittingen 


15 


48 N 


9E 


Iquique 


135 


20 S 


70 W 


Ituri, R 


182 


IN 


29 E 


Iracticonor ... 


27 


53 N 


low 


Ituxy, R. ... 


135 


lOS 


vomr 


Irak-Ajemi ... 


124 


30sr 


50E 


Itzehoe 


62 


54 N 


10 E 


Irbit 


108 


58 N 


63 E 


luka 


74 


85 N 


88 W 


Ireland 


141 






Iveagh 


27 


54 N 


6W 


Ireland's Eye 


27 


53 N 


6 W 


Iverdun 


25 


47 N 


7E 


Irgai 


136 


40 N 


68 E 


Iviza 


95 


39 N 


IE 


Irish Oriel ... 


27 


54 N 


7 W 


Ivory Coast 


130 


5N 


5 W 


Irish Sea 


121 






Ivoy 


11 


50 N 


5E 


Irkutsk 


188 


52 N 


104 E 


Ivrea 


4 


45 N 


8E 


Iroise Channel 


87 


48 N 


5W 


Ivry ... 


19 


49 N 


IE 


Iron Gates 


119 


45 N 


22 E 










Iroquois 


68 


40 N 


90 W 


Jabalpur 


122 


23 N 


80 E 


Irrawaddy 


122 


20N 


90E 


Jaca ... 


95 


43 N 





Irtish 


138 


SON 


70E 


Jacatra 


43 


6S 


106 E 


Irun ... 


7 


43 N 


2 W 


Jackson 


74 


82 N 


90 W 


Irurzon 


95 


43 N 


2W 


Jacksonville 


140 


30 N 


82 W 


Irwell, K 


121 


54 N • 


2 W 


Jacobabad 


124 


28 N 


68 E 


Irwin ville ... 


74 


32 N 


83 W 


Jacobsdal 


133 


29 S 


25 E 


Isabel I. 


139 


8S 


159 E 


Jacuhy, R 


135 


80S 


52 W 


Isandhlwana Hill ... 


133 


28 S 


31 E 


Jaen 


95 


38 N 


4 W 


Isar, E 


107 


48 N 


12 E 


Jaffa 


110 


32 N 


85 E 


Isaszeg 


111 


48 N 


19 E 


Jaffnapatam 


64 


ION 


80 E 


Ischia I 


4 


40I7 


12S 


Jagel 


116 


54 N 


10 E 


Iselberg 


93 


47 N 


11 E 


Jagerndorf ... 


12 


SON 


18 E 


Isenburg 


94 


50 N 


9E 


Jaguaribe, R. 


135 


6S 


39 W 


Iseo, L. 


88 


46 N 


10 E 


Jaguary, R. 


185 


20 8 


56 W 


Iser, R 


117 


48 N 


12 E 


Jahde, R 


87 


53 N 


8B 


Iser Gebirge 


117 Ins. 




Jaipur 


122 


27 N 


76 E 


Isere, Department of 


103 


44 NT 


4E 


Jaisalmer 


99 


27 N 


71 E 


Isdre, R 


8 


44 rr 


4i: 


Jaisalmer State 


122 


20N 


70E 


Isernia 


104 


42 N 


14 E 


Jaitpur (Kathiawar) 


122 


22 N 


71 E 


Ishim, R. ... 


138 


50 N 


60 E 


Jaitpur (U. P.) ... 


122 


25 N 


79 B 


Isker, R 


105 


43 N 


24 E 


Jajce 


3 


44 N 


17 E 


Island, No. 10 ... 


74 


37 N 


9W 


Jajcza 


21 


44 N 


17 E 


Islands, Bay of (New- 








Jalalabad 


124 


34 N 


70 E 


foundland) 


126 


48 N 


60 W 


Jalandar 


123 


31 N 


76 E 


Islands, Bay of (N.Z.) 


129 


35 S 


174 E 


Jalandar Doab 


124 


80 N 


75 E 


Islay 


23 


56 N 


6W 


Jalapa 


106 


20 N 


97 W 


Isle en Jourdan ... 


19 


44 N 


IE 


Jalisco 


134 


2oir 


iio^xr 


Isle of France 


79 


48N 


O 


Jalons 


11 


49 N 


4E 


Isle of Kent 


68 


39 N 


76 W 


Jamaica 


69 


ION 


80 W 


Islip 


36 


52 N 


IW 


Jamary, R.,.. 


135 


10 S 


62 W 


Ismail 


61 


45 N 


29 E 


James B. ... 


70 


5onr 


90W 


Ismailia 


132 


31 N 


32 E 


James Ranges 


128 


30 8 


130E 


Isny 


12 


48 N 


10 E 


James, R 


74 


87 N 


79 W 


Isola della Scala ... 


4 Ins 


. 45 N 


HE 


James Town 


100 


16 S 


5W 


Isonzo, R 


83 


46 N 


13 E 


Jamestown (Am. N.) 


68 


87 N 


77 W 


Ispahan 


124 


33 N 


52 E 


Jamestown (Ireland) 


38 


54 N 


8W 


Issik Kul (Lake) ... 


138 


4onr 


70E 


Jametz 


33 


49 N 


5E 


Issoire 


8 


45 N 


3E 


Jamrud 


124 Ins. 




Issoudun 


8 


47 N 


2E 


Janina 


105 


40 N 


21 E 


Issy 


97 Ins. 




Jankau 


38 


50 N 


15 E 


Istra, R 


52 


56 N 


36 E 


Japan 


137 






Istria 


4 


44 M 


i2i: 


Japan, Sea of 


187 






Istrie 


94 


45 N 


14 E 


Jargeau 


19 


48 N 


2E 


Italian Rep. 


89 


44 N 


BE 


Jarnac 


19 


46 N 





Italy 


141 






Jaromer 


117 Ins. 




Itamaraca I. 


106 


7S 


35 W 


Jaromircz 


57 


50 N 


16 E 


Itchili 


110 


35 N 


GOB 


Jaroslav 


20 


50 N 


28 E 


Itchin, R 


121 


51 N 


1 w 


Jaroslavl 


108 


58 N 


40 E 



12—2 



180 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Loug. 


Jarvis I 


139 





160 W 


Judenburg ... 


.. 83 


47 N 


15 E 


Jassy 


3 


47 N 


28 E 


Judoigne 


45 


51 N 


5E 


Jativa 


7 


39 N 





Juist Is. 


.. 109 


54 N 


7E 


Jauer 


12 


51 N 


16 E 


Jujuy 


.. 106 


24 S 


64 W 


Jaunpur 


123 


26 N 


83 E 


Jiilich 


.. 12 


51 N 


6E 


Java 


139 


20 8 


lOOE 


Jumna, E. ... 


.. 64 


2417 


72E 


Javari, E 


135 


lOS 


SOW 


Jungbungzlau 


.. 12 


50 N 


15 E 


Jaxartes, E. 


124 


40I7 


65 B 


Junin 


.. 106 


14 N 


76 W 


Jaz Morian Hamun, L 


.124 


25 zr 


55 E 


Jura 


.. 103 


44 17 


4 W 


Jebado I 


131 


34 N 


HE 


Jural. 


.. 23 


56 N 


6 W 


Jebel el Tik 


132 


29 N 


34 E 


Jura Mts ... 


.. 118 






Jechna Doab 


124 


30 N 


70 E 


Jurua, E. ... 


.. 135 


10 8 


70^7 


Jedburgh 


56 


55 N 


3 W 


Juterbogk (Jiiterbc 


)k) 12 


52 N 


13 E 


Jedburgh Ab. 


23 


55 N 


3W 


Jutland 


.. 17 


55 N 


10 E 


Jeddah 


130 


22 N 


39 E 










Jedi, W 


131 


34 N 


5E 


Kaap Plateau 


.. 133 


28 S 


24 E 


Jedisan 


3 


45 N 


30£ 


Kabardia, Gt and I 


it. 61 


40I7 


40x: 


Jedrzejow 


20 


51 N 


20 E 


Kabompo, E. 


.. 130 


13 S 


19 E 


Jefferson City 


74 


39 N 


92 W 


Kabul 


.. 124 


35 N 


69 E 


Jeletz 


108 


52 N 


38 E 


Kabul, E. ... 


.. 124 


34 N 


70 E 


Jemappes 


81 


50 N 


4E 


Kabul, E., Valley 


of 124 Ins. 




Jemmingen 


22 


53 N 


7E 


Kabylia 


.. 131 


30 N 





Jemteland ... 


17 


60N 


ion 


Kachar 


.. 125 


25 N 


94 E 


Jena 


107 


61 N 


12 E 


Kaffa 


.. 61 


45 N 


35 E 


Jenil, E. 


7 


36IV 


6W 


Kaffa B. ... 


.. 115 


45 N 


36 E 


J^remie 


69 


18 N 


74 W 


Kaffirs 


.. 65 


31 S 


29 E 


Jersey, I. of 


79 


49 N 


2 W 


Kaff raria 


.. 133 


31 S 


29 E 


Jersey, New (Am. N.) 


72 


40 N 


74 W 


Kafiristan ... 


.. 124 


35 N 


70i: 


Jerusalem 


110 


32 N 


35 E 


Kafue, E. ... 


... 130 


14 S 


28 E 


Jervaulx Ab. 


16 


54 N 


2 W 


Kagoshima . . . 


... 137 


32 N 


131 E 


Jever 


12 


54 N 


8E 


Kahla 


.. 92 


51 N 


12 E 


Jhansi 


122 


25 N 


79 E 


Kahlenberg 


.. 48 


48 N 


16 E 


Jhelum 


122 


33 N 


74 E 


Kaine 


.. 124 


34 N 


59 E 


Jhelum, E. 


64 


32 N 


72 E 


Kaipara Harb. 


.. 129 


36 S 


174 E 


Jibuti 


130 


UN 


43 E 


Kaiping 


... 138 


40 N 


118 E 


Jiddah 


132 


21 N 


39 E 


K'aip'ing ... 


... 137 


40 N 


122 E 


Jilma, W 


131 


35 N 


10 E 


Kairouan . . . 


... 131 


36 N 


10 E 


Jind 


123 


29 N 


76 E 


Kaisersberg 


... 46 


48 N 


7E 


Jiu, E 


119 


4417 


20i: 


Kaiserslautern 


.. 33 


49 N 


8E 


Jodhpur 


64 


26 N 


73 E 


Kaiserwerth 


.. 45 


51 N 


7E 


Jodhpur State 


122 


20I7 


70E 


Kaja 


.. 97 Ins. 




Johannesburg (Afr.) 


133 


26 S 


28 E 


Kakhetia . . . 


.. 108 


42 N 


46 E 


Johannisberg (Ger.) 


107 


50 N 


8E 


Kakhyens ... 


.. 138 


24 N 


95 E 


Johore 


125 


2N 


103 E 


Kakoun 


... 85 


32 N 


35 E 


Joinville 


97 


4817 


5x: 


Kalahari Desert 


.. 133 


23 S 


22 E 


Joinville, Pr. of ... 


8 


48^ 


4E 


Kalamas, E. 


... 119 


40 N 


20 E 


Jones Sd 


126 


70Iir 


901V 


Kalamata . . . 


... 120 


37 N 


22 E 


Jonesborough 


74 


34 N 


84 W 


Kalamita B. 


.. 115 


45 N 


33 E 


Jonkoping 


17 


58 N 


14 E 


Kalat 


.. 124 


29 N 


66 E 


Jordan, E 


85 


32 N 


36 E 


Kalgan 


.. 138 


41 N 


115 E 


Joruba 


130 


8N 


4E 


Kalgoorlie ... 


.. 128 


29 S 


121 E 


Josephstadt 


117 


SON 


16 E 


Kalinjar 


... 64 


25 N 


81 E 


Josselin 


19 


48 N 


3W 


Kalisch (Kalisz) 


... 55 


52 N 


18 E 


Jouan G. ... 


87 


44 N 


8E 


Kalocsa 


21 


47 N 


19 E 


Jouarre 


19 


49 N 


3E 


Kalotcha, E. 


.. 96 


56 N 


36 E 


Jougne 


25 


47 N 


6E 


Kalpi 


.. 123 


26 N 


80 E 


Joux, L. de 


112 


47 N 


6E 


Kaluga 


.. 61 


54 N 


36 E 


Joys 


27 


54 N 


low 


Kaluudborg 


... 17 


56 N 


HE 


Juan de Fuca, Sir. of 


72 


48 N 


125 W 


Kama, E. ... 


.. 52 


57 N 


55 E 


Juan Fernandez I. 


106 


34 S 


79 W 


Kambeloe ... 


... 43 


4S 


130 E 


Juan-king 


138 


29 N 


110 E 


Kameuiec ... 


.. 48 


49 N 


27 E 


Jub, E 


130 


3N 


42 E 


Kamloops ... 


... 126 


51 N 


121 W 


Juby, C 


131 


28 N 


13 W 


Kammin 


... 59 


54 N 


15 E 


Tucar, E 


7 


asrsr 


2W 


Kampen 


... 22 


53 N 


6E 



I 



Index to Maps, 



181 



Map Lat. Long. 

Kamtchatka ... 139 55 N 160 E 

Kanagawa 137 35 N 140 E 

Kanawha, E. ... 74 38 N 81 W 

Kandahar 124 32 N 66 E 

Kandy 64 7N 81 E 

Kanem 130 14 N 15 E 

Kangaroo I. ... 128 36 S 137 E 

Kanizsa 21 46 N 17 W 

Kankakee, R. ... 67 41 N 88 W 

Kankasanturi ... 140 9N 80 E 

Kano 130 12 N 9E 

Kansas 72 SOU 110^7 

Kan-su 138 30 la" lOO E 

Kantara ... ... 132 Ins. 

K^polna Ill 48 N 20 E 

Kappel 15 47 N 9E 

Kapunda 128 34 S 139 E 

Karabagh 108 40 N 46 E 

Kara Boghaz ... 124 40 isr 50 E 

Karabusa 48 36 N 24 E 

Karachi 64 25 N 67 E 

Karagwe 130 3S 31 E 

Kara-kash, R. ... 136 36 N 80 E 

Karakoram Mts ... 99 32 KT 72 E 

Karakorum ... 136 48 N 103 E 

Karakorum Pass ... 138 35 N 78 E 

Kara-kum 124 40 N 60 E 

Karaman 3 37 N 33 E 

Karaman (Karamania) 3 35 n 30 E 

Karamea B. ... 129 41 S 172 E 

Kara Sea 136 70 NT 60 E 

Karashahr 138 42 N 86 E 

Kara Su 119 42 N 24 E 

Karasubazan ... 115 45 N 35 E 

Kara-tal, R. ... 139 40 W lOO E 

Karatchai R. ... 124 35 N 50 E 

Karauli 122 26 N 77 E 

Karczeff 108 1ns. 

Kardis 52 59 N 24 E 

Kargopol 61 61 N 39 E 

Karikal 64 UN 80 E 

Karlsbad Ill 50 N 13 E 

Karlshamn 53 56 N 15 E 

Karlskrona 54 56 N 16 E 

Karlsruhe 118 49 N 8E 

Karlstad 108 59 N 14 E 

Karree 133 31 S 22 E 

Karroo, Gt ... 133 33 S 22 E 

Kars 3 41 N 43 E 

Kartalinia 108 42 N 44 E 

Karub, R 133 22 S 15 E 

Karun, R 124 31 N 49 E 

Karwar 122 15 N 74 E 

Kaschau 21 49 N 21 E 

Kashgar 138 39 N 76 E 

Kashgar, R. ... 124 40 N 78 E 

Kashgaria 138 40 N 76 E 

Kashira 52 55 N 38 E 

Kashkar, R. ... 124 35 N 72 E 

Kashmir 65 32 N 72 E 

Kasimbazar ... 64 24 N 88 E 

Kaskaskia 72 38 N 90 W 

Kassa Ill 49 N 21 E 

Kassai 130 4S 20 E 



Kassala 

Kassange . 

Kassassin .. 

Kastamuni . 

Katanga 

Katcha, R. 

Kathiawar .. 

Katsena 

Katsena, R. 

Kattegat 

Katunga 

Katwijk 

Katzbach . 

Kaufbeuren 

Kavanaghs .. 

Kavola 

Kawakawa . 

Kay 

Kayserberg 

Kazan 

Kazan, R. ., 

Kazembe 

Kazvin 

Keating s 

Kedah 

Keeling I. . 

Kehl 

Kei, R. 

Keiskama, R. 

Kelantan 

Kelheim 

Kelkil Irmak 

Kells 

Kelso 

Kelso Ab. 

Kelung 

Kelyoub 

Kempen 

Kempten 

Ken, R. 

Kenaliaghe... 

Kendal 

Kenia, Mt 

Kenmare, R. 

Kennebec, R. 

Kenneh 

Kennemer, I. 

Kennet, R. 

Kenninghall 

Kent 

Kentish Knock 

Kentucky ... 

Keny^rmezo 

Keoghs 

Keppel B. ... 

Keppoch 

Kerch {see Kertch) 

Keria 

Keria, R 

Kermadec I. 

Kerman 

Kerman-Shah 

Kerry 

Kerrykurrihy 



Map Lat. 
132 16 N 
130 9S 
132 Ins. 
110 41 N 
130 11 S 
115 Ins. 
122 20 17 
130 13 N 



130 

141 

130 

42 

57 

12 

27 

110 

129 

57 

40 

61 

126 

130 

124 

27 

125 

139 

33 

133 

133 

125 

33 

115 

37 

56 

23 

138 

85 

39 

12 

121 

27 

16 

132 

37 

70 

132 

6 

36 

16 

16 

42 

72 

21 

27 

128 

56 

138 
124 
139 
124 
124 
37 
37 



7N 
SON 

9N 

52 N 

51 N 
48 N 

53 N 
41 N 

35 S 

52 N 

48 N 
56 N 
62 N 
10 S 

36 N 

53 N 
6N 

lis 

49 N 
33 S 

33 S 

5N 
49 N 
40 N 

54 N 
56 N 

56 N 

25 N 
30 N 

51 N 
48 N 

55 N 

53 N 

54 N 


52 N 
44 N 

26 N 
52 N 

51 N 

52 N 

52 N 
30ia- 

46 N 

53 N 
23 S 

57 N 

37 N 
35 17 
40 8 

30 N 

34 N 
52 N 

52 N 



Long. 
36 E 
17 E 

34 E 

27 B 

70E 

7E 

10 E 

lO E 

5E 

4E 

16 E 

HE 

7W 

24 E 
174 E 

16 E 
7 E 

49 E 

100 W 

25 E 

50 E 
7 W 

101 E 
97 E 

8E 

28 E 
27 E 

102 B 
12 E 

36 E 

7 W 
2W 

2 W 
122 B 

31 E 
6E 

10 E 
4W 
8E 

3 W 

37 E 

low 

70 W 

32 E 
4E 
2 W 
IE 

2E 
9 "W 

23 E 
8W 
151 E 
5 W 

82 E 
80 E 
180 

57 B 

48 B 

lo var 

8 W 



182 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Kertch 


108 


45 N 


36 E 


Killybegs 


37 


55 N 


8 W 


Kertch, Str. of 


115 


45 N 


37 E 


Kilmacrenan 


37 


55 N 


8W 


Kerulen, E. 


138 


40N 


llOE 


Kilmallock 


27 


52 N 


9W 


Kessel, R 


45 


49 N 


10 E 


Kilmarnock 


23 


56 N 


5W 


Kesselsdorf 


57 


51 N 


13 E 


Kilnamanagh 


27 


53 N 


8 W 


Keswick 


121 


55 N 


3W 


Kilrush 


37 


53 N 


7W 


Kexholm 


61 


61 N 


30 E 


Kilsyth 


36 


56 N 


4W 


Key, L 


27 


54 N 


8W 


Kilwarline ... 


27 


54 N 


6W 


Key West 


134 


25 N 


82 W 


Kimanis B. 


139 


6N 


115 E 


Kezanlik 


105 


43 N 


25 E 


Kimberley (Afr. S.) 


133 


29 S 


25 E 


Khabes, G. of {see 








Kimberley (Austral.) 


128 


20 8 


120S 


Gabes) 








Kimbolton ... 


16 


52 N 





Khama's Country... 


133 


30B 


20E 


Kimbolton Ab. 


16 


52 N 





Kbatanga, B. 


136 


70 N 


103 E 


Kinbuck 


56 


56 N 


4 W 


Kherson 


108 


47 N 


33 E 


Kinburn 


61 


47 N 


32 E 


Kherson B. ... 


115 


47 N 


32 E 


Kincardine 


23 


57 N 


2W 


Khersonese, C. 


115 


44 N 


33 E 


Kinchow 


138 


39 N 


122 E 


Khersonese, The ... 


115 Ins. 




Kinchow B. 


137 


36 N 


120 E 


Khiva 


124 


42 N 


61 E 


Kinelea 


27 


53 N 


9 W 


Khoczim [see Choeim) 








King George's Sound 








Khoja Saleh 


136 


38 N 


66 E 


(Am. N.) 


101 


50 N 


125 W 


Khojend 


124 


40 N 


70 E 


King George's Sound 








Khokand (Khokan) 


124 


41 N 


71 E 


(Austral.) 


128 


35 S 


118 E 


Kholm {see Chelm) 








King Island 


128 


40 S 


144 E 


Khong 


125 


14 N 


106 E 


King William Canal 


107 


54 N 


9E 


Khorasan 


124 






King WilHam's Land 


139 


20 8 


140E 


Khor Hable 


132 


12 N 


30 E 


King William's Town 


133 


33 S 


27 E 


Khotan 


124 


37 N 


80 E 


King's Channel 


87 


56 N 


12 E 


Khotan, R. 


124 


36 N 


80E 


King's County 


37 


53 N 


8 W 


Khozat 


110 


39 N 


39 E 


King's Lynn 


16 


53 N 





Khozdar 


124 


28 N 


66 E 


King's Mt 


70 


35 N 


82 W 


Khozhend 


136 


40IV 


70E 


Kingston (Canada) 


70 


44 N 


77 W 


Khulm 


124 


37 N 


68 E 


Kingston (England) 


16 


51 N 





Kiachta 


138 


51 N 


106 E 


Kingston (Jamaica) 


69 


18 N 


76 W 


Kianghung 


138 


22 N 


101 E 


Kingston-on-Hull ... 


114 


54 N 





Kiangsi 


138 


20 N 


110 E 


Kingstown (N. Z.) 


129 


45 S 


169 E 


Kiangsu 


138 


34 N 


120 E 


Kingstown (St Vinc't) 


69 


13 N 


61 W 


Kiao-chow ... 


138 


36 N 


120 E 


Kingswood Ab. 


16 


52 N 


2 W 


Kibet 


130 


12 N 


20 E 


Kinross 


23 


56 N 


4W 


Kidderminster 


121 


52 N 


2W 


Kinsale 


37 


52 N 


9 W 


Kidnapper's Pt 


129 


40 S 


177 E 


Einsellaghs 


27 


53 N 


6W 


Kieff 


61 


50 N 


30 E 


Kin tyre 


23 


56 N 


6W 


Kiel 


12 


54 N 


10 E 


Kinzig, R 


39 


48 N 


8 E 


Kielce 


108 


51 N 


21 E 


Kioge 


116 


55 N 


12 E 


Kilbeggan 


47 


53 N 


7W 


Kioto 


137 


35 N 


136 E 


Kilcock 


27 


53 N 


7W 


Kippendavie 


56 


56 N 


4 W 


Kilcullen 


27 


53 N 


7W 


Kirbekan 


132 


19 N 


32 E 


Kildare 


37 


53 N 


7W 


Kirchheim 


28 


49 N 


9E 


Kildare, Earls of ... 


27 


53 N 


7W 


Kirghiz Cossacks ... 


136 


40xr 


50E 


Kildrummy 


56 


57 N 


3 W 


Kirghiz Steppe 


138 


40N 


60E 


Kilemba 


130 


8S 


26 E 


Kirin 


138 


44 N 


127 E 


Kilia 


3 


45 N 


29 E 


Kirkby Lonsdale ... 


36 


54 N 


3W 


Kiha Channel 


105 


45 N 


30 E 


Kirkcaldy 


121 


56 N 


3W 


Kilia, Mth of Danube 


108 


45 N 


30 E 


Kirkcudbright 


23 


55 N 


4 W 


Kiliman, R. 


2 


30 8 


30S 


Kirkham Ab. 


16 


54 N 


IW 


Kilimanjaro, Mt ... 


130 


3S 


37 E 


Kirkholm 


32 


57 N 


24 E 


Kilindini 


140 


4S 


40 E 


Kirki 


122 


18 N 


74 E 


Kilkenny 


37 


53 N 


7W 


Kirkstall Ab. 


16 


54 N 


2 W 


Killala 


47 


54 N 


9 W 


Kirkstead Ab. 


16 


53 N 





Killala Bay 


37 


54 N 


lO w 


Kirkwall 


23 


59 N 


3 W 


Killaloe 


38 


53 N 


8 W 


Kiruna 


108 


68 N 


20 E 


Killibeagh 


47 


54 N 


6W 


Kishineff 


108 


47 N 


29 E 


Killiecrankie 


23 


57 N 


4W 


Kisil-Arvat 


136 


39 N 


56 E 


Killultach 


27 


55 N 


6 W 


Kisogawa, R, 


137 


32 n 


136 E 



Index to Maps, 



183 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Kissingen 


117 


50 N 


10 E 


Kistna, R. ... 


64 


i6ir 


72 B 


Kitzingen 


13 


50 N 


10 E 


Kiukiang 


138 


30 N 


116 E 


Kiu-shiu I 


137 


32 N 


131 E 


Kiutayeh 


110 


39 N 


30 E 


Kizil Irmak 


115 


41 N 


36 E 


Kizil-kum ... 


124 


40N 


60E 


Kizil Uzen 


124 


37 N 


48 E 


Kizliar 


108 


44 N 


47 E 


Kjoge 


53 


55 N 


12 E 


Klagenfurt 


83 


47 N 


14 E 


Klausenburg 


21 


47 N 


24 B 


Kleck 


104 


43 N 


18 E 


Klein Schnellendorf 


57 


50 N 


18 E 


Klerksdorp ... 


133 


27 S 


27 E 


Klettgau 


13 


48 N 


9E 


Klimowicze 


108 


54 N 


32 E 


Klissow 


54 


51 N 


20 E 


Kliuc 


3 


45 N 


17 E 


Klondike, R. 


139 


eoN 


140W 


Kloster 


30 


47 N 


10 E 


Klostergrab 


12 


51 N 


14 E 


Klosterneuburg 


93 Ins. 




Klosterzeven 


57 


53 N 


9E 


Knajazevats 


119 


44 N 


22 E 


Knared 


53 


57 N 


13 E 


Knaresborough 


36 


54 N 


2 W 


Knight of Kerry ... 


27 


52 N 


low 


Knight of the Valley 


27 


53 N 


9W 


Knockfergus 


27 


55 N 


6 W 


Knocktopher 


47 


62 N 


7W 


Knoque 


51 


51 N 


3E 


Knoxville 


74 


36 N 


84 W 


Kobdo 


138 


48 N 


91 E 


Kob6 (Africa) 


130 


14 N 


25 E 


Kob6 (Japan) 


137 


35 N 


135 E 


Kodiak I 


139 


40Z9r 


160W 


Kodok 


132 


ION 


32 E 


Koepang 


140 


20 S 


120 E 


Koevorden {see Co- 








everden) 








Kohat 


124 


34 N 


71 E 


Koh-i-Baba 


124 


35 N 


67 E 


Kokang 


138 


23 N 


98 E 


Kokenhausen 


32 


57 N 


25 E 


Kok-kut I 


125 


12 N 


102 E 


Koko Nor 


138 


37 N 


100 E 


Kokura 


137 


34 N 


131 E 


Kola 


108 


eoN 


30E 


Kolaba 


122 


19 N 


73 E 


Kolberg 


33 


54 N 


16 E 


Kolberg Heath 


53 


55 N 


10 E 


Kolding 


116 


55 N 


9E 


Kolditz 


14 


51 N 


13 E 


Kolen Mts 


53 


65 IT 


i5x: 


Kolhapur 


122 


17 N 


74 E 


Kolima, R. 


139 


60N 


140E 


Kolin 


57 


50 N 


15 E 


Kolln 


12 


52 N 


13 E 


Kolozsvar 


21 


47 N 


24 E 


Komane, R. 


133 


19 S 


24 E 


Komati Poort 


133 


25 S 


32 E 


Komati, R 


133 


25 S 


33 E 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Komorn 


21 


48 N 


18 E 


Konakry 


130 


ION 


14 W 


Kong 


130 


9N 


5 W 


Kongeaa (Konge 








Aa), R. 


107 


55 N 


9E 


Kongsvinger 


108 


60 N 


12 E 


Konieh 


3 


38 N 


32 E 


Koniggratz ... 


57 


50 N 


16 E 


Koniginhof 


111 


50 N 


16 B 


Konigsberg (Bohem.) 


62 


50 N 


13 E 


Konigsberg (Coburg) 


14 


50 N 


HE 


Konigsberg (Prussia) 


62 


55 N 


20 E 


Konigsfelden 


15 


47 N 


8E 


Konigshofen 


33 


50 N 


10 E 


Konigstein ... 


107 


51 N 


14 B 


Konin 


20 


52 N 


18 E 


Konkip, R 


133 


27 S 


17 E 


Kootenay 


126 


49 N 


115 W 


Kopenick ... 


55 


52 N 


14 E 


Kopet Dagh 


136 


30N 


50E 


Kora 


64 


26 N 


80 E 


Korat 


125 


15 N 


102 E 


Kordofan 


132 


losr 


30E 


Korea 


137 






Korea, G. of 


137 


39 N 


124 E 


Korea Str 


137 






Koregaon ... 


122 


18 N 


74 E 


Kormond ... 


92 


47 N 


17 E 


Koron 


48 


37 N 


22 B 


Koros 


21 


46 N 


16 B 


Koros, R 


111 


47 N 


21 B 


Korosko 


132 


23 N 


32 B 


Korsor 


116 


55 N 


11 B 


Korti 


132 


18 N 


32 B 


Kory tnia 


96 


55 N 


32 B 


Kosciusko Mt 


128 


37 S 


147 E 


Kosel 


57 


50 N 


18 E 


Kosi, R. (Africa, S.) 


133 


27 S 


33 B 


Kosi, R. (India) ... 


123 


26 N 


87 B 


KoslofE 


61 


45 N 


33 B 


Koso Gol 


138 


50I7 


lOOE 


Kosovo 


3 


44 N 


16 B 


Kossier 


132 


26 N 


34 B 


Kossovo 


119 


40ir 


20E 


Kostroma 


108 


58 N 


41 B 


Koszeg 


21 


47 N 


16 E 


Kota 


122 


25 N 


76 B 


Kothen 


12 


52 N 


12 E 


Kotschenbroda 


33 


51 N 


14 E 


Kottbus {see Cottbus) 








Kotzebue Sd 


126 


60N 


170W 


Kouba 


108 


41 N 


48 E 


Koura, R 


52 


41 N 


46 E 


Kouta, R. ... 


132 


7N 


22 E 


Koutais 


61 


42 N 


43 E 


Kovno 


108 


55 N 


24 B 


Koweit 


130 


30 N 


48 B 


Kowloon 


138 


22 N 


114 B 


Kozminek 


20 


52 N 


18 B 


Krasnaia Pakhra ... 


96 


55 N 


37 B 


Krasnoi 


96 


55 N 


31 E 


Krasnovodsk 


136 


40 N 


53 B 


Krassnojarsk 


138 


56 N 


92 B 


Kratt 


125 


12 N 


102 B 



184 



Index to Maps, 



Map Lat. Long. 

Krems Ill 48 N 16 E 

Kremsier Ill 49 N 17 E 

Kreuznach 29 SON 8E 

Kristianopel ... 53 56 N 16 E 

Kristianshavn ... 53 56 N 13 E 

Kristianstad ... 53 56 N 14 E 

Kroja 3 41 N 20 E 

Kronach 92 50 N HE 

Kronborg 53 56 N 13 E 

Kronslot 54 60 N 30 E 

Kronstadt (Eussia) 61 60 N 30 E 

Kronstadt (Transyl.) Ill 46 N 26 E 

Kroonstad 133 28 S 27 E 

Krossen 12 52 N 15 E 

Kroumirs 131 36 N 8E 

Krugersdorp ... 133 26 S 28 E 

Krummau 29 49 N 14 E 

Krusovac 3 43 N 21 E 

Krzenowitz ... 92 Ins. 

Ksar-el-Kebir ... 131 35 N 6W 

Kuala Lumpur ... 125 2N 102 E 

Kuban 61 40 KT SOB 

Kuban, K 61 45 N 40 E 

Kucbing (Sarawak) 139 IN 111 E 

Kuen-lun Mts ... 99 

Kufara 130 25 N 22 H 

Kuito, R 133 17 S 19 E 

Kukawa 130 13 N 14 E 

Kulali 115 41 N 29 E 

Kulangsu 138 25 N 118 E 

Kuldja 138 44 N 82 E 

Kulm 97 51 N 14 E 

Kulmbach 12 SON HE 

Kulpa 21 45 N 16 E 

Kum, R 124 34 N 51 E 

Kuma, R 61 45 N 46 E 

Kumo, R 17 60EI 20X: 

Kunashiri 137 44 N 146 E 

Kunduz 124 37 N 69 E 

Kunduz, R. ... 124 35 Sff 65 E 

Kunersdorf 57 52 N 15 E 

Kunghyng 138 43 N 130 E 

Kungrat 124 43 N 59 E 

Kungura 52 57 N 57 H 

Kunsan 137 36 N 127 E 

Kuopio 108 65 N 28 E 

Kur, R 115 42 N 43 E 

Kur, R 124 40 N 48 E 

Kura, R. 108 40 N 48 E 

Kuram Pass ... 124 34 N 70 E 

Kurdistan 3 35I»" 4013 

Kurdla 99 19 N 75 E 

Kuria Muria Is. ... 140 18 N 60 E 

Kurile Is 137 Ins. 

Kurisches Haff ... 32 55 N 21 E 

Kurla 138 42 N 86 E 

Kurmark 12 SOW 12 E 

Kurnool 64 16 N 78 E 

Kursk 108 52 N 36 E 

Kuruman 130 28 S 24 E 

Kuruman, R. ... 133 27 S 22 E 

Kushk 136 35 N 63 E 

Kussnacht 112 47 N 8E 

Kiistrin {see Ciistrin) 



Map Lat. Long. 

Kutais 110 42 N 43 E 

Kutch 99 23 N 70 E 

Kutch, G. of ... 99 23 N 69 E 

Kutchuk-Kaiuardji 61 44 N 28 E 

Kuttack 99 20 N 86 E 

Kuttenberg 12 SON IS E 

Kutzdorf 57 S3 N IS E 

Kwando, R. ... 133 17 S 23 B 

Kwang Chow Wan 138 21 N 110 E 

Kwangsi 138 20W lOOE 

Kwangtung 138 24 KT llOE 

Kwantung Pen. ... 137 36W 120E 

Kwanza, R. ... 65 9 S 14 E 

Kweichau 138 20If lOOE 

Kwei-hwa 136 41 N HIE 

Kweihwacheng ... 138 41 N 112 E 

Kweiling 138 25 N HOE 

Kweiyang 138 27 N 107 E 

Kyaikshalo 125 16 N 96 E 

Kyendwin, R. ... 122 20N 0OE 

Kykdiun 42 53 N SE 

Kyle 23 55 N 4W 

Kymmene, R. ... 61 61 N 27 E 

Kyritz 33 53 N 12 E 

Kysyl Kum ... 138 40 N 60 E 

Laaland 1 17 55 N HE 

Laar 107 53 N 7E 

La Bassee 39 SI N 3E 

Labiau 58 55 N 21 E 

Labrador 126 SON 70W 

Labuan 139 O lOOE 

La Capelle 39 50 N 4E 

La Cava 4 41 N IS E 

Laccadive Is. ... 122 lOKT 70E 

La Charite 19 47 N 3E 

La Chataigneraie ... 82 47 N IW 

La Chaussade ... 79 46 N 2E 

Lachlan, R. ... 128 33 S 147 E 

La Colle Mill ... 70 45 N 74 W 

La Corona 83 46 N HE 

La Creuse 118 47 N IE 

Lacys 27 54 N 7W 

Ladakh 138 SON 70E 

Ladenburg 45 49 N 9E 

Lado 132 SN 32 E 

Lado Enclave ... 132 O 30E 

Ladoga 61 60 N 32 E 

Ladoga, L. ... 61 60N 30E 

Ladorra, R. ... 95 43 N 3 W 
Ladrone (or Marianne) 

Is 139 O 140B 

Lady smith 133 28 S 30 E 

La Favorita ... 83 45 N HE 

La Fere 118 SON 3E 

Lafere Champenoise 97 49 N 4 E 

La Ferte 97 49 N 3E 

Lafert^ Gaucher ... 97 49 N 3E 

Lagan, The ... 37 5411 8W 

La Garnache ... 19 47 N 2W 

Laghouat 131 34 N 3E 

Lagny 19 49 N 3E 

Lagos (Africa) ... 130 7N 4E 

Lagos (Portugal) ... 24 37 N 8W 



Index to Maps, 



185 



Lagos B. (Portugal) 

La Granja (Guayra) 

La Guaira ... 

Laguna de Terrninos 

La Haye ... 

La H^ve ... 

Lahn 

Lahn, E. ... 

Lahnstein ... 

Lahore 

Laibach 

Laing's Nek 

La Jaunaie 

Lake Providence ... 

Lalsot 

La Mancha 

Lambach ... 

Lamballe ... 

Lambay I. ... 

Lambessa ... 

Lambeth 

Lambourne 

Lamia 

Lammermuir Hills 

Lamone, B. 

Lamont 

La Mothe-en-Argonne 

Lampedusa 

Lampione L 



Map 
95 
95 

106 
66 



Lat. 

37 N 
41 N 
ION 
19 N 



98 Ins. 



Lanark 

Lancagua ... 

Lancaster ... 

Lancaster Sd 

Lanchaufu ... 

Landau 

Landeck 

Landen 

Landes, The 

Landguard Fort ... 

Landrecies ... 

Landres 

Laudriano ... 

Landsberg ... 

Landsburg ... 

Land's End 

Landshut (Bavaria) 

Landshut (Silesia) 

Landskrona 

Landstubl ... 

Lanesborough 

Langeland ... 

Langensalza 

Langholm ... 

Langport ... 

Laugres 

Langres, Plateau of 

Langside 

Lang-son ... 

Languedoc ... 

Lan Ho 

Lantore 

Laoka 

Laon 

La Palice 



67 

94 

118 

97 

64 

12 

133 

82 

74 

99 

95 

13 

19 

27 

131 

114 

36 

120 

121 

4 

23 

39 

87 

131 

23 

106 

16 

126 

138 

12 

30 

81 

103 

42 

11 

81 

4 Ins 

33 

12 

121 

12 

57 

53 

12 

47 

17 

117 

56 

36 

103 

118 

23 

138 

8 

137 41 N 

43 Ins. 

125 23 N 

8 50 N 

103 46 N 



44 N 
51 N 
50 N 

50 N 

32 N 

46 N 
27 S 

47 N 

33 N 
27 N 
36 IT 

48 N 
48 N 

53 N 

35 N 

51 N 

52 N 
39 N 
56 N 
4417 
56 N 

48 N 

36 N 
36 N 
56 N 
16 S 

54 N 
74 N 
36 N 

49 N 

47 N 

51 N 
4413' 

52 N 
SON 

49 N 
45 N 

53 N 

48 N 

50 N 

49 N 

51 N 
56 N 
49 N 

54 N 
55?7 
51 N 

55 N 
51 N 
48 N 
48 N 

56 N 
22 N 



Long. 

8W 

4 W 

67 W 

92 W 

64 W 

9E 

8E 

8E 

74 B 

15 E 

30 E 

2 W 
92 W 
76 E 

14 E 

3 W 
6 W 
6E 


2 W 
22 E 

3 W 
12E 

5 W 
6E 
12 E 
12 E 

4 W 
72 W 

3 W 
SOW 

104 E 
8E 

10 E 
5E 

4 W 

IE 
4E 
6E 
9E 

15 E 
HE 

6 W 

12 E 

16 E 

13 E 
8E 
8 W 

lOE 

11 E 
3W 

3 W 
5E 
5E 

4 W 
107 E 

123 E 

104 E 
4E 
1 W 



Map Lat. Long. 

La Pampa 135 408 lOVT 

La Pax 106 16 S 68 W 

La Paz 134 14 N 88 W 

La Perouse Str. ... 137 44 N 140 E 

Lapland ... ... 52 

La Plata 106 34 S 58 W 

Lappmark ... ... 17 

La Pr6e 19 46 N 1 W 

Larache 7 Ins. 

Lario 94 4430" 8E 

Larissa 105 40 N 22 E 

Larnaka 110 35 N 34 E 

La Eoche 103 47 N 1 W 

La Eochefoucauld 79 46 N 

La Eochelabeille ... 19 45 N IE 

La Eochelle ... 8 46 N IW 

La Eoche s. Yon ... 82 47 N 1 W 

La Eothi^re ... 97 48 N 5E 

Las Cruces ... 106 32 N 108 W 

La Seo de Urgel ... 95 42 N IE 

Las Guasimas ... 75 20 N 5W 

Lasne, E. ... ... 98 Ins. 

Las Palmas ... 24 28 N 16 W 

Laswari 99 28 M 77 E 

Latham House ... 36 64 51 3"W 

La Tour, B. of ... 8 44 N 

Lauban 57 51 N 15 E 

Lauderdale ... 23 56 N 3W 

Lauenburg 29 53 N HE 

Laueuburg, D. of... 116 52 N lOE 

Lauenburg (Prus.W.) 59 54 N 18 E 

Laufach 117 SON 9E 

Laufenburg ... 39 48 N 8E 

Lauffen 12 49 N 9E 

Laun 33 50 N 14 E 

Launceston (Eng.) 16 51 N 4 W 

Launceston (Tas.) 128 41 S 147 E 

Lausanne 15 47 N 7E 

Lausitzer Gebirge... 117 Ins. 

Lauter, E 45 49 N 8E 

Lauterburg ... 12 49 N 8E 

Laval 103 48 N IW 

Lavardac 103 44 N 

La Villette ... 9 Ins. 

Lavoro 26 42 N 14 E 

Laybach 83 46 N 15 E 

Layrac 19 44 N IE 

Lazes 110 41 N 41 E 

Lea, E 121 52 N 

League of God's House 15 46 U 8E 
League of the Ten 

Jurisdictions ... 15 46 W 8E 

League, Upper (Grey) 15 46 N 8E 

Leatherhead ... 36 51 N 

L6au 81 51 N 5E 

Lebanon 110 34 N 36 E 

Le Bourget ... 118 49 N 3B 

Lebus 62 52 N 156 E 

Lecale 27 54 N 6W 

Le Catelet 11 50 N 3E 

Lecce 104 40 N 18 E 

Lech, E 33 48 N HE 

Leek, E 81 52 N 5E 

Lectoure 8 44 N IE 



186 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Lee, E 


37 


52 N 


9W 


Lerma 


7 


42 N 


4W 


Leeds 


16 


54 N 


2W 


Lesbos 


3 


35ir 


25 S 


Leehan 


. 128 


42 S 


USE 


Lesghian 


108 


40IV 


40S 


Leer 


39 


53 N 


7E 


Les Herbiers 


82 


47 N 


IW 


Leeuwarden 


22 


53 N 


6E 


Les Islettes 


81 


49 N 


5E 


Leeuwin, C. 


. 128 


34 S 


115 E 


Les Sables d'Olonne 


82 


45 N 


2 W 


Leeward Is. 


69 


ION 


70W 


Les Sablons 


79 


46 N 


6E 


Leffingen ... 


. 22 


51 N 


3E 


Lessines 


45 


51 N 


4E 


Lefroy, L 


. 128 


31 S 


122 E 


Lethbridge 


126 


SON 


112 W 


Leganes 


7 


40 N 


4W 


Lethington 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Leg6 


. 82 


47 N 


2W 


Letterkenny 


37 


55 N 


8 W 


Leghorn 


. 26 


44 N 


10 E 


Lettermullan I. ... 


38 


53 N 


low 


Legino, Mt 


. 83 


44 N 


8E 


Leucate 


44 


43 N 


3 E 


Legnago 


. 104 


45 N 


HE 


Leuchtenberg 


107 


50 N 


12 E 


Legnano 


. 88 


45 N 


HE 


Leukas 


105 


39 N 


21 E 


Lehnin 


. 55 


52 N 


13 E 


Leuthen 


57 


51 N 


17 E 


Leicester ... 


. 16 


53 N 


IW 


Leutkirch ... 


12 


48 N 


10 E 


Leichhardt, R, 


. 128 


20 S 


140 E 


Leven 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Leignitz 


.. 55 


SON 


16Z3 


Leven, L. ... 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Leihghlin ... 


. 27 


53 N 


7W 


Leven, R 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Leine, R 


. 29 


52 N 


10 E 


Levis 


126 


46 N 


71 W 


Leiningen ... 


.. 107 


50 N 


8E 


Lewes 


16 


51 N 





Leinster 


. 27 






Lewes Ab 


16 


51 N 





Leipheim ... 


13 


48 N 


10 E 


Lewis 


23 


58 N 


7 W 


Leipzig 


12 


51 N 


12 E 


Lexington 


74 


39 N 


94 W 


Leiria 


. 95 


40 N 


9W 


Lexington 


70 


42 N 


72 W 


Leith 


. 23 


56 N 


3 W 


Leyden 


22 


52 N 


4E 


Leitha, R 


.. 12 


4617 


16& 


Leyny 


27 


54 N 


9 W 


Leitmeritz ... 


. 33 


51 N 


14 E 


Leyt 


139 


O 


120E 


Leitrim 


. 37 






Lhasa 


138 


30 N 


91 E 


Leitzkau 


. 12 


52 N 


12 E 


Lia-chau B. 


137 


36 N 


116E 


Leix 


. 27 


53 N 


7 W 


Liakhov Is. 


140 


75 N 


150 E 


Leixlip 


. 27 


53 N 


7 W 


Liane, R. ... 


87 Ins. 




Le Maire, Str. of. 


. 106 


59 S 


65 W 


Liao Ho 


138 


40N 


120S 


Leman 


94 


44 IT 


4S 


Liaotung 


137 


36 M 


120B 


Leman, L. 


. 25 


46 N 


6E 


Liao Tung, G. of ... 


137 


36 If 


120B 


Leman agh ... 


. 38 


53 N 


9W 


Liaoyang 


137 


41 at 


123 E 


Le Mans ... 


8 


48 N 





Liard, R 


139 


60 N 


156 W 


Lemberg 


. 58 


50 N 


24 E 


Libau 


58 


56 N 


21 E 


Lemling, C. 


. 125 


12 N 


102 E 


Liberia 


130 


6N 


11 W 


Lemnos 


3 


40 N 


25 E 


Libyan Desert 


132 






Lena, R 


. 138 


60 N 


HOE 


Lichfield 


16 


53 N 


2 W 


Lenczica 


. 58 


52 N 


19 E 


Lichtenberg (German 


y)i2 


49 N 


7E 


Lenkoran ... 


. 108 


39 N 


49 E 


Lichtenburg (Afr. S.) 


133 


26 S 


26 E 


Lennox 


.. 23 


56Mr 


5W 


Lidisdale 


23 


55 N 


3 W 


Lens 


.. 39 


50 N 


3E 


Lido 


83 


45 N 


14 E 


Lenton 


16 


53 N 


1 W 


Liebertwolkwitz . . . 


97 Ins. 




Lenton Ab. 


.. 16 


53 N 


IW 


Liechtenstein 


62 


47 N 


9E 


Lenzen 


. 54 


53 N 


HE 


Lief kenshoeck 


62 


51 N 


4E 


L^ogane 


69 


19 N 


73 W 


Li^ge 


12 


51 N 


6E 


Leohen 


. 83 


47 N 


15 E 


Liegnitz 


12 


51 N 


16 E 


Leominster 


.. 121 


52 N 


3W 


Lienz 


62 


47 N 


13 E 


Leon (Mex.) 


.. 134 


25 N 


100 W 


Lierre 


22 


51 N 


oE 


Leon (Spain) 


7 


43 N 


6W 


Liestal 


112 


47 N 


8E 


Leondari 


3 


37 N 


22 E 


Liffey, R 


37 


52 N 


8 ixr 


Leopold II, L. 


.. 130 


2S 


18 E 


Lifford 


37 


55 N 


7 W 


Leopoldstadt 


. 48 


48 N 


18 E 


Ligny (France) 


97 


49 N 


5E 


Leopoldville 


. 130 


5S 


15 E 


Ligny (France) 


98 


50 N 


5E 


Lepanto 


3 


38 N 


22 E 


Liguria 


104 


44 17 


8E 


Le Pouzin ... 


19 


45 N 


5E 


Ligurian Republic 


86 


44 nr 


8E 


Lepsinsky ... 


.. 136 


46 N 


80 E 


Lille 


79 


51 N 


3E 


Le Puy 


8 


45 N 


4E 


Lillo 


87 Ins. 




Lerida 


7 


42 N 


IE 


Lima 


106 


12 S 


77 W 


L6rins, Is. de 


. 44 


43 N 


7E 


Lima, R. ... 


95 


42 N 


8 W 



Index to Maps, 



187 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Limburg (Germany) 59 


49 N 


10 E 


Loa, R 


. 106 


22 S 


70 W 


Limburg (Neth.) . 


22 


51 N 


6E 


Loan 


. 83 


44 N 


8E 


Limerick 


.. 37 






Loanda 


. 130 


4S 


15 E 


Limerick ... 


.. 37 


53 N 


9W 


Loango 


. 65 


5S 


12 E 


Limeuil 


.. 19 


45 N 


IE 


Lobau I 


93 Ins. 




Limmat, B. 


.. 112 


47 N 


SE 


Lob Nor 


. 138 


SON 


90E 


Limoges 


8 


46 N 


IE 


Lobositz 


57 


SON 


14 E 


Limours 


.. 79 


49 N 


2E 


Locarno 


4 


46 N 


9 E 


Limousin . . . 


8 


44 N 


o 


Lochaber ... 


. 23 


56 N 


6 vr 


Limpopo ... 


.. 133 


30 8 


30E 


Leches 


8 


47 N 


IE 


Linck 


.. 39 


51 N 


2E 


Lochmaben 


. 23 


55 N 


3W 


Lincoln 


.. 16 


53 N 


1 W 


Lochoe 


. 43 


4S 


128 E 


Lincoln Heath 


.. 121 


53 N 





Lochy, L 


. 23 


57 N 


5W 


Lincoln Wolds 


.. 121 


53 N 





Locle, Le ... 


. 112 


47 N 


7E 


Lindau 


.. 12 


48 N 


10 E 


Locse 


21 


49 N 


21 E 


Lindenau ... ' . 


.. 97 Ins. 




Lodi 


4 


45 N 


9E 


Lindholm . . . 


17 


55 N 


9E 


Lodomeria 


. 60 


49 N 


24 B 


Lindi, R. ... 


.. 132 


IN 


27 E 


Lodz 


. 108 


52 N 


19 E 


Lindsays 


.. 23 


57 N 


3W 


Loengi, R. ... 


. 133 


17 S 


21 B 


Lingen 


.. 22 


53 N 


7E 


Loevestein ... 


. 22 


52 N 


5E 


Linkoping ... 


.. 17 


58 N 


16 E 


Lofo 


. 64 


60 N 


20 E 


Linlithgow ... 


.. 23 


56 N 


4W 


Logroiio 


7 


42 N 


2W 


Linnhe, L. 


.. 23 


56 N 


6W 


Lohe, R. 


57 


51 N 


17 E 


Linth, R. ... 


.. 88 


47 N 


9E 


Loigny 


. 118 


48 N 


2E 


Lintin I. ... 


.. 138 


22 N 


114 E 


Loing, R 


. 118 


48 N 


3E 


Linyanti 


.. 130 


19 S 


25 E 


Loir, R 


. 118 


48 N 


IE 


Linz 


.. 12 


48 N 


14 E 


Loir et Cher 


. 103 


44 N- 


O 


Lipotvar 


.. 48 


48 N 


18 E 


Loire 


. 103 


44 NT 


o 


Lippa 


3 


46 N 


22 E 


Loire, R 


8 


44 N 


4 W 


Lippe 


.. 12 


50ir 


8E 


Loire Inf. ... 


. 103 


44 N 


4 W 


Lippe, R 


.. 107 


52 N 


7E 


Loiret 


94 


48 N 


2E 


Lippstadt . . . 


.. 12 


52 N 


8E 


Loja (Am. S.) 


. 106 


4S 


79 W 


Lipski 


.. 62 


53 N 


40 E 


Loja (Spain) 


7 


37 N 


4W 


Lipto 


21 


49 N 


20 E 


Lombardo-Venetia 


102 


4onr 


lOE 


Liris, R. 


4 


40zr 


12 E 


Lombardy ... 


.. 104 


44 nr 


8E 


Lisaine, R. 


.. 118 


48 N 


7E 


Lomblem ... 


.. 139 


20 8 


120E 


Lisbon 


7 


39 N 


9W 


Lombok 


. 139 


20 8 


lOO E 


Lisburn 


37 


55 N 


6W 


Lome 


.. 130 


6N 


2E 


Lisieux 


.. 79 


49 N 


OE 


Lomza 


92 


53 N 


22 E 


Liskeard 


.. 113 


50 N 


4W 


Lonato 


83 


45 N 


10 E 


L'Isle, R. ... 


.. 103 


44 nr 


o 


London (England). 


.. 16 


52 N 





Lismoir 


23 


56 N 


6W 


London (Ontario) . 


.. 126 


43 N 


81 W 


Lismore 


47 


52 N 


8W 


Londonderry 


. 37 


55 N 


7 W 


Lissa 


.. 104 


40N' 


16 E 


Londonderry, C. . 


.. 128 


14 S 


127 E 


Lithuania . . . 


.. 55 


54 tt 


20E 


Longford ... 


37 


54 N 


8 W 


Littawa 


92 Ins. 




Long I 


70 


41 N 


73 W 


Little Ardes 


.. 27 


55 N 


6W 


Longjumeau 


19 


49 N 


2E 


Little Poland 


.. 68 


48 17 


20E 


Long Marston 


.. 36 


54 N 


IW 


Little Russia 


.. 58 


48 N 


28 E 


Longpr^ 


19 


SON 


2B 


Livadia 


.. 108 


44 N 


34 E 


Longueville 


8 


50 N 


IE 


Liverdun ... 


... 33 


49 N 


6E 


Longwy 


79 


SON 


6E 


Liverpool . . . 


16 


53 N 


3W 


Lons-le-Saunier 


. 103 


47 N 


6B 


Liverpool Plains 


.. 128 


31 S 


150 E 


Loo, The ... 


81 


52 N 


6E 


Livigno 


.. 30 


47 N 


10 E 


Loochoo Is. 


.. 138 


20N 


120E 


Livonia 


... 58 


56 N 


24 E 


Looe, E 


.. 113 


SON 


4W 


Livorno (Italy) 


4 


44 N 


10 E 


Looe, W 


.. 113 


SON 


4W 


Livorno (Italy) 


... 104 


45 N 


8E 


Lookout Mt 


74 


35 N 


85 W 


Livron 


19 


45 N 


5E 


Loop Head 


.. 27 


S3N 


low 


Lixheim 


... 45 


49 N 


7E 


Lopatka, C. 


. 139 


SON 


157 E 


Lizard Head 


... 16 


SON 


5W 


Lopez, C 


. 130 


IS 


9B 


Llandaff 


16 


51 N 


3 W 


Lora Hamun, L. . 


.. 124 


29 N 


65 B 


Lli, R. 


... 138 


45 N 


76 E 


Lorenzo Marquez . 


.. 130 


26 S 


32 E 


Llobregat . . . 


... 95 


41 N 


2E 


Loreto (Italy) 


26 


43 N 


14 E 


Llobregat, R. 


7 


40N 


O 


Loreto (Mex.) 


.. 134 


26 N 


112 W 



188 



Index to Maps, 



L'Orient 

Loriol 

Lome 

Lorraine 

Lorris 

Los Aucles ... 

Los Angeles 

Los Castillejos 

Losch 

Los Gelves 

Loshnitza . 

Los, Is. de... 

Losnig 

Lostwithiel 

Lot 

Lot, R 

Lota 

Lot et Garonne ... 

Loudon 

Loughbrickland 

Loughrea ... 

Louisbourg 

Louisiade Arch. ... 

Louisiana ... 

Louisiana, State of 

Louisville ... 

Louie 

Lourdes 

Louren^o Marques 

Louren?©, R. 

Loures 

Lourmarin ... 

Louth 

Louthian ... 

Louvain 

Lovejoys Sta. 

Lovicz {see Lowicz) 

Low Archipelago 

(Tuamotu) 
Lower Rhine Prov, 
Lowestoft ... 
Lowicz 
Low Islands 
Loyalty I. ... 
Lozere 

Lualaba, R. (Congo) 
Luan Ho ... 
Liibeck 
Lubina 
Lublin 
Lucca 

Lucca Republic 
Lucerne 
Lucerne, L. 
Luckau 
Lucknow 
LuQon 
Ludgershall 
Ludiana 
Ludlow 
Lugano, L. 
Lugnano 
Lugnetz 
Lugno 



Map 
79 
94 
23 
12 
79 

135 
72 

131 



Lat. 
48 N 
45 N 
56 N 
46 9r 
48 N 
30S 
34 N 

36 N 
92 Ins. 

7 Ins. 

96 54 N 
65 ION 

97 Ins. 

36 SON 
103 44 31 

8 44 W 

37 S 
44 "M 

47 N 



140 

103 

8 

47 

37 

67 

128 

72 

72 

72 

95 

103 

133 

135 

95 

19 

27 

23 

22 

74 



139 

107 

121 

20 

140 

139 

103 

132 

138 

12 

96 

58 

4 

84 

90 

104 

97 

64 

79 

113 

123 

16 

90 

4 

30 

95 



54 N 

53 N 
46 N 

lis 

30 M 

38 N 
37 N 

43 N 
26 S 
20 S 

39 N 

44 N 

54 N 
56 N 
51 N 
33 N 



20 S 
48 If 

53 N 
52 N 
20 S 

40 S 

44 sur 

IN 
40 N 

54 N 

55 N 

51 N 
44 N 
44 N 
47 N 
47 N 

52 N 
27 N 
46 N 

51 N 
31 N 

52 N 
46 N 
46 N 

46 XO* 
43 N 



Long. 

3 W 
5 B 
6W 

4 E 
3E 

118 W 
5 W 



29 E 
13 W 

5 W 
O 

o 

73 W 
O 



6W 
9 W 
60 W 
151 E 

lOO VT 

86 W 
8 W 


33 E 

60 W 
9W 
5B 
7 W 
3W 
5E 

84 W 



140 W 
4 S 

IE 
20 E 
150 W 
160 B 
O 

24 E 

118 E 

11 E 

32 E 

23 E 

10 E 

10 E 

8E 

9E 

14 E 

81 E 

1 W 

2 W 
76 E 

3 W 
9E 
9E 
9 E 
8W 



Lugos 

Lukou 

Lulea 

Lumbres 

Luna 

Lund 

Lundi Kotal 

Lundy's Lane 

Lune, R. 

Liineburg ... 

Lunel 

Lun^ville ... 

Lungchow ... 

Luni, R. 

Lunigrana ... 

Luppe, R. ... 

Luristan 

Lusatia, Up. & Low. 

Luserna 

Lusignan ... 

Luton Hoo 

Lutter 

Lutternberg 

Lutyahau, R. 

Lutzelsteing 

Llitzen 

Ltitzow 

Luxemburg 

Luxemburg, D. of 

Luynes 

Luzern [see Lucerne) 

Luzon 

Luzzara 

Lwan Ho ... 

Lychen 

Lydenburg... 

Lyell, Mt 

Lyesna 

Lyk 

Lyme 

Lyme Regis 
Lymington ... 
Lynchburg ... 
Lynn Canal 
Lynnhaven 
Lynn Regis 
Lyonnais 
Lyons 

Lyon.s, G. of 
Lyons, R. ... 

Lys 

Lys, R 

Lyttelton 

Maas 

Maas 

Manslandsluis 
Maastricht ... 
Macallister ... 
Macao 

Macassar ... 
Macaveely ... 
Maccann 
Maccartan ... 



Map 
111 

138 
108 

22 
7 

17 



Lat. 
46 N 

41 N 
66 N 
51 N 

42 N 
56 N 



124 Ins. 
70 43 N 



121 
12 
19 
79 
138 
122 
26 



54 N 
53 N 
44 N 
49 N 
23 N 

44 N 



97 Ins. 
124 33 N 



12 

25 

103 

121 

29 

57 

133 

118 

33 

97 

33 

12 

79 

139 
49 

137 
55 

133 

128 
54 
97 
36 

113 

113 
74 

126 
70 

113 

79 

8 

94 

128 
94 
79 

140 



109 

22 

6 

23 

138 

139 

27 

27 

27 



50 M 

45 N 

46 N 
52 N 

52 N 
51 N 
22 S 

49 N 
51 N 
54 N 

50 N 
SON 

47 N 

o 

45 N 
40IT 

53 N 
25 S 

42 S 

53 N 

54 N 

51 N 

51 N 

51 N 

37 N 
58 N 
37 N 

53 N 

46 N 
46 N 

43 N 
24 S 

48 nr 

50 N 
43 S 

48 N 

52 N 
52 N 

51 N 
56 N 
22 N 

5S 

54 N 
54 N 
54 N 



Long. 

22 E 

USE 

22 E 
2E 
IW 

13 E 

79 W 

3W 

10 E 

4E 

7E 

107 E 

70z: 

10 E 

48 E 
12 E 

7E 


10 E 

10 E 

23 E 
7E 

12 E 
HE 

6E 
6E 
IE 

120E 

11 E 
116 E 

13 E 

31 E 
46 E 

32 E 
23 E 

3 W 

3 W 

2W 

79 W 

135 W 
76 W 


4E 
5E 
3B 

116 E 
O 
3E 

173 E 

6E 
5E 
4E 
6E 
6W 
114 E 
120 E 
9W 
6 W 
6 W 



Index to Maps, 



189 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


MacCarthy 


27 


52 N 


9W 


Macquillin 


27 


55 N 


7 W 


Maccarthy Mor 


27 


52 N 


9W 


Macsweenybanagh . . . 


27 


55 N 


8W 


Maccarthy Reagh 


27 


52 N 


9W 


Macsweeny Fanad 


27 


55 N 


8W 


Maccawell ... 


27 


54 N 


7 W 


Macsweenytuath ... 


27 


55 N 


8W 


Macclesfield 


121 


53 N 


2W 


Macta 


131 


36 N 





MacCostello 


27 


54 N 


9 W 


MacTeague 


27 


52 N 


9W 


MacDamore 


27 


53 N 


6 W 


Mac Thomas 


28 


52 N 


8W 


MacDermot 


27 


54 N 


8W 


MacVaddock 


27 


53 N 


6W 


Macdonald ... 


23 


57 N 


5W 


Macwilliameighter 


27 


53 N 


8W 


Macdonald of Clan 








MacWm Oughter . . . 


27 


54 N 


low 


Ranald 


23 


57 N 


7W 


Mad, E 


118 Ins. 




Macdonald of Sleat 


23 


58 N 


7W 


Madagascar 


130 


20 S 


47 E 


Macdonald of Sleat 


23 


58 N 


6W 


Maddalena I. 


87 


40 N 


9E 


Macdonell 


27 


54 N 


7 W 


Maddalena B. 


91 


40N 


O 


Macdonell of Glengarry 23 


57 N 


5W 


Madeira 


24 


33 N 


17 W 


Macdonell of Keppoch 


23 


57 N 


5W 


Madeira, R. 


106 


8S 


64 W 


Macdonell Kanges 


128 


30 8 


ISOE 


Madhoganj 


123 


27 N 


80 E 


Macdonnells 


27 


55 N 


6W 


Madras 


64 


13 N 


80 E 


MacDonough 


27 


54 N 


8W 


Madras Presidency 


122 






MacDougalls 


23 


66 N 


5W 


Madre de Dios 


135 


12 S 


70 W 


Macedonia 


105 






Madrid 


7 


40 N 


4W 


Macerata 


94 


43 N 


13 E 


Madrid, New 


74 


37 N 


90 W 


Macfarlane, L. 


128 


32 S 


137 E 


Madrigal 


7 


41 N 


5W 


Machian 


43 Ins. 




Madura 


64 


ION 


78 E 


Machlandviertel . . . 


13 


48 XV 


12 E 


Madura I 


139 


20 S 


lOOE 


MacHugh 


27 


53 N 


9W 


Maestricht 


22 


51 N 


6E 


Maciejowice 


58 


52 N 


22 E 


Mafeking 


133 


26 S 


26 E 


Macintoshes 


23 


57 N 


4W 


Mafia 


130 


8S 


40 E 


Macintyre, B. 


128 


29 S 


151 E 


Magadoxo 


65 


2N 


45 E 


Mac Jordan 


27 


54 N 


9W 


Magalhaes, Str. of 


2 


60 8 


90 W 


Mackay 


128 


21 S 


149 E 


Magalies Mts 


133 


26 S 


28 E 


Mackays 


23 


46 N 


5 W 


Magdala 


130 


UN 


39 E 


Mackenzie 


126 


eoN 


isox: 


Magdalen I. 


70 


48 N 


62 W 


Mackenzie B. 


126 


70 N 


135 W 


Magdaleua B. 


134 


24 N 


112 W 


Mackenzie, R. 


128 


24 S 


149 E 


Magdalena, R. 


135 


8N 


74 W 


Mackenzie, R. 


139 


60N 


ISOW 


Magdeburg 


12 


52 N 


12 E 


Mackenzies 


23 


58 N 


7W 


Magee I. 


37 


55 N 


6W 


Mackenzies 


23 


58 N 


6W 


Magellan Str. 


135 


60 8 


70 W 


Mackinaw ... 


70 


46 N 


85 W 


Magennis ... 


27 


54 N 


6W 


Mackinnons 


23 


57 N 


6W 


Magenta 


104 


45 N 


9E 


Macleans 


23 


57 N 


7 W 


Magersfontein 


133 


29 S 


25 E 


Macleans 


23 


57 N 


6W 


Maggiore, L. 


4 


46 N 


SB 


Macleans ... 


23 


56 N 


6W 


Maghery Connacht 


27 


54 N 


9W 


Macleods 


23 


58 N 


7W 


Maglaj 


120 


45 N 


18 B 


Macleods 


23 


57 N 


7 W 


Magnisa 


120 


39 N 


27 E 


Maclodio 


4 Ins 


. 45 N 


10 E 


Maguire 


27 


54 N 


8W 


Macloutsi, E. 


133 


22 S 


28 E 


Magus Muir 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


MacMahon ... 


27 


54 N 


7 W 


Mahanadi, R. 


99 


i6ir 


80x: 


MacMahon 


27 


53 N 


9 W 


Mahanuddy, R. 


64 


16IT 


80z: 


MacMorris 


27 


54 N 


9 W 


Maharajpur 


124 


26 N 


78 E 


Macnab 


23 


56 N 


4 W 


Mahe 


64 


12 N 


76 E 


MacNamara 


27 


53 N 


9W 


Mahe I 


140 


20 8 


aoE 


Macneil 


23 


56 N 


6W 


Main, R 


122 


23 N 


74 E 


Macneil 


23 


57 N 


7 W 


Mahia Peninsula ... 


129 


39 S 


178 E 


Macoghlan ... 


27 


53 N 


8 W 


Mahon 


7 


40 N 


4E 


Macon (Am. N.) ... 


74 


32 N 


84 W 


Mahr 


99 


20 N 


78 E 


Macon (France) ... 


19 


46 N 


5E 


Maida 


87 


39 N 


16 E 


MacPaddin 


27 


54 N 


low 


Maidens, The 


27 


55 N 


6W 


Macpherson Range 


128 


28 S 


151 E 


Maidstone ... 


16 


51 N 


IE 


Macphersons 


23 


57 N 


4W 


Maikal Hills 


123 


2orr 


80i: 


Macquarie Harb. ... 


128 


42 S 


145 E 


Maillezais 


19 


46 N 


1 W 


Macquarie Is. 


139 


54 S 


160 E 


Main, R 


29 


50 N 


9E 


Macquarie, Port ... 


128 


31 S 


153 E 


Main, R. , East ... 


126 


5onr 


80W 


Macquarie, R. 


128 


31 S 


148 E 


Maina 


48 


36 N 


22 E 



190 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Maine (France) 


8 


44 IT 


4*^ 


Mandalay ... 


. 122 


22 N 


96 E 


Maine (U.S.A.) ... 


72 


40ir 


80W 


Mandavi 


. 122 


22 N 


74 E 


Maine et Loire 


103 


44 N 


^VH 


Mandla 


. 99 


22 N 


80 E 


Mainpuri 


123 


27 N 


79 E 


Mangalore 


. 64 


13 N 


75 E 


Mainz 


11 


SON 


8E 


Manhattan I. 


. 68 


41 N 


74 W 


Maipu 


106 


34 S 


71 W 


Manihiki Is. 


. 139 


20S 


160W 


Maitland 


128 


33 S 


152 E 


Manila 


. 139 


15 N 


121 E 


Mai wand ... 


124 


32 N 


65 E 


Manila B 


75 Ins. 




Maizieres ... 


118 Ins. 




Manipur 


. 125 


20N 


90E 


Majorca 


7 


38N 


2z: 


Manitoba 


. 126 


50 N 


100 w 


Majuba Hill 


138 


27 S 


30 E 


Manitoba, L. 


67 


51 N 


99 W 


Makale 


130 


13 N 


40 E 


Manjera, R. 


. 123 


18 N 


78 E 


Makarieff 


108 


56 N 


45 E 


Mannheim ... 


. 29 


49 N 


8E 


Makhran 


136 


40 N 


70 E 


Manresa 


7 


42 N 


2E 


Makilolo 


130 


20S 


20z: 


Mans 


. 22 


50 N 


4E 


Makrinitsa 


119 


39 N 


23 E 


Mansfeld 


. 62 


52 N 


12 E 


Makwanpur 


99 


27 N 


85 E 


Mansu 


65 Ins. 




Malabar 


43 Ins. 




Mansurah 


. 132 


31 N 


31 E 


Malabar Coast 


64 


817 


72 E 


Mantello 


. 30 


46 N 


10 E 


Malacca 


125 


2N 


102 E 


Mantes 


. 19 


49 N 


2E 


Malacca, Str. of ... 


125 


4N 


100 E 


Mantua 


4 Ins 


. 45 N 


HE 


Malaga 


7 


37 N 


4W 


Manukau Harb. .. 


. 129 


37 S 


175 E 


Malakand Pass 


124 


35 N 


72 E 


Manwein 


. 138 


25 N 


98 E 


MalakhofE 


115 Ins. 




Manzanillo 


. 134 


19 N 


104 W 


Malay Peninsula ... 


139 


O 


lOOE 


Marabout 


. 87 


32 N 


29 E 


Malay States 


125 


O 


lOOE 


Maracaibo, L. 








Malda 


64 


25 N 


88 E 


(Maracaybo) . . 


. 106 


9N 


72 W 


Maiden 


70 


42 N 


83 W 


Maracaybo ... 


66 


ION 


72 W 


Maiden I 


139 


20 8 


leo'w 


Marais 


. 82 


46nr 


2W 


Maldive Is. 


100 


O 


eoE 


Marajo, I. of 


. 106 


IS 


SOW 


Maldon 


50 


52 N 


IE 


Maranhao ... 


. 106 


4S 


46 W 


Malenco, Val 


30 


46N 


9x: 


Maranoa, R. 


. 128 


26 S 


USB 


Malghera 


104 


45 N 


12 E 


Maranon, R., or 








Malia, C 


120 


36 N 


23 E 


Amazon 


. 106 






Malik, W 


132 


15 N 


29 E 


Marans 


19 


46 N 


IW 


Malin Head 


37 


55 N 


7W 


Maratha Confed. .. 


64 


16 N 


72 E 


Malindi 


130 


3S 


40 E 


Marathon 


. 105 


38 N 


24 B 


Malins 


22 


51 N 


4B 


Marbella Pt 


50 


37 N 


5W 


Malloggia 


30 


46 N 


10 E 


Marburg (Hesse) .. 


12 


51 N 


9B 


Mallow 


37 


52 N 


9W 


Marburg (Styria) .. 


111 


47 N 


16 B 


Malmaison 


97 Ins. 




Marcaria 


83 


45 N 


HE 


Malm6dy ... 


22 


50 N 


6E 


March, R 


21 


48 N 


16E 


Malmesbury (Afr. S.) 


133 


33 S 


19 E 


March, East 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Malmesbury (Eng.) 


113 


52 N 


2W 


March, Middle 


23 


55 N 


3W 


Malmo 


17 


56 N 


13 E 


March, West 


23 


55 N 


4W 


Malolos 


139 


15 N 


121 E 


Marches, The 


4 


42 nr 


12 E 


Malo-Yaroslavetz ... 


96 


55 N 


36 E 


Marchfeld 


111 


48 N 


16 B 


Malplaquet 


45 


50 N 


4E 


Marchiennes 


45 


50 N 


3E 


Malta 


. 26 


36 N 


14 E 


Marciano 


4 


43 N 


12 E 


Malters 


112 


47 N 


8E 


Marcoussis 


79 


49 N 


2B 


Malton 


113 


54 N 


1 W 


Mardan 


123 


34 N 


72 B 


Malvern Hill 


74 


37 N 


77 W 


Mardyk 


39 


51 N 


2B 


Malwa 


64 


24 Z7 


72 E 


Mareb, R 


132 


15 N 


38 B 


Mam ore, E. 


135 


14 S 


65 W 


Marella 


7 


41 N 





Man, Isle of 


16 


54 N 


6W 


Maremma 


4 


42 N 


lOE 


Managua, L, 


134 


12 N 


86 W 


Marengo 


94 


45 N 


9B 


Manar 


43 Ins. 




Mareotis 


132 Ins. 




Manasarowar, L. ... 


138 


31 N 


81 E 


Margarita Is. 


106 


UN 


64 W 


Manassas 


74 


39 N 


77 W 


Margate 


16 


51 N 


IB 


Mance, R 


118 Ins. 




Maria 


95 


41 N 


IW 


Mancha, La 


7 


38 N 


4W 


Marianne Is. 


139 


O 


140E 


Manche 


103 


48 N 


4ixr 


Maribo 


17 


55 N 


12 B 


Manchester 


16 


53 N 


2W 


Marico, R 


133 


25 S 


27 B 


Manchuria 


138 


40N 


laoE 


Marie Galante 


69 


16 N 


61 W 



I 



Index to Maps, 



191 



Marienburg (France) 
Marienburg (Livonia 
Marienburg (Prus.) 
Marienhause 
Marienwerder 
Mariestad ... 
Marietta (U.S.A.) . 
Marietta (U.S.A.) . 
Marignano ... 
Marigny 
Maringa, R. 
Maritime Alps 
Maritime Province 
Maritsa, R. 
Mark 
Mark, Old, Middle, 

New, Electoral 
Market Drayton ... 
Market Harborough 
Markgrafen... 
Markkleeberg 
Marklissa ... 
Markranstadt 
Marlborough (Eng.) 
Marlborough (N.Z.) 
Marlow 
Marly 

Marmora, S. of 
Marne (and Haute M.) 
Marne, R. ... 
Maros, R. ... 
Marquesas Is. 
Marsaglia . . . 
Marsal 
Marsala 
Marseilles . . . 
Marshall Is, 
Mars la Tour 
Marston Moor 
Marstrand ... 
Martaban . . . 
Martaban, G. of 
Marienwerder 
Martinique . . . 
Martinsbruck 
Martinsburg 
Marvejols ... 
Maryborough (Austral 
Maryborough (Ire.) 

Maryland 

Marylebone 
Marzarquivir {see 

Mers-el-Kebir) 
Masampo ... 
Mascara 
Mascat 
Masena 
Maseru 
Mashonaland 
Mask, L. ... 
Masovia 
Massa (Italy) 
Massa (Italy) 
Massachusetts 



Map 
46 
53 
55 
58 
58 
53 
72 
74 
i Ins. 
19 

132 
83 

137 

3 

12 



Lat. 
SON 

57 N 
54 N 
57 N 
54 N 
59 N 
40 N 
34 N 
45 N 
49 N 

44 N 

40xr 

5017 



59 

36 

36 

93 

97 

57 

97 

121 

129 

113 

97 

108 

103 

8 

3 

139 

49 

33 

104 

8 

139 

118 

36 

54 

125 

125 

59 

69 

30 

74 

19 

.)128 

37 

72 

114 



53 N 
52 N 

Ins. 
Ins. 

51 N 
Ins. 

51 N 

42 S 

52 N 
Ins. 

41 N 
48 N 

48 N 
45 N 

10 s 

44 N 

49 N 

38 N 

43 N 

o 

49 N 

54 N 
58 N 
16 N 
ION 
54 N 
14 N 
47 N 

39 N 

45 N 
26 S 

53 N 
30I7 

52 N 



137 

131 

2 

130 

133 

130 

27 

55 

104 

104 

68 



35 N 
35 N 
24 N 
12 N 
29 S 
20 S 
54 N 
50N 
44 N 

44 N 

45 IV 



Long. 
5E 

27 E 
19 E 

28 E 
19 E 
14 E 
81 W 
85 W 

9E 
1 W 
21 E 
8E 

25 E 
4X: 



2 W 

1 W 



15 E 

2 W 

174 E 

1 W 

28 E 
4E 
4E 
20E 
140 W 
8E 
7E 
12 E 
5E 
160E 
6E 
1 W 
12 E 
98 B 
90E 
19 E 
61 W 
10 E 
78 W 
3E 
153 E 
7 W 
acw 
w 



128 E 



58 E 

16 E 

28 E 

30 E 

9W 

20E 

10 E 

12 E 

70 W 



Map Lat. 

Massachusetts Bay 68 42 N 

Massaruni, R. ... 69 8 N 

Masserano ... ... 47 44 N 

Masso 30 46 N 

Massowah 132 16 N 

Masulipatam ... 64 16 N 

Matabeleland ... 133 20 S 

Matagorda B. ... 66 28 N 

Matamoros 134 26 N 

Matanzas, Bay of 69 23 N 

Matapan, C. ... 120 36 N 

Matari 124 26 N 

Mataura, R. ... 129 46 S 

Matifu, G 7 Ins. 

Matoppo Hills ... 133 20 S 

Matsumae 137 41 N 

Matto Grosso ... 106 20 8 

MattoGrosso,Plat.of 135 20 8 

Matun 125 20 N 

Maubeuge 81 50 N 

Maulbronn ... 12 49 N 

Maulde 81 51 N 

Maule, R 106 34 S 

Mauleon 19 43 N 

Maumee, R. ... 72 41 N 

Maundsaur ... 122 24 N 

Maurepas, R. ... 67 51 N 

Mauritania ... 140 20IT 

Mauritius 130 20 S 

Mauritsstad ... 106 10 S 

Maurrenne ... ... 25 4417 

Mautern 92 48 N 

Mauthausen ... 57 48 N 

Mauvezin ... ... 19 44 N 

Maxen 57 51 N 

Maya 95 43 N 

Maybole Ab. ... 23 55 N 

Mayenfeld 30 47 N 

Mayenne 79 48 N 

Maynooth 27 53 N 

Mayo 37 52 S 

Mayotta 140 13 S 

Mazagan 131 33 N 

Mazanderan ... 124 35 N 

Mazar-i- Sharif ... 124 37 N 
Mazaruni, R. [see 
Massaruni, R.) 

Mazatlan 139 22 N 

Mazzara '26 38 N 

Mbomu, R. ... 132 5 N 

M*^ Arthur R. ... 128 17 S 

McClintock Chan. 126 72 N 

McClure Str. ... 126 75 N 

McGregors 23 56 N 

McLachland ... 23 56 N 

McLarens 23 56 N 

McNaughtons ... 23 56 N 

Meath 37 52 N 

Meaux Ab. ... 16 54 N 

Mecca 132 21 N 

Mechlin 6 51 N 

Mecklenburg ... 12 54 N 

Mecklenburg-Sohwerin 62 54 N 

Mecklenburg-Strelitz 62 54 N 



Long. 
70 W 
60 W 
8E 
9E 
40 E 
81 E 
30 E 

96 W 

97 W 

83 W 
22 E 
68 E 

169 E 

29 E 
140 E 
60 W 

eoixT 

95 E 
4E 
9E 
4E 

72 W 
IW 

84 W 
75 E 

96 W 
30*07 
58 E 
36 W 

61: 
16 E 
15 E 

IE 
14 E 

1 W 

5W 
10 E 



7W 

low 

46 E 
8W 
50E 

67 E 



101 W 
13 E 
25 E 
136 E 
100 W 
120 W 
5W 
5W 
4W 
5 W 
8 W 


40 E 

4E 

12 E 

12 E 

13 E 



192 



Index to Maps, 



Map Lat. Long. 

Medellin (Am. S.) ... 135 6 N 76 W 

Medellin (Spain) ... 95 39 N 6W 

Medemblijk ... 22 53 N 5E 

Medicine Hat ... 126 50 N HOW 

Medina 132 25 N 40 E 

Medina del Campo 7 41 N 5 W 

Medina de Rioseco 7 42 N 5 W 

Medina Sidonia ... 7 36 N 6 W 

Mediterranean Sea 120 

Mediterranee ... 94 44 N HE 

Medjerda, W. ... 131 36 N 8 E 

Medola 83 45 N 10 E 

Medun 119 42 N 19 B 

Medway, R. ... 36 51 N 

Medyn 96 55 N 36 E 

Meelick 38 53 N 8W 

Meersburg 15 48 N 9E 

Meerut 99 29 N 78 E 

Mehedia 7 Ins. 

Mehidpur 122 23 N 76 E 

Meilhan 19 45 N 

Meiningen 107 51 N 10 E 

Meissen 12 51 N 13 E 

Mekong, R. ... 138 18 N 104 E 

Mekran 124 25 N 60 E 

Melanesia ... ... 139 

Melbourne 128 38 S USE 

Melcombe Regis ... 121 51 N 2W 

Melegnano 104 45 N 9E 

Melilla 65 35 N 3W 

Melinda 65 4S 40 E 

Mella 94 4417 8E 

Melle 19 46N 

Melnik 57 50 N 14 E 

Melrose Ab. ... 23 56 N 3 W 

Melun ...• ... 8 49N 3E 

Melville, C, ... 128 14 S 144 E 

Melville I. (Australia) 126 70W 120W 

Melville I. (Canada) 128 12 S 131 E 

Melville Sd ... 126 70If 110V7 

Memel 55 56 N 21 E 

Memel, R 20 55 N 20 E 

Memmingen ... 12 48 N 10 E 

Memphis (Egypt) 132 Ins. 

Memphis (U.S.A.) 74 35 N 90 W 

Menai Strait ... 121 53 N 4W 

Menam, R. ... 125 15 N 100 E 

Menama 124 26 N 51 E 

Mende 103 44 N 4E 

Mendip Hills ... 121 51 N 3W 

Mendocino, C. ... 106 40 N 124 W 

Mendoza 106 33 S 69 W 

Meng-tzu 138 24 N 103 E 

Menin 39 51 N 3E 

Menindie 128 32 S 143 E 

Mentana 104 42 N 13 E 

Menteith 23 66 ET 6 TJir 

Mentone 103 44 N 7E 

Menzala, L. ... 132 31 N 32 E 

Menzies 23 57 N 4W 

Menzies 128 30 S 121 E 

Meppel 109 53 N 6E 

Meppen 39 53 N 7E 

Mequinenza ... 95 41 N 



Map Lat. Long. 

Mequinez 131 34 N 5 W 

Meran 12 47 N HE 

Merecy 54 54 N 24 E 

Mergentheim ... 39 49 N 10 E 

Merida (Am. Centl.) 134 21 N 90 W 

Merida (Am. S.) ... 135 8N 72 W 

Merida (Spain) ... 95 39 N 6W 

Meridian 74 32 N 89 W 

Merindol 8 44 N 5E 

Merioneth 16 52 N 4 W 

Mernis 23 57 N 3W 

Merow 40 53 N 13 E 

Mers 23 56 N 3W 

Mers-el-Kebir ... 131 36 N 1 W 

Mersburg 12 51 N 12 B 

Mersey, R 121 53 N 2W 

Merthyr Tydfil ... 121 52 N 3 W 

Merv 124 38 N 62 E 

Mery 97 48 N 4E 

Meseritz 57 52 N 16 E 

Meshed 124 36 N 60 E 

Mesopotamia ... 110 

Messejara 95 38 N 8W 

Messenia 105 37 N 22 E 

Messignac 19 46 N IB 

Messin 79 48 N 4E 

Messina 4 38 N 16 E 

Messina, Str. of ... 104 38 N 16 E 

Mestre 83 45 N 12 E 

Meta, R 135 6 N 68 W 

Metauro 94 44 N 13 E 

Metemma 132 17 N 33 E 

Metre Hill, 203 ... 137 39 N 121 E 

Metz 12 49 N 6B 

Metzovo 120 40 N 21 B 

Meudon 19 Ins. 

Meulan 19 49 N 2E 

Meurs 22 51 N 7E 

Meurthe 103 48 N 4E 

Meurthe, R. ... 118 48 N SB 

Meuse 103 48 N 4 B 

Meuse, R 22 51 N 6E 

Meuse Inf 94 48 N 4E 

Meux 8 49 N 3B 

Mewar 122 20 11 70 E 

Mewe 32 54 N 19 E 

Mexico 66 20 N 99 W 

Mexico, Gulf of ... 72 

Mexico, New ... 72 SON llO "W 

Mexico, U.S. of ... 1061ns. 

Meyerskappel ... 112 47 N 8E 

Mezieres 79 50 N 5E 

Mezquital, R. ... 134 23 N 105 W 

Mhow 123 23 N 76 B 

Mia, W 131 30 N 5E 

Miami, R 67 40 N 85 W 

Miani 124 25 N 68 E 

Michaloff 108 54 N 40 E 

Michigan 72 40 W 9 VST 

Michillimackinac ... 67 46 N 85 W 

Michni Pass ... 122 34 N 72 B 

Michoacan 134 19 N 102 W 

Micronesia ... ... 139 

Middelburg (Afr. S.) 133 26 S 29 E 



Index to Maps, 



193 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Middelburg (Holland) 


22 


51 N 


4E 


Mitchell, E. 


128 


16 S 


142 E 


Middle Island 


100 


60 8 


isox: 


Mito 


137 


36 N 


140 E 


Middlesex 


16 


50sr 


2 VT 


Mitrovicz 


3 


45 N 


20 B 


Middleton (Ireland) 


47 


52 N 


8W 


Mitrowitz 


105 


43 N 


21 B 


Middleton (Scotland) 


23 


57 N 


3 W 


Mittau 


58 


57 N 


24 E 


Midhurst 


113 


51 N 


1 w 


Mittelmark... 


12 


50IT 


12 E 


Midnapur 


64 


22 N 


87 E 


Mittel-Pollnitz 


92 


51 N 


12 E 


Mierdyk 


45 


52 N 


5E 


Mitylene 


120 


39 N 


27 E 


Mietzel 


57 


53 N 


15 E 


Mizen Head 


47 


51 N 


low 


Miguel, E 


135 


15 S 


64 W 


Mlava 


92 


53 N 


20 E 


Milagro 


95 


42 N 


2W 


Mobile 


72 


31 N 


88 W 


Milan 


4 


45 N 


9E 


Mobile B 


74 


31 N 


88 W 


Milan, Duchy of ... 


4 


44 N 


eE 


Mocha 


130 


13 N 


43 B 


Milazzo 


104 


38 N 


15 E 


Mockern 


97 


51 N 


12 E 


Milborne, Port 


113 


51 N 


2W 


Mocro, L. ... 


130 


8S 


29 E 


Mileto 


104 


39 N 


16 E 


Modder E 


133 


29 S 


25 E 


Milford Haven 


24 


52 N 


5W 


Modena 


4 


45 N 


HE 


Milford Sound 


129 


45 S 


168 E 


Modlin 


108 


52 N 


21 E 


Milhau 


19 


44 N 


3E 


Modon 


3 


37 N 


22 E 


Milledgeville 


74 


33 N 


83 W 


Modos 


21 


45 N 


21 E 


Millesimo 


83 


44 N 


8E 


Moesskirch ... 


88 


48 N 


9E 


Millikin's Bend ... 


74 


32 N 


91 W 


Mogador 


131 


32 N 


low 


Mill Spring 


74 


37 N 


84 E 


Mogadoxa 


140 


2N 


46 E 


Miloslav 


107 


52 N 


17 E 


Mohacz 


3 


46 N 


19 E 


Minas Geraes 


106 


18 S 


43 W 


Mohawk, E, 


72 


43 N 


74 W 


Mincio 


94 


44 IV 


8E 


Mohileff 


108 


SON 


30E 


Mincio, B 


4 


44 N 


lOS 


Mohileff 


108 


54 N 


30 E 


Mindanao 


139 


O 


120B 


Mohrungen 


92 


54 N 


20 E 


Mindelheim 


62 


48 N 


10 E 


Moidart 


56 


57 N 


6W 


Mindello 


95 


41 N 


9 W 


Mojaisk 


96 


56 N 


36 E 


Minden 


29 


52 N 


9E 


Mojos 


106 


20 8 


80 W 


Minden, Bishopric of 


12 


52 N 


9E 


Mokotoff 


108 Ins. 




Mindoro 


139 


13 N 


121 E 


Mok-po 


137 


35 N 


126 E 


Minehead ... 


113 


51 N 


3W 


Mola 


104 


41 N 


17 E 


Mingrelia 


61 


40M- 


40z: 


Moldau, E 


12 


46 ZV 


12 E 


Min Ho 


138 


29 N 


103 E 


Moldavia 


3 


4S N* 


2S £ 


Minho, E 


7 


42 "N 


lOTV 


Molina 


95 


41 N 


2W 


Minneapolis 


72 


45 N 


93 W 


Molinella, E. 


83 


45 N 


HE 


Minnesota ... 


72 


40 N 


lOOW 


Molino 


95 


41 N 


2E 


Minorca 


7 


40 N 


4E 


Molino del Eey 


71 


19 N 


99 W 


Minsk 


108 


SON 


2oi: 


Molise 


26 


42 N 


14 E 


Minsk ... 


108 


54 N 


28 E 


Molla Pass 


124 


28 N 


67 E 


Miossans 


19 


44 N 





Molle, E 


19 


43 N 


6E 


Miquelon I. 


67 


47 N 


56 W 


Mollendo 


140 


17 S 


72 W 


Miramichi B. 


126 


47 N 


65 W 


Mollwitz 


57 


51 N 


17 E 


Miranda 


7 


43 N 


2W 


Molodetchno 


96 


54 N 


27 E 


Mirandola 


4 


45 N 


HE 


Molopo, E 


133 


26 S 


22 E 


Mirim, L 


135 


40 8 


60 W 


Molsheim 


9 


49 N 


7E 


Mirpur (India) 


124 


25 N 


68 E 


Molteno 


133 


31 S 


26 E 


Mirpur (India) 


124 


28 N 


69 E 


Moluccas ... 


43 1 


ns. 




Mirzapur 


99 


25 N 


83 E 


Molyneux 


129 Ins. 




Mishmee Hills 


138 


28 N 


96 E 


Molyneux, E. 


129 


46 8 


170 E 


Mishra el Eek 


132 


8N 


29 E 


Mombasa ... 


180 


4S 


40 E 


Misiones 


106 


40 8 


60 W 


Momein 


138 


26 N 


98 E 


Misox 


30 


46 N 


9E 


Mompelgard (Mont- 








Missinaibi, E. 


67 


50 N 


83 W 


b61iard) 


5 


44 N 


4 E 


Missionary Eidge ... 


74 


34 N 


86 W 


Mona Channel 


134 


18 N 


68 W 


Mississippi... 


72 


SON 


90 W 


Mona, E 


123 


25 N 


90 E 


Mississippi, E. 


72 






Monaco 


4 


44 N 


7E 


Missolonghi 


105 


38 N 


21 E 


Monaghan 


27 


54 N 


7 W 


Missouri 


72 


3onr 


lOO w 


Monaghan, County of 37 


S4 N 


8 W 


Missouri, E. 


72 






Monastir 


105 


41 N 


21 E 


Missunde 


116 


55 N 


10 E 


Moncalieri 


104 


45 N 


8E 


Mistra 


3 


37 N 


22 E 


Monceaux 


19 Ins. 





C. M. H. VOL. XIV. 



13 



194 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Monckton's Camp 








Montluel 


. 25 


46 N 


5E 


(Quebec) 


. 67 Ins. 




Montmartre 


. 97 Ins. 




Moncontour 


19 


47 N 





Montmedy ... 


. 11 


SON 


5E 


Moncorvo ... 


. 95 


41 N 


7W 


Montm^lian 


. 25 


45 N 


6E 


Moncton 


.. 126 


46 N 


65 W 


Montmirail... 


. 97 


49 N 


4E 


Mondego B. 


.. 95 


40 N 


9W 


Montmorency 


. 97 Ins. 




Mondego, E, 


7 


40N 


loW 


Montmorency, R. . 


. 68 


47 N 


71 W 


Mondelheim 


.. 45 


49 N 


9E 


Montpellier 


8 


44 N 


4E 


Mondovi 


. 25 


44 N 


8E 


Montreal 


. 70 


45 N 


74 W 


Mondyck 


. 81 


52 N 


5E 


Montreuil ... 


. 79 


50 N 


2E 


Monembasia 


3 


37 N 


23 E 


Montrond ... 


. 79 


47 N 


3E 


Monfalcone 


. Ill 


46 N 


14 E 


Montrose ... 


. 56 


57 N 


2W 


Monflanquin 


. 19 


44 N 


IE 


Montsegur ... 


. 19 


45 N 





Monganagh... 


. 37 


55 N 


8W 


Montserrat ... 


. 69 


17 N 


62 W 


Mongolia ... 


. 138 






Monts Faucilles 


. 118 


48 N 


6E 


Monitz 


. 92 Ins. 




Mont Tonnerre 


. 94 


49 N 


8E 


Monitz, L. ... 


. 92 Ins. 




Mont Yvron 


. 81 


49 N 


5E 


Monjuich ... 


7 


41 N 


2E 


Monza 


. 4 Ins 


. 46 N 


9E 


Monmouth ... 


. 70 


40 N 


74 W 


Monzon 


7 


42 N 





Monomotapa 


. 65 


20 8 


20i: 


Mook 


. 39 


52 N 


6E 


Monongahela, K. . 


67 


40 N 


SOW 


Mookerheide 


. 22 


52 N 


6E 


Monrovia ... 


. 130 


6N 


11 w 


Moonie, E. ... 


. 128 


28 S 


149 E 


Mons 


. 45 


50 N 


4E 


Moor 


. Ill 


47 N 


18 E 


Montabaur ... 


. 81 


50 N 


8E 


Moore, L 


. 128 


30 S 


118 E 


Montaigu ... 


. 82 


47 N 


1 W 


Moose Factory 


. 126 


52 N 


81 W 


Montalcino ... 


4 


43 N 


11 E 


Moose Jaw ... 


. 126 


50 N 


106 W 


Montalto ... 


4 


43 N 


14 E 


Moose, E 


70 


50I7 


90 W 


Montana 


. 72 


4onr 


120^- 


Moradabad ... 


. 123 


29 N 


79 E 


Montargis ... 


. 103 


48 N 


3E 


Morant Pt ... 


. 69 


18 N 


76 W 


Montauban ... 


8 


44 N 


IE 


Morat 


15 


47 N 


7 E 


Montaut 


. 19 


43 N 


2E 


Morava, E 


. 119 


44 N 


21 E 


Montbeliard 


. 12 


47 N 


7E 


Morava Bulgarian, I 


I. 119 


43 N 


22 E 


Montblanc ... 


. 94 


44 N 


4 £ 


Moravia 


. 12 


46 N 


16 E 


Mont Blanc 


. 141 


46 N 


7E 


Moray 


. 23 


54 N 


6 TXT 


Montcenis ... 


. 19 


47 N 


4E 


Moray Firth 


. 56 


58 N 


4W 


Mont de Marsan . 


. 103 


44 N 





Morbegno ... 


. 30 


46 17 


lOE 


Montdidier ... 


. 22 


SON 


3E 


Morbihan ... 


. 103 


48 N 


3 W 


Montebello (Milan) 


83 


46 N 


9E 


Morea 


3 


35 Vt 


20 E 


Montebello 








Morelos 


. 134 


19 N 


99 W 


(Piedmont) 


. 104 


45 N 


9E 


Moreton I 


. 128 


27 S 


153 E 


Montebello (Venetia 


t) 104 


46 N 


HE 


Morgan, Mt 


. 128 


24 S 


151 E 


Montechiaro 


. 83 


45 N 


10 E 


Morgarten ... 


. 15 


47 N 


9E 


Monte Corone 


4 


43 N 


12 E 


Morge, E 


. 25 


47 N 


7E 


Montefalcone 


. 104 


42 N 


15 E 


Morlaix 


. 19 


49 N 


4 W 


Montefeltro... 


4 


44 N 


13 E 


Morne Fortune 


. 69 


14 N 


61 W 


Mont^liraar... 


. 19 


45 N 


5E 


Morocco 


. 131 


32 N 


8W 


Montendre ... 


.. 19 


45 N 





Morpeth 


. 16 


55 N 


2W 


Montenegro 


3 


40 17 


15 E 


Mortara 


4 


45 N 


9E 


Montenotte ... 


. 83 


44 N 


9E 


Mortirolo Pass 


. 30 


46 »r 


lOE 


Montepulciano 


4 


43 N 


12 E 


Moscova, E. 


. 52 


56 N 


37 E 


Montereau ... 


8 


48 N 


3E 


Moscow 


. 61 


56 N 


38 E 


Monterey (Mexico). 


. 106 


26 N 


100 W 


Moselle 


. 103 


48 ir 


4 E 


Monterey (U.S.A.). 


. 72 


37 N 


122 W 


Moselle, E 


. 12 


46 IT 


4 E 


Monterotondo 


. 104 


42 N 


13 E 


Moskva, E. {see 








Montevideo 


. 106 


34 S 


56 W 


Moscova, E.) 








Montferrat 


4 


44 nr 


SB 


Moson 


. 21 


48 N 


17 E 


Montgaillard 


. 19 


43 N 


2E 


Mosquito Coast 


. 69 


ION 


Qovr 


Mont Gen^vre 


. 25 


45 N 


7E 


Mosquito Gulf 


. 135 


ION 


82 W 


Montgomery, Couni 


yof 16 


52 nr 


4 W 


Moss 


. 108 


60 N 


HE 


Montgomery (U.S.i^ 


..) 74 


32 N 


86 W 


Mossamedes 


. 130 


15 S 


12 E 


Montgomery (Wales 


3) 86 


53 N 


3W 


Mossel B 


. 133 


34 S 


22 E 


Montheurt ... 


.. 19 


44 N 





Mossorin 


. Ill 


45 N 


20 E 


Monticchio ... 


. 30 


46 17 


9 E 


Mostaganem 


. 131 


36 N 





Montigny ... 


. 118 Ins. 




Mostar 


. Ill 


43 N 


18 E 



Index to Maps, 



195 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Mosul 


110 


36 N 


43 E 


Murcia 


7 


38 N 


1 w 


Motagua, E. 


134 


15 N 


90 W 


Muren, R. ... 


137 


46 N 


132 E 


Motien Pass 


137 


41 N 


123 E 


Muretto Pass 


30 


46 IV 


9 E 


Moulaj'a, W. 


131 


34 N 


3 W 


Murf reesborough . . . 


74 


36 N 


86 W 


Moulins 


8 


47 N 


3E 


Murghab, R. 


124 


35 N 


60E 


Moulmein 


125 


16 N 


98 E 


Muri 


15 


47 N 


8E 


Mount, C 


65 


7N 


11 W 


Murray, R. 


128 


40 8 


140E 


Mouree (Fort Nassau) 


65 Ins. 




Murray s 


23 


56 N 


4W 


Mourne 


27 


54 N 


6W 


Murree 


123 


34 N 


73 E 


Mousehold Hill ... 


16 


53 N 


IE 


Murrumbidgee, R.... 


128 


35 S 


146 E 


Mousehole 


16 


50 N 


6W 


Murshid4bad 


64 


24 N 


88 E 


Mouseron ... 


109 


51 N 


BE 


Mur-ussu ... 


138 


34 N 


95 E 


Moutiers 


25 


45 N 


7E 


Murviedro 


95 


40 N 





Mouzon 


118 


50 N 


5E 


Miirzsteg ... 


111 


48 N 


16 E 


Moyenvic ... 


33 


49 N 


7E 


Murzuk 


130 


26 N 


14 E 


Moy Hall 


56 


57 N 


4W 


Muscat 


100 


23 N 


58 E 


Moylurge 


27 


54 N 


8W 


Muscovy 


1 






Mozambique 


43 


14 S 


40 E 


Muskerry 


27 


52 N 


9W 


Mozambique 


133 


20 8 


30z: 


Musone 


94 


43 N 


13 E 


Mozdok 


61 


44 N 


45 E 


Musselburgh 


56 


56 N 


3 W 


Mozembano 


88 


45 N 


HE 


Mussidan 


19 


45 N 





Mstislavl 


58 


54 N 


32 E 


Mustagh Pass 


138 


36 N 


76 E 


Muata Yamo 


130 


8S 


26 E 


Muthill 


56 


56 N 


4W 


Mucheln 


57 


51 N 


12 E 


Muttra 


123 


27 N 


78 E 


Much Wenlock 


114 


53 N 


3W 


Muyden 


45 


52 N 


5E 


Mudantsane 


137 


44 N 


128 E 


Myede 


125 


19 N 


95 E 


Mudki 


124 


31 N 


75 E 


Mykonos 


48 


37 N 


25 E 


Muga, R 


95 


42 N 


3E 


Mysore 


64 


837 


72 E 


Mugello 


4 


44 N 


HE 


Mytho 


125 


ION 


106 E 


Miihl, R 


13 


48 19' 


12 E 










Miihlberg 


14 


51 N 


13 E 


Naab, R 


117 


48 N 


12 E 


Miihldorf 


88 


48 N 


12 E 


Naafk 


125 


21 N 


92 E 


Miihlhausen (Ger.) 


12 


48 N 


7E 


Naarden 


22 


52 N 


5E 


Miihlhausen (Ger.) 


12 


51 N 


10 E 


Naas 


37 


53 N 


7W 


Miihlheim 


12 


51 N 


7E 


Naauwport 


133 


31 S 


25 E 


Miihl viertel 


13 


48 N 


12 E 


Nabha 


123 


SON 


76 E 


Muiden 


22 


52 N 


5E 


Nablus 


85 


32 N 


35 E 


Mukandwara 


99 


25 N 


76 E 


Nachod 


57 


SON 


16 E 


Mukden 


138 


42 N 


123 E 


Nadendal 


17 


60 N 


22 E 


Mtilde, R 


62 


51 N 


13 E 


Nadino 


3 


44 N 


16 E 


Miilheim [see 








Nafels 


15 


47 N 


9E 


Miihlheim) 








Nagasaki 


137 


33 N 


130 E 


Mullaghcarn, Mt ... 


37 


55 N 


7 W 


Nagoya 


137 


35 N 


137 E 


Mullingar 


27 


54 N 


7 W 


Nagpur 


64 


21 N 


79 E 


Multan 


64 


30 N 


72 E 


Nagy Sarlo 


111 


48 N 


18 E 


Miinchengratz 


57 


51 N 


15 E 


Nagy Szeben 


21 


46 N 


24 E 


Miinden 


29 


51 N 


10 E 


Nagy Szombat 


21 


48 N 


18 E 


Munglem ... 


138 


23 N 


100 E 


Nagyvarad 


111 


47 N 


22 E 


Muni, R 


140 


O 


30 W 


Nailaka 


43 Ins. 




Munich 


12 


48 N 


12 E 


Nairn 


23 


57 N 


4W 


Munkacs 


111 


48 N 


23 E 


Nairobi 


130 


2S 


37 E 


Munkeliv 


17 


63 N 


10 E 


Naisseville ... 


118 Ins. 




Munroes 


23 


58 N 


5W 


Nakhichevan 


108 


39 N 


45 E 


Mxinsingen ... 


112 


47 N 


8E 


Namak Sar 


124 


31 N 


58 E 


Munster (Ireland)... 


27 






Namaqualand 


133 


30 8 


lOE 


Miinster 


12 


52 N 


8E 


Namling 


138 


30 N 


89 E 


Miinster 


40 


48 N 


7E 


Namous, Wadi 


131 


35 N 


3E 


Miinster, Bishopric of 12 


SON 


4 E 


Namur 


22 


50 N 


5E 


Miinsterberg 


12 


51 N 


17 E 


Nanaimo ... 


139 


48 N 


124 W 


Miinster Thai 


30 


46 17 


lOE 


Nanchang 


138 


29 N 


116 E 


Muotta 


88 


47 N 


9E 


Nancy 


33 


49 N 


6E 


Mur, K 


60 


47 N 


15 E 


Nanero Ra 


128 


37 N 


149 E 


Murchison ... 


128 


30 8 


llOE 


Nanking 


138 


32 N 


118 E 


Murchison, R. 


128 


30 8 


llOE 


Nannine 


140 


26 S 


120 E 



13—2 



196 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Nanningfu 


138 


23 N 


108 E 


Neisse 


12 


SON 


17 E 


Nanshan ... 


137 


39 N 


122 B 


Neisse, B. ... 


79 


48X7 


12 S 


Nantes 


8 


47 N 


2 W 


Nejd 


132 


26 N 


41 E 


Nantwich 


16 


53 N 


3 W 


Nellenburg ... 


62 


48 N 


9E 


Napier 


129 


39 S 


177 E 


Nelson 


126 


50 N 


117 W 


Naples 


4 


41 N 


14 E 


Nelson 


129 


41 S 


173 E 


Naples, B. of 


87 


41 N 


14 E 


Nelson, B 


67 


SON 


100 w 


Naples, Kingdom of 


94 






Nemerow ... 


40 


54 N 


13 E 


Naplous 


110 


32 N 


35 E 


Nemiroff 


61 


49 N 


29 E 


Napo, B 


135 


lOS 


SO w 


Nemours ... 


79 


48 N 


3E 


Napol^onville 


94 


47 N 


IW 


Nemours, Duchy of 


8 


48 N 





Napoli 


48 


36 N 


23 E 


Nen, B 


121 


52 N 


1 W 


Nara, E. 


96 


55 N 


37 E 


Nenagh 


47 


53 N 


8 W 


Narbonne 


8 


43 N 


3E 


Neograd 


21 


48 N 


19 E 


Narenta, B. 


117 


43 N 


18 E 


Nepal 


99 


24 TJ 


80E 


Narew, B. (Nareff, B 


) 58 


53 N 


22 E 


Nepi 


4 


42 N 


12 E 


Nari, B 


123 


30 N 


68 E 


N6rac 


8 


44 N 





Narin 


136 


41 N 


76 E 


Nerbudda, B. 


64 


22 N 


76 E 


Narin, B. ... 


124 


42 N 


75 E 


Nerchinsk ... 


136 


52 N 


116 E 


Narragansett B. ... 


68 


41 N 


71 W 


Nerike 


17 


55X1 


10 E 


Narragansetts 


66 


42 N 


72 W 


Nethe, B 


109 


51 sr 


4 E 


Narrows, The 


126 


SON 


lOO w 


Netherlands, Austrian 62 






Narva 


61 


59 N 


28 E 


Netherlands, 








Narvik 


108 


68 N 


18 E 


Kingdom of ... 


102 






Naseby 


36 


52 N 


1 W 


Netherlands, Spanish 


39 






Nashville 


72 


36 N 


87 W 


Netherlands, United 


39 






Nasirabad 


123 


26 N 


75 E 


Nether Stowey 


121 


51 N 


3W 


Nassar 


132 


8N 


33 E 


Netley Ab 


16 


51 N 


IW 


Nassau (Bahama Is.) 


69 


25 N 


77 W 


Nettuno 


26 


42 N 


13 E 


Nassau (Germany) 


12 


SON 


8 S 


Netze District 


58 


52 N 


16 E 


Natal (Afr. S.) 


133 


SOS 


SOB 


Netze, B 


107 


52 N 


16 E 


Natal (Am. S.) 


106 


6S 


35 W 


Neuburg (Austria).., 


12 


48 N 


16 E 


Natchez 


67 


33 N 


90 W 


Neuburg (Bavaria) 


12 


49 N 


HE 


Natchitoches 


71 


32 N 


93 W 


Neuchatel (France) 


19 


50 N 


IE 


Nat-padi 


125 


19 N 


95 E 


Neuchatel, L. 


90 


47 N 


7E 


Naturaliste, C. 


128 


34 S 


115 E 


Neuchatel (Switz.) 


15 


47 N 


7E 


Naumburg ... 


12 


51 N 


12 E 


Neuenburg ... 


39 


48 N 


8E 


Nauplia 


3 


38 N 


23 E 


Neufchateau 


118 


48 N 


6E 


Navarino ... 


3 


37 N 


22 E 


Neuhause ... 


57 


49 N 


15 E 


Navarino, B. of ... 


105 


37 N 


22 E 


Neuhausel ... 


48 


48 N 


18 E 


Navarre, Kingdom of 


7 


42 N 


2 W 


Neuilly (France) ... 


103 


49 N 


2E 


Navarreins ... 


19 


43 N 


IW 


Neuilly (Lorraine)... 


118 Ins. 




Naworth 


16 


55 N 


3 W 


Neukloster ... 


40 


54 N 


12 E 


Naxos 


3 


37 N 


25 E 


Neumark 


12 


50ir 


12 E 


Nay 


19 


43 N 





Neumarkt (Austr.) 


12 


48 N 


14 E 


Nazareth ... 


110 


33 N 


35 E 


Neumarkt (Bavaria) 


33 


48 N 


12 E 


Nazas, B 


134 


26 N 


103 W 


Neumarkt (Silesia) 


57 


51 N 


17 E 


Neagh, Lough 


37 


54 N 


Bvr 


Neumiinster 


116 


54 N 


10 E 


Neath Ab 


16 


52 N 


4 W 


Neuquen 


135 


38 S 


70 W 


Nebel, E 


45 


49 N 


11 E 


Neusiede 


93 Ins. 




Nebraska ... 


72 


40ijr 


iiOMsr 


Neuss 


12 


51 N 


7E 


Neckar, B 


39 


48 N 


BE 


Neustadt (Bavaria) 


93 


49 N 


12 E 


Nedlitz 


97 


52 N 


13 E 


Neustadt (Hanover) 


107 


52 N 


9E 


Needles, The 


36 


51 N 


2 W 


Neustadt (Moravia) 


62 


50 N 


17 E 


Neerwinden 


45 


51 N 


5E 


Neustadt (Palatinate) 


81 


49 N 


8E 


Negapatam 


64 


11 N 


80 E 


Neustadt (Saxony) 


12 


51 N 


12 E 


Negrepelisse 


19 


44 N 


2E 


Neustadt (Saxony) 


107 


51 N 


14 E 


Negri Sembilan ... 


125 


3N 


102 E 


Neustadt (Silesia) ... 


62 


50 N 


18 E 


Negro, C. ... 


65 


16 S 


12 E 


Neustettin ... 


62 


54 N 


17 E 


Negro, B 


106 





64 W 


Neu Strelitz 


107 


53 N 


13 E 


Negropont 


3 


35 N 


20z: 


Neuvried 


107 


50 N 


7 E 


Negros 


139 


O 


1201: 


Neva, B 


54 


60 N 


30 E 


Negumbo 


64 


7N 


80 E 


Nevada ... 


72 


30 XV 


120 1)7 


Neira 


43 Ins. 




Nevada, Sa 


7 


36 N 


4 "W 



I 



Index to Maps, 



197 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Nevers 


79 


47 N 


3E 


New Spain 


69 


20 N 


100 W 


Nevers, County of 


8 


44 JX 


O 


Newstead Ab. 


16 


53 N 


1 w 


Nevesinje ... 


119 


43 N 


18 E 


Newton 


113 


53 N 


3W 


Nevis 


69 


17 N 


63 W 


Newtown (England) 


113 


51 N 


IW 


New Amsterdam . . . 


68 


41 N 


74 W 


Newtown (Ireland) 


27 


55 N 


6W 


Newark (Canada)... 


70 


43 N 


79 W 


Newtown (Ireland) 


47 


54 N 


7 W 


Newark (England) 


16 


53 N 


1 W 


Newtown-Limavady 


47 


55 N 


7 W 


New Biscay 


106 


24 N 


104 W 


New Venezuela 


106 


O 


Qovsr 


New Britain 


139 


20 8 


140 1: 


New Westminster 


139 


48 N 


124 W 


New Brunswick . . . 


70 


40ir 


70 W 


New York ... 


70 


41 N 


74 W 


Newburn ... 


36 


55 N 


2 W 


New Zealand 


129 






Newbury 


36 


51 N 


1 w 


Nezib 


110 


37 N 


38 E 


New Caledonia 


139 


40 8 


160S 


Ngami, L. ... 


133 


20 S 


23 E 


New Castile 


7 


38 SS 


6 '^ 


Nganking 


138 


31 N 


117 E 


Newcastle (Afr. S.) 


133 


28 S 


30 E 


Ngansichau 


138 


41 N 


96 E 


Newcastle (Am. N.) 


68 


40 N 


76 W 


Niagara 


68 


43 N 


79 W 


Newcastle (Austral.) 


128 


33 S 


152 B 


Niagara Falls 


126 


43 N 


79 W 


Newcastle (England) 


16 


55 N 


2 W 


Niagara, R. 


72 


43 N 


80 W 


Newcastle (Ireland) 


27 


55 N 


7 W 


Nicaragua ... 


69 


ION 


90 W 


Newcastle (Ireland) 


37 


52 N 


9 W 


Nice 


4 


44 N 


7E 


Newcastle (Ireland) 


47 


53 N 


6W 


Nicholaievsk 


138 


53 N 


141 E 


Newcastle-u. -Lyme 


113 


53 N 


2 W 


Nicholas Channel ... 


75 


20N 


90"^ 


New England 








Nicholson's Nek ... 


133 


28 S 


30 E 


(Am. N.) 


66 


40ir 


80"W 


Nicobar Is. 


125 


O 


90x: 


New England 








Nicopolis 


3 


44 N 


25 E 


(Austral.) 


128 


30 S 


152 E 


Nicosia 


3 


35 N 


33 E 


New England Kange 


128 


30 S 


152 E 


Nicoya, G. of 


134 


ION 


85 W 


Newenham Ab. 


16 


52 N 





Nid, R 


121 


54 N 


2W 


New Forest 


121 


51 N 


2 W 


Nida, R 


108 


50 N 


20 B 


Newfoundland 


126 






Nidda, R 


81 


50 N 


9B 


New Galicia 


106 


20 N 


104 W 


Nidisdale 


23 


55 N 


4 W 


New Granada 


2 


O 


90 W 


Nied, R 


118 


49 N 


7 E 


New Guinea 


128 


20 8 


i40z: 


Nieder Schonfeld ... 


57 


49 N 


HE 


New Haven (Am. N.) 


66 


42 N 


73 W 


Niemen, E.. 


58 


52M- 


20x: 


New Hebrides 


139 


20 8 


160 12 


Niemes 


57 


51 N 


15 E 


New Holland 


43 


40 8 


120 £! 


Nienburg 


29 


53 N 


9E 


New Inverness 


68 


31 N 


81 W 


Nieuport 


22 


51 N 


3E 


New Ireland 


139 


20 8 


140Z 


Nieuwveld Range ... 


133 


32 S 


22 E 


New Lanark 


121 


56 N 


4 W 


Nievre 


103 


44 IT 


O 


New Leon ... 


106 


25 N 


100 w 


Niger, R 


130 






Newlyn 


16 


50 N 


6W 


Nigeria, N. & S. ... 


130 


O 


o 


Newmarket 


16 


52 N 





Nijni Tunguska ... 


139 


64 N 


100 E 


New Mecklenburg... 


139 


20 8 


140Z: 


Nikolaieff 


108 


47 N 


32 E 


New Navarre 


106 


30 N 


112 W 


Nikolsburg ... 


29 


49 N 


17 E 


New Netherlands ... 


66 


42 N 


74 W 


Nikopoli 


48 


44 N 


25 B 


New Orleans 


72 


30 N 


90 W 


Niksich 


119 


43 N 


19 E 


New Plymouth 


129 


39 S 


174 E 


Nile, R 


132 






New Pomerania ... 


139 


20 8 


i40z: 


Nile, Mths of the ... 


87 


30 N 


30 E 


Newport (England) 


113 


51 N 


4W 


Nile, Blue 


132 


lOlV 


30E 


Newport (England) 


121 


52 N 


3W 


Nile, White 


132 


10I7 


30E 


Newport (I. of W.) 


36 


51 N 


1 W 


Nimach 


123 


25 N 


75 E 


Newport (U.S.A.) ... 


70 


42 N 


71 W 


Ninghai 


138 


40 N 


120 B 


Newport News 


74 


37 N 


76 W 


Ning-hia-fu 


138 


39 N 


106 B 


Newport Pagnell ... 


36 


52 N 


1 W 


Ningpo 


138 


30 N 


122 E 


New Providence I. 


69 


25 N 


76 W 


Niort 


8 


46 N 





New Kepublic 


133 


28 S 


31 E 


Nios 


3 


35 IT 


25Z: 


New Komney 


121 


51 N 


1 E 


Nipigon, L. 


126 


50 N 


88 W 


Newry 


37 


54 N 


6 W 


Nipissing, L. 


70 


46 N 


SOW 


New Servia 


61 


40 N 


30 E 


Niriz, Lake 


124 


30 N 


54 E 


New Shoreham 


113 


51 N 





Nishinomiya 


137 


35 N 


135 B 


New Siberian Is. ... 


136 


70N 


i40z: 


Nisibis 


3 


37 N 


41 B 


New Silesia 


59 


48 N 


16 E 


Nisida I 


104 


41 N 


14 E 


New South Shetland 


140 


60S 


60 W 


Nismes 


8 


44 N 


4E 


New South Wales 


128 


40 8 


140E 


Nissa 


3 


43 N 


22 E 



198 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Nith, R 


23 


55 N 


4 W 


Northwich ... 


121 


53 N 


3 W 


Niuchwang 


138 


41 N 


122 E 


Norumbega 


2 


44 N 


64 W 


Nive, R 


95 


43 N 


1 W 


Norvals Point 


133 


31 S 


25 E 


Nivelle, R 


95 


43 N 


2W 


Norway 


17 






Nivelles 


98 


51 N 


4E 


Norwich 


16 


53 N 


IE 


Nivernais 


79 


47 N 


3E 


Norwich Ab. 


16 


53 N 


IE 


Niza 


95 


40 N 


8 W 


Nosibe (Nosi Be) ... 


130 Ins. 




Nizhni Novgorod ... 


61 


56 N 


44 E 


Noteborg 


32 


60 N 


31 E 


Noain 


7 


43 N 


2W 


Nottaway, R. 


70 


50 N 


80 W 


Noer 


107 


54 N 


10 E 


Nottingham 


16 


53 N 


1 W 


Nogara 


49 


45 N 


HE 


Noukha 


108 


41 N 


47 E 


Nogent 


19 


48 N 


3E 


Noumea 


139 


22 S 


167 E 


Nogent, R. 


55 


54 nr 


20z: 


Nova Francia 


2 


SON 


90W^ 


N6grad 


21 


48 N 


20 E 


Novara 


4 Ins 


45 N 


9E 


Noirmoutier 


82 


47 N 


2 W 


Nova Scotia 


68 


45nr 


70W 


Nola 


4 


41 N 


14 E 


Nova Zagora 


120 


42 N 


26 E 


Nombre de Dios ... 


69 


ION 


SOW 


Nova Zembla (Nova 








Nonni, R 


136 


4onr 


120E 


Zemlia) 


52 


70Kr 


50E 


Nootka I 


126 


50 N 


127 W 


Noveant 


118 


49 N 


6E 


Nootka Sd 


72 


50 N 


127 W 


Novgorod ... 


61 


59 N 


31 E 


Nord 


94 


48 IT 


O 


Novgorod Sieverski 


61 


52 N 


33 E 


Nordernay 


109 


5317 


7E 


Novi (Italy) 


49 


45 N 


HE 


Nordhausen 


12 


52 N 


11 E 


Novi (Italy) 


88 


45 N 


9E 


Nordheim ... 


29 


52 N 


10 E 


Novibazar 


111 


43 N 


21 E 


Nordland 


17 


65 at 


15 B 


Novoberdo ... 


3 


42 N 


22 E 


Nordlingen 


12 


49 N 


10 E 


Novo Cherkask 


108 


47 N 


40 E 


Nore Lightship 


36 


51 N 


IE 


Novogrod ... 


92 


53 N 


22 E 


Nore, R 


37 


52 N 


8W 


Novorossisk 


108 


45 N 


38 E 


Nore, The 


87 


51 N 


IE 


Nowe Miasto 


93 


52 N 


20 E 


Norfolk (England)... 


16 


52 sr 


o 


Nowgong 


123 


25 N 


79 E 


Norfolk (U.S.A.) ... 


74 


37 N 


76 W 


Nowogrodek 


58 


54 N 


26 E 


Norfolk I 


139 


40 8 


160B 


Noyers 


19 


48 N 


4E 


Norham 


16 


56 N 


2W 


Noyon 


22 


50 N 


3E 


Noric Alps 


83 


46 N 


14 E 


Nuagh, L. na 


56 


57 N 


6W 


Norman, R. 


128 


19 S 


142 E 


Nubia 


132 


ION 


30Eh 


Normandy 


8 






Nubian Desert 


132 






Normanton 


128 


18 S 


141 E 


Nueces, R. ... 


72 


28 N 


98 W 


Norrby 


17 


59 N 


15 E 


Niigata 


137 


38 N 


139 E 


Norrkoping 


53 


69 N 


16 E 


Nuits 


19 


48 N 


4E 


Norrland 


17 






Nullarbor Plain ... 


128 


30 S 


130 E 


Northallerton 


113 


54 N 


1 W 


Nu-na-tak, R. 


139 


68 N 


158 W 


Northampton 


16 


52 N 


1 W 


Nunez, R. ... 


130 


UN 


15 W 


North Bend (Can.) 


126 


50 N 


122 W 


Nuovo Leon 


134 


25 N 


100 W 


North Bend (U.S.A.) 


72 


39 N 


87 W 


Nuremberg (Niirnberg) 60 


49 N 


HE 


North Cape (Can.) 


126 


47 N 


60 W 


Nushki 


124 


30 N 


66 E 


North Cape (Lapland) 


52 


71 N 


26 E 


Nuthe 


97 


52 N 


13 E 


North Cape (N. Z.) 


129 


34 S 


173 E 


Nyangwe Ujiji 


130 


5S 


30 E 


North Carolina Sd. 


74 


35 N 


76 W 


Nyasa, L. ... 


130 


20S 


20E 


North Channel 


121 


54 N 


6W 


Nyasaland Protec... 


130 


20 8 


20E 


North Devon I. ... 


126 


70N 


901W 


Nyborg 


53 


55 N 


11 E 


North Downs 


121 


50ir 


2-«r 


Nyen 


54 


60 N 


30 E 


Northern Territory 


128 


20 S 


130 E 


Nyitra 


21 


49 N 


18 E 


North Foreland ... 


121 


51 N 


IE 


Nykoping ... 


53 


59 N 


17 E 


North Island 


129 






Nymegeu 


22 


52 N 


6E 


North Mountain ... 


74 


39 N 


78 W 


Nymphenburg 


57 


48 N 


12 E 


North Sea Canal ... 


109 


52 17 


51! 


Nyon 


15 


46 N 


6E 


North Somerset I. 


126 


ions 


lOOW 


Nyons 


19 


44 N 


5E 


North Taranaki B. 


129 


40S 


172 E 


Nyslott 


61 


62 N 


29 E 


Northumberland ... 


16 


54 N 


4 W 


Nystad 


61 


61 N 


22 E 


North- West Cape ... 


128 


22 S 


114 E 










North-West Frontier 








Oajaca 


106 


17 N 


97 W 


Agency 


122 


30I7 


70E 


Oakham 


16 


53 N 


1 W 


N. -Western District 


128 


GO 8 


llOE 


Oakhampton 


113 


51 N 


4 W 


N.-W. Territories ... 


126 






Ob, G. of 


136 


60IT 


70E 



Index to Maps. 



199 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Ob, R 


. 136 


60 W 


eon 


O'Beirne 


. 27 


54 N 


8W 


Oberalp Pass 


. 30 


46N 


an 


Oberaxen 


. 30 


46 N 


9E 


Oberehenheim 


. 40 


48 N 


7E 


Oberer Bund 


30 


46 N 


8E 


Oberhalbstein 


. 30 


46iar 


9z: 


Oberland 


. 15 


46 sr 


6E 


Oberwesel ... 


. 39 


50 N 


8E 


Obligado Pta. 


. 135 


34 S 


58 W 


Obok 


. 130 


12 N 


43 E 


0' Boyle 


. 27 


55 N 


8W 


O'Brien 


27 


52 N 


low 


O^Brien, Earl of 








Thoniond 


. 27 


53 N 


9W 


Obschiitz 


. 57 


51 N 


12 E 


Obwalden ... 


15 


47 N 


8E 


0' Byrnes 


. 27 


53 N 


6W 


O'Cahan 


. 27 


55 N 


7W 


O^Gallaghan 


. 27 


52 N 


9W 


Ocaiia 


7 


40 N 


3W 


0' Carrol 


. 27 


53 N 


8W 


Ocean I 


. 140 


IS 


172 E 


Ochakoff 


. 61 


47 N 


32 E 


Ochil Hills 


56 


56 N 


4 W 


Ochrida 


3 


41 N 


21 E 


0' Conor 


. 27 


5217 


low 


0' Conor 


. 27 


52 N* 


8 W 


0' Conor Don 


. 27 


54 N 


8 W 


0^ Conor Kerry 


. 27 


52 N 


low 


0' Conor Roe 


27 


54 N 


8 W 


O' Conor -Sligo 


27 


54 N 


8 W 


Oczakoff 


. 54 


47 N 


32 E 


O'Dempsy ... 


. 27 


53 N 


7 W 


Odense 


. 17 


55 N 


10 E 


Odenwald 


. 107 


49 N 


9E 


Oder, R 


. 12 


SON 


12 E 


Oderberg 


12 


50 N 


18 E 


Oderzo 


4 


46 N 


12 E 


Odessa 


61 


46 N 


31 E 


O'Dogherty 


. 27 


55 N 


7W 


O'Donnel 


. 27 


55 N 


8W 


O^Donoughue 


. 27 


52 N 


9W 


O'Bowda 


27 


54 N 


8W 


0^ Bowlings ... 


27 


53 N 


7 W 


O'Driscol 


. 27 


52 N 


9W 


Oedenburg 


. 48 


48 N 


17 E 


Oels 


12 


51 N 


17 E 


Oettingen ... 


. 12 


46 N 


8 E 


Ofen 


1 


47 N 


19 E 


Ofenberg ... 


. 30 


47 N 


10 E 


Ofen Pass 


. 30 


46 ir 


lOE 


O'Ferral 


. 27 


54 N 


8W 


Offaly 


. 27 


53 N 


7 W 


Offenburg ... 


. 12 


48 N 


8E 


0' Flaherty 


. 27 


53 N 


low 


O'Gara 


. 27 


54 N 


9W 


Ogawai B. ... 


. 130 





33 E 


Ogdensburg 


. 67 


45 N 


76 W 


Ogeechee, R. 


74 


33 N 


82 W 


Ogilvies 


. 23 


57 N 


3 W 


Oglio, R 


. 104 


45 N 


10 E 


Ognoro, R 


. 118 


47 N 


6E 


Ogowe, R 


. 130 





10 E 



0' Grady 

Ohain 

C Halloran . . . 

O^Hanlon ... 

O'Hara 

O'Hart 

Ohio 

Ohio, R 

Oil Rivers ... 

Oise, R 

Oitaber, R 

Oitu, R 

Ok, R 

Oka, R 

Okanagan ... 
Okawango, R. 

O'Keefe 

O'Keily 

0' Kennedy ... 

Okhotsk 

Okhotsk, Sea of ... 
Okinawashima 
O'Kirwan ... 
Okishima I. 
Oklahoma ... 
Okonieff 
O^Laghlin ... 

Oland I 

Old Calabar 
Old Castile 

Old Castle 

Oldenburg 

Oldenburg, Duchy of 
Oldensworth 
Oldenzaal ... 

Olderfleet 

Oldham 
Old Leighlin 
Old Sarum 
Olekma, R. 
Olenek, R. ... 

Olensk, R 

Oleron, I. d' 
Olfenburg ... 

Olga B 

Olifants Mts 
OHfants, R. (Afr. S.) 
Olifants, R. (Afr. S.) 
Olifants Vlei, R. ... 
Olinda 

Olita 

Oliva (Prussia) 

Oliva (Spain) 

Olivenpa 

Olkuszo 

Olmiitz 

Olona 

Olonets 

Oloron 

Olszynka ... 

Olvera 

Olympus, Mt 

O' Madden 

Omagh 



Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


27 


53 N 


9W 


98 Ins. 




27 


54 N 


9W 


27 


54 N 


7W 


27 


54 N 


9W 


27 


54 N 


8W 


72 


40N 


90 W 


72 


38 N 


86 W 


130 


6N 


7E 


103 


48 N 


O 


95 


42 N 


9W 


3 


40 11 


20z: 


52 


56 N 


42 E 


52 


54 N 


36 E 


126 


50 N 


119 W 


130 


17 S 


18 E 


27 


52 N 


9W 


27 


53 N 


8W 


27 


53 N 


8W 


136 


59 N 


144 E 


139 


40 17 


140X3 


139 


20 1N- 


1201: 


27 


53 N 


9W 


137 


36 N 


136 E 


72 


SON- 


100 W 


108 Ins. 




27 


53 N 


9W 


17 


55 IT 


15 E 


65 

7 
27 


5N 


9E 


55 N 


7W 


62 


53 N 


8E 


62 


53 N 


8E 


54 


54 N 


9E 


22 


52 N 


7E 


27 


55 N 


6W 


121 


54 N 


2 W 


47 


53 N 


7W 


121 


51 N 


2W 


138 


50N 


120 E 


136 


70 N 


120 E 


139 


6onr 


120 E 


79 


46 N 


1 w 


89 


52 N 


HE 


138 


44 N 


136 E 


133 


33 S 


19 E 


133 


25 S 


32 E 


133 


32 S 


19 E 


133 


30 S 


21 E 


106 


8S 


36 W 


96 


54 N 


24 E 


55 


54 N 


19 E 


7 


39 N 





95 


39 N 


7 W 


108 


61 N 


20 E 


12 


50 N 


17 E 


94 


44 N 


8E 


61 


61 N 


33 E 


19 


43 N 


1 W 


108 


Ins. 




7 


37 N 


5W 


120 


40 N 


22 E 


27 


53 N 


8W 


27 


55 N 


7 W 



200 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long:. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Omaha 


72 


41 N 


96 W 


Orleans 


79 


48 N 


2E 


O'Mahony 


27 


52 N 


low 


Orleans, I. of 


67 


47 N 


71 W 


0' 31 alley 


27 


54 N 


low 


Orleans, New 


72 


30 N 


90 W 


Oman 


124 


20N 


SOB 


Ormea 


83 


44 N 


8E 


Oman, G. of 


124 


20 37 


55 E 


Ormond 


37 


53 N 


8W 


Ombrone 


94 


43 N 


HE 


Ormond, Earls of... 


27 


52 N 


8 W 


Omdurman 


132 


16 N 


32 E 


Ormuz 


43 


27 N 


56 E 


0^ Meagher ... 


27 


53 N 


8W 


Ormuz, Str. of 


124 


25 "N 


55 E 


O'Melachlin 


27 


53 N 


8W 


Ornans 


12 


47 N 


6E 


Ommelanden 


22 


52 N 


6E 


Orne... 


103 


48 If 


O 


Omo, R 


132 


7N 


36 E 


Orne, R 


118 Ins. 




Omoa 


69 


16 N 


88 W 


Orontes, R. 


110 


35 N 


35 E 


O'More 


27 


53 N 


7W 


Oropesa 


7 


40 N 





Omsk 


136 


55 N 


74 E 


O'Rourke 


27 


54 N 


8 W 


O'Mulloy 


27 


53 N 


8 W 


Orsha 


96 


55 N 


30 E 


O'Mulryan ... 


27 


53 N 


8W 


Orsova 


61 


45 N 


22 E 


O'Mxirchoe 


27 


52 N 


6W 


Orsoy 


39 


51 N 


7 E 


Oiiate 


95 


43 N 


2 W 


Ortegal, C 


95 


44 N 


8W 


Onega, L 


108 


eoN 


30z: 


Ortenau 


89 


48 N 


8 E 


Onega, R 


108 


eoN 


30 z: 


Ortenburg ... 


62 


49 N 


13 E 


Oneglia 


25 


44 N 


8E 


Orthez 


19 


43 N 


IW 


O'Neill 


27 


54 rr 


8 W 


Oruba I 


69 


12 N 


70 W 


Onekotan ... 


138 


SON 


155 E 


Oruro 


106 


18 S 


67 W 


0' Nolan 


27 


53 N 


7W 


Orvieto 


4 


43 N 


12 E 


Onor 


64 


14 N 


74 E 


Orwell, R 


121 


52 N 


IE 


Ontario 


126 


40 1^7 


so-w 


Osaka 


137 


35 N 


135 E 


Ontario, L. 


72 


40Dr 


so w 


Osborne 


121 


51 N 


1 W 


Ootmarsum 


22 


52 N 


7E 


Osel 


61 


58 N 


23 E 


Opatoff 


93 


51 N 


18 E 


O'Shaughnessy 


27 


53 N 


9 W 


Opequon 


74 


39 N 


78 W 


Oslo 


17 


60 N 


11 E 


Opolu 


139 


20 8 


ISO w 


Osma 


9 


42 N 


3 W 


Oporto 


7 


41 N 


9 W 


Osma, R 


119 


43 N 


25 E 


Oppeln 


12 


51 N 


18 E 


Osnabriick ... 


33 


52 N 


8E 


Oppenbeim 


33 


SON 


8E 


Osnabriick, Bishopric 


of 12 


50IV 


8E 


Oran 


10 


36 N 





Ostend 


22 


SIN 


3 E 


Orange 


8 


44 N 


4 H 


Osterode 


92 


54 N 


20 E 


Orange, R 


133 






Ostia 


4 


42 N 


12 E 


Orange Free State 


133 






Ostiglia 


104 


45 N 


11 E 


Oranienburg 


55 


52 N 


13 E 


Ostrolenka 


58 


53 N 


22 E 


Orbe 


15 


47 N 


7E 


Ostroviza ... 


3 


43 N 


22 E 


Orbitello 


26 


42 N 


HE 


Ostrovno 


96 


55 N 


30 E 


Orca, R 


88 


44 N 


en 


0' Sullivan ... 


27 


52 N 


low 


Orchies 


11 


SON 


3 E 


0' Sullivan Mor 


27 


52 N 


low 


Ord, R 


128 


17 S 


128 E 


Osuna 


7 


37 N 


S W 


Ordal 


95 


41 N 


2E 


Oswego 


70 


43 N 


77 W 


Orebro 


17 


59 N 


15 E 


Otago 


129 


48 8 


168 E 


Oregon 


72 


4oir 


130 W 


Otago Harb. 


129 


46 8 


171 E 


O'Reilly 


27 


54 N 


7 W 


Otokacz 


111 


45 N 


15 E 


Orel (Russia) 


108 


53 N 


36 E 


O'Tooles 


27 


52 If 


8 vir 


Orel, R 


54 


49 N 


36 E 


Otranto 


4 


40 N 


18 E 


Orenburg 


61 


52 N 


55 E 


Otranto, Str. of ... 


104 


4on 


16 E 


Orense 


95 


42 N 


8W 


Otricoli 


104 


42 N 


12 E 


Oreti, R 


129 


46 S 


168 E 


Ottawa 


126 


45 N 


76 W 


Orfa 


110 


37 N 


39 E 


Ottmachau 


57 


SON 


17 B 


Orford 


113 


52 N 


2E 


Ouargla 


131 


32 N 


5E 


Orihuela 


9 


38 N 


1 W 


Oudenarde ... 


22 


SIN 


4E 


Orinoco, R 


135 


O 


70 W 


Oudenburg 


22 


51 N 


3E 


O'Rior 


27 


54 N 


7 W 


Oudewater 


22 


52 N 


5E 


Oriskany 


70 


43 N 


75 W 


Oudh 


99 


24 sr 


80E 


Orissa 


64 


16 17 


SOB 


Oudnadatta 


128 


27 8 


136 E 


Orizaba 


106 


18 N 


97 W 


Ouessant I. 


50 


48 N 


5 W 


Orkapi 


61 


46 N 


34 E 


Oughter, L. 


37 


54 N 


7W 


Orkelen 


11 


51 N 


6E 


Ouiveland ... 


22 


52 N 


4E 


Orkney Is 


23 


59 N 


3 W 


Ouro, R. do 


2 


O 


SOW 



Index to Maps. 



201 



Ourthe 

Ourthe, E. ... 

Ouse, Little (Eng 

Ouse, E. (Eng.) 

Ouse, E. (Eng.) 

Ouse, E. (Eng.) 

Outer Deep 

Outer Ebodes 

Overmaas Lands 

Oversee 

Overwinden 

Overyssel (Overijssel) 

Oviedo 

Owari 

Owen Sd. 

Owen Stanley Eang 

Owles, The... 

Owney 

Oxford 

Oxfordshire... 

Oyapok, E. 

Oykell, E. ... 

Ozora 

Paardeberg ... 

Paardekraal 

Paarl 

Padang 

Paderborn ... 

Padua 

Paducah 

Pagan 

Pago Pago ... 

Pahang 

Pain-gunga, E. 

Paisley 

Paisley, C. ... 

Paita 

Pak-ho, E. ... 

Pakhoi 

Pakhra, B.... 

Paklat 

Palais 

Palamos 

Palatinate, Lower 

(Ehenish) 
Palatinate, Upper 
Palawan 
Pale, The . 
Palencia 
Palermo 
Palestine 
Palestrina . 
Palestro 
Palk Str. . 
Palliser, C. . 
Palma (Canary Is 
Palma (Majorca) 
Palmanova . . . 
Palmas, C. ... 
Palmas, G. of 
Palmas, Pt 
Palmer, E 



Map 
94 
81 

121 
36 

121 

121 
87 

112 
22 

116 

81 

22 

7 

137 

126 

128 
27 
27 
16 
16 

106 
23 

111 

133 
133 
133 
139 

12 
4 

74 
125 
139 
125 
123 

56 
128 
140 
125 
138 

96 
125 

50 

95 

12 

12 
139 

27 

7 

4 

110 

4 

104 

99 
129 
130 

95 
117 
130 

91 
134 
128 



Palmerston(S.Au8tral.)128 



Lat. 
48 IT 

50 N 
52 N 

54 N 
52 N 

51 N 
56 N 

47 N 
51 N 

55 N 

51 N 

52 N 
43 N 
35 N 
45 N 

lOS 
54 N 

53 N 
52 N 

60IT 

4N 

58 N 

47 N 

29 S 
27 S 
34 S 

IS 
52 N 
45 N 

37 N 

21 N 
20S 

4N 

20 N 

56 N 
34 S 

6S 
20I7 

22 N 
56 N 
13 N 

48 N 
42 N 

50 N 

49 N 
ION 

63 17 

42 N 

38 N 

30 N 
42 N 

45 N 
ION 
42 S 
29 N 
40 N 

46 N 
4N 

20 K- 

21 N 
16 S 
12 S 



Long. 

4 S 
6E 
IE 

1 W 




12 E 
9i: 
6E 
9B 
5E 
7B 
6 W 
137 E 

SOW 
140E 

low 

8 W 

1 w 

2 VT 

52 W 

5 W 

18 E 

26 E 
28 E 

19 B 
100 E 

9B 
12 E 

89 W 
95 E 

180 
102 E 

78 E 
4W 

123 E 

81 W 

lOOE 

109 E 

38 E 

100 E 

3E 

3E 

8 W 

12 W 
120 E 

8 VI 

5 W 

13 E 
35 E 
13 E 

9E 

79 E 
175 E 

17 W 
3E 

13 E 
8W 

o 

90 W 
143 E 
131 E 



Map 
Palmerston (Victoria) 128 
Palmerston, North 

(N.Z.) 129 

Palmyra L ... 139 

Palo Alto 71 

Pamiers ... ... 79 

Pamir 124 

Pamir Plateau ... 138 
Pampeluna (Pamplona) 95 



Pamunkey 

Panama 

Panama, G. of 

Panaro 

Panay 

Panchamal... 

Panda 

Pauge 

Panipat 

Panixer Pass 

Panja, E. ... 

Pannonhalma 

Panshino ... 

Pantellaria 

Pan tin 

Panuco, E 

Paoting-Fu... 
Papal States 
Papelotte ... 
Papua 

Papua, G. of 
Para, E. 
Parachin 
Paragua, E. 
Paraguay ... 
Paraguay, E. 
Parahiba 
Paramaribo 
Paramatta ... 
Paramushir 
Parana (Argentine) 
Parana (Brazil) 

Parana, E 

Paray-le-Monial . . 
Pardubitz ... 

Parga 

Paria 
Paria, G. of 

Parima, E 

Paris 
Parkany 
Parma 

Parnahyba, E. 
Paroo, E. ... 

Paros I 

Parret, E. ... 
Parry Is. ... 
Parsdorf 

Parthe, E 

Parthenay ... 
Parthenopean Bep. 

Paru, E 

Pasco 

Passage 

Passages 



74 

66 

135 

94 

139 

99 

99 

118 

64 

30 

124 

21 

61 

131 

97 

2 

138 

4 

98 

128 

128 

135 

119 

135 

135 

106 

135 

135 

128 

138 

135 

135 

135 

103 

57 

105 

106 

69 

135 

8 

48 

4 

135 

128 

3 

36 

126 

88 

97 

82 

86 

106 

106 

27 

95 



Lat. 
38 8 

40 S 

O 

26 N 

43 N 
35 JX 
30I9r 

43 N 
38 N 

9N 
8N 

44 N 
O 

15 N 
15 N 

Ins. 
29 N 
47 N 

38 N 

47 N 

48 N 
37 N 

Ins. 


39 N 
42 N 

Ins. 
lO 8 
10 8 
IS 

44 N 
5N 

30 8 

22 N 

7S 

6N 

34 S 

52 N 

32 S 

30 8 

30 8 

46 N 

50 N 
39 N 
ION 
ION 

2N 

49 N 
48 N 

45 N 
lO 8 

29 S 
35 V 

51 N 
70 JX 

48 N 
Ins. 

47 N 


10 S 

52 N 
43 N 



Long. 
147 E 

176 E 
180 

97 W 
2E 

70z: 
70x: 

2 W 
77 W 
80 W 
80 W 

8E 

i20z: 

74 E 

74 E 

77 B 

9E 

71 E 

18 E 
43 E 
12 E 

120 W 
116 E 
12 E 

140 E 
140 E 

49 W 

21 E 

63 W 

60 W 

58 W 

35 W 

55 W 

151 E 

156 E 

61 W 
60 yW 
60 Xf7 

4E 
16 E 
20 E 
63 W 

62 W 
61 W 

2E 

19 E 
10 E 

60"W 
147 E 
25 x: 

3 W 
120TXr 

12 E 



52 W 

77 W 
7 W 
2 W 



202 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Passagio 


3 


38 N 


26 E 


Penafiel 


95 


41 N 


8W 


Passarge, E. 


92 


54 N 


20 E 


Penang 


125 


5N 


100 E 


Passariano 


83 


46 N 


13 E 


Pendennis Castle ... 


36 


50 N 


5 W 


Passaro, C 


26 


36 N 


15 E 


Peneios, E. 


119 


40 N 


22 E 


Passarowitz 


48 


45 N 


21 E 


Penguin Islands ... 


133 


26 S 


15 B 


Passau 


12 


49 N 


13 E 


Peniche 


95 


39 N 


9W 


Passau, Bishopric of 


12 


46 17 


12 E 


Peniscola ... 


7 


40 N 





Passeyer 


93 


47 N 


HE 


Penjdeh 


124 


36 N 


63 B 


Passo di San Marco 


30 


46 N 


9E 


Penmarck, C. 


87 


48 N 


4 W 


Passy 


97 Ins. 




Penner N., E. (India) 


122 


ION 


70i: 


Pasto 


106 


IN 


77 W 


Penner S., E. 


122 


ION 


70B 


Pastrengo ... 


104 


45 N 


HE 


Pennine Chain 


121 






Patagonia ... 


135 






Pennsylvania 


72 


40N 


80W 


Patea 


129 


40 S 


174 E 


Penobscot, B. and E. 


70 


44 N 


69 W 


Patia 


106 


2N 


77 W 


Penon de la Gomera 


7 ] 


'.ne. 




Patiala 


123 


30 N 


76 E 


Pefion de Velez ... 


65 


35 N 


4 W 


Patkoi Mts 


99 


24 M* 


88 E 


Penrhyn 


121 


53 N 


4W 


Patmos I. ... 


3 


37 N 


27 E 


Penrhyn I. 


139 


20 8 


160 "W 


Patna 


64 


26 N 


85 E 


Penrith 


121 


55 N 


3W 


Patos, L 


135 


31 S 


51 W 


Penryn 


121 


SON 


5 W 


Patras 


3 


38 N 


22 E 


Pensacola 


74 


30 N 


87 W 


Patrimony of St Peter 26 


42 N 


12 E 


Pentagouet 


67 


44 N 


69 W 


Patuca, E 


134 


15 N 


85 W 


Penthievre ... 


82 


48 N 


3W 


Patuxent, E. 


70 


38 N 


77 W 


Penthi^vre, Duchy of 8 


48 N 


4 W 


Pau 


8 


43 N 





Pentland Hills ... 


23 


56 N 


4W 


Pau, E 


95 


43 N 


1 w 


Penza 


108 


53 N 


45 E 


Paunsdorf 


97 Ins. 




Penzance 


16 


50 N 


6W 


Pavia 


4 


45 N 


9E 


Peplin 


65 


54 N 


19 E 


Pavlovsk (Eussia^... 
Pavlovsk (Eussia)... 


61 


50 N 


40 E 


Perak 


125 


5N 


101 E 


108 


60 N 


30 E 


Perambakam 


99 


13 N 


80 E 


Paxos 


105 


39 N 


20 E 


Perche 


79 


48 N 





Payta 


106 


5S 


81 W 


Perdido, E. 


72 


31 N 


87 W 


Peace, E 


139 


^OfS 


120 W 


Pered 


111 


48 N 


18 E 


Peak, The 


121 


53 N 


2 W 


Perekop 


61 


46 N 


34 E 


Peake Creek 


128 


28 S 


136 E 


Perekop, G. 


115 


46 N 


34 E 


Pea Eidge 


74 


36 N 


94 W 


Pereslaff 


61 


50 N 


31 E 


Pechili, G. of 


138 


38 N 


120 E 


Perevolchna 


54 


49 N 


34 E 


Pechora, E. 


108 


60N 


50E 


Perigord 


8 


44 N 


O 


Pecos, E 


134 


30KT 


HOW 


Perigueux 


103 


45 N 


IE 


Pecquigny 


19 


50 N 


2E 


Perim I. 


130 


13 N 


43 E 


Pecs 


21 


46 N 


18 E 


Periyaslavl ... 


52 


57 N 


39 E 


Peebles 


23 


56 N 


3W 


Perleberg ... 


62 


53 N 


12 E 


Peedee, E., Gt ... 


68 


35 N 


SOW 


Perm 


61 


58 N 


56 E 


Peene 


33 


54 N 


14 E 


Perm, Govt of 


108 


50N 


50E 


Peene, E 


58 


54 N 


13 E 


Pernambuco 


106 


8S 


35 W 


Pegasus Bay 


129 


44 8 


172 S 


Pernau 


61 


58 N 


25 E 


Pegau 


12 


51 N 


12 E 


Pernes 


95 


39 N 


9 W 


Pegu 


125 


17 N 


96 E 


Peronne 


79 


50 N 


3E 


Pebtang 


138 Ins. 




Perosa 


25 


45 N 


7E 


Pei-ho 


138 


Ins. 




Perote 


71 


20 N 


97 W 


Peipus, L 


108 


58 N 


27 E 


Perpignan 


n 
t 


43 N 


3E 


Peitsang 


138 Ins. 




Perry ville ... 


74 


38 N 


85 W 


Peitz 


12 


52 N 


14 E 


Persia 


124 






Peiwar Pass 


124 


34 N 


70 E 


Persian Gulf 


124 






Peking 


138 


40 N 


116 E 


Perth 


23 


56 N 


3W 


Pelew Is. (Pellew) 


139 


O 


120E 


Perth (Australia) ... 


128 


32 S 


116 E 


Pelham 


70 


42 N 


73 W 


Peru 


106 


20 8 


80 W 


Pelim 


61 


SON 


61 E 


Peru, Upper 


106 


20 S 


64 W 


Pelion, Mt 


119 


39 N 


23 E 


Perugia 


4 


43 N 


12 E 


Pellew'sGp,SirEdw. 


128 


16 S 


137 E 


Perwez 


98 


51 N 


5E 


Pellice, E 


25 


44 N 


6E 


Pesaro 


4 


44 N 


13 E 


Pelly, E 


139 


eoK 


140 W 


Pescadores Is. 


138 


24 N 


120 E 


Pemba I 


130 


5S 


40 E 


Pescara 


4 


42 N 


14 E 


Pembroke 


16 


52 N 


5 W 


Peschiera ... 


104 


45 N 


HE 



Index to Maps, 



203 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Peshawar ... 


64 


34 N 


72 E 


Pilten 


... 58 


57 N 


22 E 


Pest 


21 


47 N 


19 E 


Pinczow 


.. 20 


51 N 


21 E 


Petalidi 


105 


37 N 


22 E 


Pine Creek 


.. 128 


14 S 


132 E 


Petapoli 


43 


Ins. 




Pinerolo 


4 


45 N 


7E 


Petchora, R. 


136 


60N 


50E 


Pines, I. of 


.. 69 


22 N 


83 W 


Peterborough 


16 


63 N 





Ping-shan ... 


.. 138 


29 N 


104 E 


Peterborough Ab. . . . 


16 


53 N 





Ping-yang ... 


.. 138 


39 N 


126 E 


Peterhead 


23 


57 N 


2W 


Pinkie Cleugh 


.. 23 


56 N 


3W 


Peterhof 


61 


60 N 


30 E 


Pinneberg . . . 


.. 12 


54 N 


10 E 


Peterloo 


121 


53 N 


2 W 


Pinsk 


.. 58 


52 N 


26 E 


Petersburg 


72 


37 N 


77 W 


Piombino ... 


4 


43 N 


11 E 


Petersfield 


113 


51 N 


IW 


Piotrkow . . . 


.. 20 


51 N 


20 E 


Peterswald 


97 


51 N 


14 E 


Pippli 


.. 64 


22 N 


87 E 


Peter the Great Bay 


137 


40N 


132 S 


Piraeus 


.. 105 


38 N 


24 E 


Petervarad 


48 


45 N 


20 E 


Pirate Coast 


.. 125 


25 N 


55 E 


Peter ward ein 


3 


45 N 


20 E 


Pima 


.. 33 


51 N 


14 E 


Petre 


129 


Ins. 




Piro 


.. 99 


15 N 


74 E 


Petrikow ... 


108 


51 N 


20 E 


Pirot 


.. 119 


43 N 


23 E 


Petropavlovsk 


139 


52 N 


159 E 


Pisa ... 


4 


44 N 


10 E 


Petrovsk 


108 


43 N 


48 E 


Pisagua 


.. 140 


20 8 


70 W 


Petrozavodsk 


108 


62 N 


34 E 


Pisania 


.. 130 


14 N 


15 W 


P^zenas 


19 


43 N 


3E 


Piscataqua, R. 


68 


43 N 


71 W 


PfafEendorf 


97 


[ns. 




Pisco 


.. 106 


14 N 


76 W 


Pfaffenhofen 


33 


49 N 


8E 


Pisek 


.. 57 


49 N 


14 E 


Pfalzburg 


45 


49 N 


7E 


Pi shin 


.. 122 


30 N 


67 E 


Pfirt 


6 


48 N 


7E 


Pistoia 


4 


44 N 


11 E 


Pfullendorf 


12 


48 N 


9E 


Pitcairn I. 


.. 139 


40S 


140 1^ 


Pharsalus 


120 


39 N 


23 E 


Pitsani 


... 133 


25 S 


26 E 


Phasis, R 


108 


42 N 


42 E 


Pitschen 


... 62 


51 N 


18 E 


Philadelphia 


72 


40 N 


75 W 


Pitsounda . . . 


... 108 


43 N 


40 E 


Philae I 


132 


24 N 


33 E 


Pittenweem 


.. 56 


56 N 


3 W 


Philiphaugh 


36 


56 N 


3 W 


Pittigliano ... 


.. 26 


43 N 


12 E 


Philippeville 








Pittsburg ... 


.. 72 


40 N 


80 W 


(Afr. N.W.) ... 


131 


37 N 


7 E 


Pittsburg Landing 


I 74 


35 N 


88 W 


Philippeville (Belg.) 


107 


SON 


4E 


Pitzuwo 


.. 137 


39 N 


122 E 


Philippine Is. 


139 


O 


I20E 


Piura 


.. 106 


5S 


81 W 


Philippolis 


133 


30 S 


25 E 


Pizzighetone 


4 


45 N 


10 E 


Philippopolis 


105 


42 N 


25 E 


Placentia . . , 


.. 67 


47 N 


54 W 


Philippsburg 


33 


49 N 


8E 


Placentia B. 


.. 126 


47 N 


54 W 


Philipsland 


22 


52 N 


4E 


Planchenoit 


98 Ins. 




Philipstown 


37 


53 N 


7 W 


Planian 


.. 57 


50 N 


15 E 


Phillaur 


123 


31 N 


76 E 


Plappeville ... 


.. 118 


49 N 


6E 


Phocea 


3 


39 N 


27 E 


Plasencia . . . 


7 


40 N 


6W 


Phoenix Is. 


139 


20 8 


ISO 


Plassey 


.. 64 


24 N 


88 E 


Phourka 


120 


39 N 


22 E 


Plate, R. ... 


2 


60 8 


60"W 


Piacenza ... 


4 


45 N 


10 E 


Platte, R. ... 


.. 72 


40 N 


100 w 


Piauhi (Piauhy) ... 


106 


20S 


60 W 


Plattsburg ... 


70 


45 N 


74 W 


Piave 


94 


46 N 


12 E 


Plauen 


... 12 


50 N 


12 E 


Piave, R 


4 


44 N 


12 E 


Plava 


.. 119 


43 N 


20 E 


Picardy 


79 


48 N 


O 


Pleisse, R. ... 


... 97 


51 N 


12 E 


Pichincha ... 


106 





79 W 


Plenty, Bay of 


.. 129 


40 S 


176 E 


Pickering, Vale of 


121 


54 N 


1 W 


Pless 


... 12 


50 N 


19 E 


Pictou 


126 


45 N 


63 W 


Plessis-les-Tours 


... 19 


47 N 


IE 


Piedmont (Italy) ... 


4 


44 IV 


6E 


Plettenbergs B. 


.. 133 


34 S 


24 E 


Piedmont (U.S.A.) 


74 


38 N 


SOW 


Plevlje 


... 119 


43 N 


19 E 


Pietermaritzburg ... 


133 


30 S 


30 E 


Plevna 


.. 105 


43 N 


25 E 


Pieter's Hill 


133 


29 S 


30 E 


Pliusa 


... 32 


58 N 


29 E 


Pietersburg 


133 


24 S 


29 E 


Plock 


... 58 


53 N 


20 E 


Pietra Santa 


4 


44 N 


10 E 


Ploermel 


8 


48 N 


2W 


Pilcomayo, R. 


106 


20 S 


64 W 


Ploeshti 


.. 105 


45 N 


26 E 


Pilica, R 


58 


48 N 


20x: 


Plombieres ... 


... 103 


48 N 


CE 


Pillau 


55 


55 N 


20 E 


Plon 


.. 62 


54 N 


10 E 


Pillnitz 


62 


51 N 


14 E 


Pluscardine Ab. 


.. 23 


58 N 


3 W 


Pilsen 


29 


50 N 


13 E 


Plymouth (Eng.) 


... 16 


50 N 


4 W 



204 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Plymouth (Mass.)... 


68 


42 N 


71 W 


Ponthieu 


79 


50 N 


2E 


Plymouth (N. C.) ... 


74 


36 N 


77 W 


Pontine Marshes ... 


4 


40I7 


12 E 


Po, E 


4 






Pontivy 


19 


48 N 


3W 


P6 


94 


44 17 


4 i: 


Pontoise 


8 


49 N 


2E 


P6-Bas 


94 


45 N 


12 E 


Pontremoli ... 


4 


44 N 


10 E 


Podgoritsa 


119 


42 N 


19 E 


Fonts de C6 


79 


47 N 





Podgorze ... 


102 


SON 


20 E 


Pont St Esprit ... 


19 


44 N 


5E 


Podkost 


117 ] 


[ns. 




Poole 


36 


51 N 


2W 


Podlachia 


58 


52 N 


20 E 


Poona 


64 


18 N 


74 E 


Podlesia 


58 


52 N 


24 E 


Popayan 


106 


2N 


77 W 


Podol 


117 


51 N 


15 E 


Porbandar ... 


99 


22 N 


69 E 


Podolia 


58 


48 sr 


28 E 


Poretchie ... 


96 


55 N 


31 E 


Podolsk 


96 


55 N 


37 E 


Porkhoff 


61 


58 N 


30 B 


Podrina 


3 


40N' 


20i: 


Portage la Prairie... 


126 


50 N 


99 W 


Poel I 


62 


54 N 


HE 


Port Angela 


140 


47 N 


122 W 


Poggibonsi 


4 


43 N 


HE 


Port Antonio 


134 


18 N 


76 W 


Poggio Eeale 


4 


38 N 


13 E 


Portarlington 


47 


53 N 


7 W 


P6-Haut 


94 


45 N 


10 E 


Port Arthur (China) 


138 


39 N 


121 E 


Point Danger 


128 


28 S 


154 E 


Port Arthur (Ont.) 


126 


48 N 


89 W 


Point de Galle ... 


140 


6N 


81 E 


Port Arthur (Tasm.) 


128 Ins. 




Point Denison 


140 


20 S 


148 E 


Port Augusta 








Pointe des Peres ... 


67 : 


^ns. 




(Austral. S.) ... 


128 


33 S 


138 E 


Pointe d'Orleans ... 


67 


[ns. 




Port Augusta 








Pointe Levis 


67 ] 


!ns. 




(Austral. W.) ... 


128 


34 S 


115 E 


Point Isabel 


71 


26 N 


97 W 


Port-au-Prince 


69 


19 N 


72 W 


Poissy 


8 


49 N 


2E 


Port Basque 


140 


47 N 


58 W 


Poitiers 


8 


47 N 





Port Blair 


125 


12 N 


93 E 


Poitou 


8 


44 at 


4 "W 


Port Bowen 


128 


22 S 


151 E 


Pola 


4 


45 N 


14 E 


Port Chalmers (N.G.) 


128 


8S 


146 E 


Poland 


1 






Port Chalmers (N.Z.) 


129 


46 S 


171 E 


Polianovka ... 


52 


55 N 


32 E 


Port Dalrymple 


128 


41 S 


147 E 


Policastro 


4 


40 N 


16 E 


Port Darwin 


128 


12 S 


131 E 


Poligny 


103 


47 N 


6E 


Port Denison 


139 


20 S 


148 E 


Pollilore 


64 


12 N 


79 E 


Port Egmout 


101 


50 S 


60 W 


Polock (Polotsk, 








Port EHzabeth ... 


133 


34 S 


26 E 


Polozk) 


20 


55 N 


29 S 


Portendik ... 


65 


18 N 


15 W 


Poltava 


61 


50 N 


35 E 


Port' Ercole 


26 


42 N 


HE 


Polynesia 


139 






Port Essington 








Polzen, K 


117 Ins. 




(Austral. N.) ... 


128 


12 S 


132 E 


Pomerania ... 


12 


50IV 


12 E 


Port Essington 








Pomerania, Swedish 


97 


52 N 


12 E 


(Brit. Col.) ... 


139 


53 N 


130 W 


Pomerelia, W. 


58 


54 N 


19 E 


Port Gibson 


74 


32 N 


91 W 


Pomeroon, B. 


106 


7N 


59 W 


Port Hamilton 


137 


34 N 


127 E 


Pomfret 


16 


54 N 


IW 


Port Hudson 


74 


31 N 


91 W 


Pomfret Ab. 


16 


54 N 


1 W 


Portici 


104 


41 N 


14 E 


Pommersfelden 


14 


50 N 


HE 


Portland B. 


128 


38 S 


142 E 


Ponce 


134 


18 N 


67 W 


Portland Bill 


121 


52 N 


2 W 


Pondicherry 


64 


12 N 


80 E 


Portland Canal 


126 


55 N 


130 W 


Pondoland ... 


133 


32 S 


29 E 


Portland (Can.) ... 


126 


44 N 


70 W 


Pongola, K. 


133 


27 S 


31 E 


Portland (U.S.A.)... 


140 


45 N 


122 W 


Pons 


19 


46 N 


1 W 


Portland (Victoria) 


128 


38 S 


142 E 


Pont-a-Mousson ... 


19 


49 N 


6E 


Port Lincoln 


128 


35 S 


136 E 


Pontarlier ... 


39 


47 N 


6E 


Port Louis 


50 


48 N 


3E 


Pont Beauvoisin ... 


19 


46 N 


6E 


Port Madryn 


140 


42 S 


65 W 


Pont de Gresin 


.25 


46 N 


6E 


Portmoak ... 


23 


56 N 


3W 


Pont de I'Arche ... 


8 


49 N 


IB 


Port Moresby 


128 


9S 


147 E 


Pontecorvo ... 


26 


42 N 


14 E 


Port Natal 


133 


30 8 


31 E 


Ponte di Legno 


30 


46 N 


11 E 


Port Nelson 


126 


57 N 


92 W 


Ponte Ferreira 


95 


41 N 


8 W 


Port Nolloth 


140 


29 8 


17 E 


Pontefract {see Pomfret) 






Porto Alegro 


135 


30 8 


51 W 


Ponte Lagoscuro ... 


26 


45 N 


12 E 


Porto Bello 


66 


ION 


SOW 


Pontenuovo... 


26 


42 N 


9E 


Porto Calvo 


106 


98 


36 W 


Ponte Pegadia 


120 


39 N 


21 E 


Porto Ferraio 


26 


43 N 


10 E 


Ponthiery 


97 


48 N 


2E 


Port of Spain 


69 


UN 


61 W 



Index to Maps. 



205 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Porto Longone 


26 


43 N 


10 E 


Priepolje 


119 


43 N 


20 E 


Porto Novo 


64 


12 N 


80 E 


Priesten 


97 


51 N 


14 E 


Porto Praya 


24 


15 N 


24 W 


Prince Albert Land 


126 


TON 


ISO TXT 


Porto Kico ... 


69 


18 N 


66 W 


Prince Albert Sound 


126 


70sr 


120'W 


Porto Seguro 


2 


17 S 


39 W 


Prince Edward I. 


70 


40N 


70 W 


Port Phillip 


128 


38 8 


145 E 


Prince of Wales, C. 


139 


60N 


180 


Portree 


23 


57 N 


6W 


Prince of Wales I. 








Port Kepublico 


74 


38 N 


79 W 


(Austral.) 


128 


lis 


142 E 


Port Eoyal (France) 


79 


49 N 


2E 


Prince of Wales I. 








Port Eoyal (Jamaica) 


69 


18 N 


77 W 


(Brit. Col.) ... 


139 


40N 


140 W 


Port Eoyal (Nova 








Prince of Wales I. 








Scotia) 


67 


45 N 


65 W 


(N. Can.) 


126 


73 N 


100 W 


Port Eoyal (U.S.A.) 


74 


32 N 


81 W 


Prince Patrick I. ... 


126 


70 N 


130 W 


Port Eush 


27 


55 N 


7W 


Prince Eupert B. ... 


126 


54 N 


130 W 


Port Said 


110 


31 N 


32 E 


Prince's Eiver 


65 Ins. 




Port Santiago 


139 


16 N 


121 E 


Princess I. ... 


100 


O 


o 


Port Simpson 


139 


54 N 


131 W 


Princeton ... 


70 


40 N 


74 W 


Portsmouth (Eng.) 


16 


51 N 


1 W 


Priucipato citra ... 


4 


40 17 


14 E 


Portsmouth (U.S.A.) 


70 


43 N 


71 W 


Principato ultra ... 


4 


40M- 


14 E 


Port Sudan 


132 


19 N 


37 E 


Principe, I. do 


130 


2N 


8E 


Portugal 


1 






Prinkipo 


119 


41 N 


29 E 


Portuguese E. Afr. 


133 






Pripet, E 


58 


52 N 


28 E 


Portuguese W. Afr. 


133 






Privas 


103 


45 N 


5E 


Portumna ... 


37 


53 N 


8W 


Prizren 


120 


42 N 


21 E 


Poschiavo 


15 


46 N 


10 B 


Probstheida 


97 Ins. 




Poschiavo ... 


30 


46 N 


10 E 


Prome 


125 


19 N 


95 E 


Posen 


62 


52 N 


17 E 


Prossnitz ... 


57 


49 N 


17 E 


Posilipo 


26 


40 N 


14 E 


Provence 


8 


40 1^ 


4E 


Poszega 


111 


45 N 


18 E 


Providence 


70 


42 N 


72 W 


Potchefstroom 


133 


27 S 


27 E 


Providence I. 


69 


13 N 


81 W 


Potenza 


104 


41 N 


16 E 


Priim 


109 


SON 


6E 


Poti 


61 


42 N 


42 E 


Prussia 


51 






Potomac, E. 


72 


40 N 


78 W 


Prussia, D. of 


20 


SON 


20E 


Potosi 


106 


20 S 


66 W 


Prussia, E., W., New 








Potsdam 


33 


52 N 


13 E 


E., S 


59 


52 N 


16E 


Potteries, The 


121 


53 N 


2 W 


Pruth, E 


3 


45 If 


25 E 


Pouance 


83 


48 N 


1 W 


Przamsia ... 


108 


SON 


19 E 


Poupry 


118 


48 N 


2 E 


Przemysl 


20 


SON 


23 E 


Poverty Bay 


129 


39 S 


178 E 


Pskoff 


108 


58 N 


28 E 


Povyenets 


52 


63 N 


35 B 


Puebla 


134 


19 N 


98 W 


Powick Bridge 


36 


52 N 


2 W 


Puerta de Sta Maria 


95 


37 N 


6 W 


Pozsony 


21 


48 N 


17 E 


Puerto Eeal 


24 


36 N 


6W 


Pozzolo 


88 


45 N 


10 E 


Puerto Eico {see 








Praga 


58 


52 N 


21 E 


Porto Eico) 








Prague 


12 


SON 


14 E 


Pulaski 


74 


35 N 


87 W 


Pratiga 


30 


46 sr 


9 E 


Pulawy 


58 


SIN 


22 E 


Prato 


4 


44 N 


HE 


Pulicat 


64 


13 N 


80 E 


Pratteln 


112 


48 N 


8E 


Pulo Ai 


43 Ins. 




Pratzen 


92 Ins. 




Pulo Condore 


125 


9N 


106 E 


Pregel, E 


55 


54 -N 


20E 


Pulo Eun 


43 Ins. 




Preilitz 


97 


51 N 


15 E 


Pulo Web 


140 


6N 


95 E 


Prenzlau 


62 


53 N 


14 E 


Pultusk 


58 


S3N 


21 E 


Preobrazhenskoe . . . 


52 


56 N 


38 E 


Pungure 


133 


19 8 


34 E 


Prespa, L. ... 


119 


41 N 


21 E 


Punitz 


54 


52 N 


17 E 


Presqu'isle ... 


70 


42 N 


SOW 


Punjab 


122 


30 N 


70 E 


Pressburg (Pozsony) 


21 


48 N 


17 E 


Punniar 


124 


26 N 


78 E 


Presteigne 


121 


52 N 


3W 


Puno 


106 


16 8 


70 W 


Preston 


36 


54 N 


3W 


Punta del Eey 


106 


ION 


64 W 


Preston Pans 


56 


56 N 


3 W 


Purandhar 


64 


18 N 


75 E 


Pretoria 


133 


26 8 


28 E 


Purus, E 


135 


10 8 


70^xr 


Prevesa 


3 


39 N 


21 E 


Puster Thai 


83 


46 N 


12 E 


Priboj 


119 


20 N 


44 E 


Putivl 


52 


SIN 


34 E 


Priebus 


12 


51 N 


15 E 


Putten 


22 


52 N 


4B 


Priegnitz 


12 


53 N 


12 E 


Puy-de-D6me 


103 


44 N 


O 



206 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Puylaurens... 


. 19 


44 N 


2E 


Rahad, R 


.. 132 


13 N 


35 E 


Puymiral 


. 19 


44 N 


1 W 


Rahmanieh... 


.. 110 


31 N 


31 E 


Pyasina, K. 


. 136 


70N 


80£ 


Raigern Ab. 


.. 92 


49 N 


17 E 


Pyrenees Basses ,. 


. 103 


40N 


4 W 


Rain 


.. 33 


49 N 


HE 


Pyrenees Hautes .. 


. 103 


4onr 


O 


Rainy, R. ... 


.. 67 


49 N 


94 W 


Pyrenees Mts 


7 






Raisin, R. ... 


.. 70 


42 N 


84 W 


Pyrenees Orientales 


103 


40ZV 


O 


Rajputana ... 


.. 64 






Pyramids ... 


. 132 Ins. 




Rakhsban, R. 


.. 124 


27 N 


64 B 


Pyritz 


. 62 


53 N 


15 B 


Rakonitz 


.. 29 


SON 


14 E 


Pyrmont 


. 107 


52 N 


9 E 


Rakos 


.. 21 


48 N 


19 E 










Raleigh 


.. 74 


36 N 


78 W 


Quatre Bras 


. 98 Ins. 




Ramgunga, R. 


.. 124 


25 N 


75 E 


Quebec 


. 70 


47 N 


71 W 


Ramillies ... 


.. 45 


SIN 


5E 


Quedlinburg 


. 59 


52 N 


11 E 


Ramieh 


.. 132 


31 N 


30 B 


Queenborough 


. 113 


51 N 


1 W 


Eamraekens 


.. 22 


SIN 


4B 


Queen Charlotte I. 


139 


40N 


140 W 


Ramnagar ... 


.. 124 


32 N 


74 B 


Queen Charlotte Sc 


139 


40N 


1401^ 


Rampore (India) 


.. 99 


29 N 


79 E 


Queen's County .. 


. 37 


53 N 


8W 


Rampore (India) 


.. 99 


16 N 


77 B 


Queensferry Ab. .. 


. 23 


56 N 


3 W 


Rampura . . . 


.. 99 


24 N 


75 E 


Queenstown (Afr. S. 


) 133 


32 S 


27 E 


Ramree 


.. 125 


19 N 


94 E 


Queenstown (Am. N. 


) 70 


43 N 


79 W 


Ram's Head, The 


... 27 


55 N 


8W 


Queenstown (N.Z.) 


129 


45 S 


169 E 


Ramsey 


... 16 


52 N 





Queich, R 


. 45 


49 N 


8E 


Ramu 


.. 125 


21 N 


92 E 


Quels, B. ... 


. 81 


49 N 


8E 


Randalstown 


.. 47 


55 N 


6W 


Queiss, R 


. 97 


51 N 


15 E 


Ranelagh, The 


.. 37 


52 IT 


8 "W 


Queluz 


. 95 


39 N 


9 W 


Rangitata, R. 


.. 129 


44 S 


171 E 


Quercy 


. . 8 


44 N- 


O 


Rangoon 


... 122 


17 N 


96 B 


Queretaro 


. 106 


20 N 


100 w 


Raniganj 


... 123 


24 N 


87 B 


Querfurt 


. 12 


51 N 


12 E 


Rannoch, L. 


... 23 


57 N 


4 W 


Quesnoi 


. 81 


SON 


4E 


Rantzau 


... 40 


52 17 


BE 


Quetta 


. 124 


30 N 


67 E 


Rapallo 


4 


44 N 


9B 


Quiberon 


. 83 


47 N 


3 W 


Raphoe 


... 37 


55 N 


8B 


Quiberou B. 


. 50 


47 N 


3 W 


Rapidan, R. 


.. 74 


38 N 


78 W 


Qui(^vrain ... 


. 19 


SON 


4E 


Rappahannock, R 


74 


38 N 


77 W 


Quilimane 


. 130 


18 S 


37 E 


Rapti, R. ... 


.. 122 


27 N 


83 B 


Quiloa 


. 65 


8S 


40 E 


Rasboieni ... 


3 


48 N 


25 B 


Quilon 


. 64 


9N 


77 E 


Raseborg . . . 


.. 17 


60 N 


24 E 


Quimper 


. 103 


48 N 


4 W 


Rasi, Wadi... 


.. 131 


35 N 


SW 


Quinpiac, R. 


. 68 


42 N 


73 W 


Raslawice . . . 


.. 58 


SON 


20 B 


Quintana Roo 


. 134 


20 N 


88 W 


Rastatt 


... 62 


49 N 


8B 


Quintangbona I. .. 


. 130 


15 S 


41 E 


Rasul 


.. 124 


33 N 


74 B 


Quints, Bay of 


. 70 


44 N 


78 W 


Raszyn 


.. 93 


52 N 


21 E 


Quito 


. 106 





78 W 


Rathcormack 


... 47 


52 N 


8W 


Quitta 


. 65 


6N 


IE 


Rathenow ... 


.. 53 


53 N 


12 E 










Rathlin I. ... 


.. 37 


55 N 


6W 


Raab (Gyor) 


. 21 


48 N 


18 E 


Rathmines ... 


37 


53 N 


6W 


Raab, R 


. Ill 


47 N 


17 E 


Rathmore . . . 


.. 27 


53 N 


7W 


Rabat 


. 131 


34 N 


7W 


Rathmullan 


.. 37 


55 N 


8W 


Raby 


16 


55 N 


2W 


Ratibor 


.. 12 


SON 


18 E 


Racconigi 


. 25 


45 N 


8E 


Ratisbon 


.. 12 


49 N 


12 E 


Race, C 


. 126 


46 N 


53 W 


Ratnagiri . . . 


.. 122 


17 N 


73 E 


Rachol 


. 99 


15 N 


74 E 


Ratoath 


.. 47 


53 N 


6W 


Racour 


. 81 


SIN 


5E 


Rattenberg . . . 


12 


47 N 


12 B 


Racow 


. 20 


51 N 


21 E 


Ratzeburg . . . 


.. 62 


54 N 


HE 


Radnor 


. 113 


52 N 


3 W 


Rausnitz 


.. 92 Ins. 




Radolfzell 


. 12 


48 N 


9E 


Ravenna 


4 


44 N 


12 E 


Radom 


. 58 


51 N 


21 E 


Ravensburg 


.. 12 


48 N 


10 B 


Radstadt 


. 13 


47 N 


13 E 


Ravenstein ... 


.. 28 


50N 


5E 


Radziejowice 


. 20 


53 N 


19 E 


Ravenswood 


.. 128 


20 S 


147 B 


Raffa 


. 132 


31 N 


34 E 


Ravi, R 


.. 99 


24 IT 


72 E 


Raffles B 


. 128 


lis 


132 E 


Rawa 


.. 68 


52 N 


20 E 


Raglan 


. 16 


52 N 


3 W 


Rawal Pindi 


.. 64 


34 N 


73 E 


Raglan Castle 


. 36 


52 N 


3W 


Rawitz 


.. 54 


52 N 


17 E 


Ragusa 


3 


43 N 


18 E 


Rawka 


.. 58 


SIN 


20 E 



Index to Maps. 



2or 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Ray, C 


126 


47 N 


59 W 


Rhode I 


72 


42 N 


71 W 


Raymond ... 


74 


32 N 


90 W 


Rhodes 


3 


36 N 


28 E 


Raz 


87 


48 N 


5W 


Rhodes, Inr. and Out 


. 15 


47 N 


9E 


Raziins 


30 


47 N 


9E 


Rhodesia 


133 






Reading 


16 


51 N 


1 W 


Rhodesia,N.E.,N.W., 








Reading Ab. 


16 


51 N 


1 W 


andS 


130 


20S 


20E 


Recife (Pernambuco) 


106 


8S 


35 W 


Rhodope Mts 


119 


42 N 


24 E 


Redan 


115 Ins. 




Rhone, R 


8 


44 N 


4B 


Red Bay 


27 


55 N 


6W 


Rhone et Loire 


103 


44 N 


4E 


Red River (Amer. N.) 


69 


34 N 


9W 


Rhuddlan 


16 


53 N 


3 W 


Red River (Amer. N.) 


72 


48 N 


97 W 


Riazin 


108 


54 N 


40 E 


Red River (China) 


125 


20N 


looz: 


Kibagorza, R. 


7 


42 St 


1 £ 


Ree, L 


27 


53 N 


8W 


Ribble, R 


36 


54 N 


3W 


Rees 


29 


52 N 


6E 


Ribe 


17 


55 N 


9E 


Regensburg 


62 


49 N 


12 E 


Richelieu ... 


79 


47 N 





Regent Inlet 


126 


73 N 


90 W 


Richelieu, R. 


70 


45 N 


73 W 


Reggio (Italy) 


4 


45 N 


11 E 


Riche Pt 


67 


51 N 


58 W 


Reggio (Italy) 


104 


38 N 


16 E 


Richmond (Afr. S.) 


133 


30 S 


30 E 


Regina 


126 


SON 


105 W 


Richmond (Eng.) ... 


16 


54 N 


2W 


Reichenau (Bohem.) 


89 


50 N 


16 E 


Richmond (U.S.A.) 


72 


38 N 


77 W 


Reicbenau (Switz.) 


30 


47 N 


9E 


Rich Mt 


74 


39 N 


SOW 


Reichenbach ( Saxony) 


107 


51 N 


12 E 


Ried 


111 


48 N 


13 E 


Reichenbach ( Silesia) 


62 


51 N 


17 E 


Riedberg 


30 


47 N 


9E 


Reichenberg 


12 


51 N 


15 E 


Rieneck 


12 


SON 


10 B 


Reichstadt ... 


107 


51 N 


15 E 


Riesen Gebirge 


117 Ins. 




R6, I. de 


79 


46 N 


1 W 


Rieti 


104 


42 N 


13 E 


Reigate 


113 


51 N 


0' 


Riez, I. of 


19 


47 N 


2 W 


Reims 


8 


49 N 


4E 


Rif, The 


130 


35 N 


4 W 


Rendsburg ... 


12 


54 N 


10 E 


Riga 


58 


57 N 


24 E 


Renfrew 


23 


56 N 


4W 


Rimini 


4 


44 N 


13 E 


Rennes 


8 


48 N 


2W 


Rimnik 


61 


45 N 


24 E 


Reno... 


94 


44 N 


8E 


Ringnes Is. 


126 


78 N 


100 W 


Resaca 


74 


35 N 


85 W 


Riobamba ... 


135 


2S 


79 W 


Rescade la Palma 


71 


26 N 


97 W 


Rio de Balzas 


134 


18 N 


100 w 


Rescht 


52 


37 N 


50 E 


Rio de Janeiro 


106 


22 S 


44 W 


Resht 


108 


37 N 


50 E 


Rio de la Hacha ... 


69 


12 N 


72 W 


Retford, E. 


121 


52 N 


1 W 


Rio de la Plata ... 


106 


40 8 


80 W 


Rethe 


8 


48IT 


4E 


Rio del Norte 


139 


201!ff 


120W 


Rethel 


79 


49 N 


4E 


Rio de Oro 


130 


20N 


20^ 


Rethymno 


120 


35 N 


25 E 


Rio Gila 


134 


33 N 


113 W 


Reunion 


130 


22 S 


55 E 


Rio Grande (Am. S.) 


106 


32 S 


52 W 


Reus 


95 


41 N 


IE 


Rio Grande (U.S.A.) 


72 


30 N 


100 w 


Reuss 


12 


SON 


8z: 


Rio Grande del Norte 








Reuss, R 


107 


47 N 


8E 


(Am. S.) 


106 


20 8 


40 W 


Reutlingen ... 


12 


49 N 


9E 


Rio Grande de 








Reval 


61 


59 N 


25 E 


Santiago (Mex.) 


134 


21 N 


104 W 


Revelstoke ... 


126 


51 N 


118 W 


Rio Grande do Sul 








Revesby Ab. 


16 


53 N 





(Am. S.) 


106 


40S 


60W 


Revue, R 


133 


20 S 


33 E 


Rioja 


135 


30 S 


68 W 


Rewah 


122 


25 N 


81 E 


Riom 


8 


46 N 


3E 


Reynold, R. 


128 


30S 


130 E 


Rio Muni 


130 


2N 


10 E 


Rezorville 


118 Ins. 




Rion, R. 


115 


43 N 


43 E 


Rheinau 


39 


48 N 


8E 


Rio Negro 


135 


40 S 


68 W 


Rheinberg 


12 


52 N 


7E 


Rio Negro, R. 


135 


40 S 


68 W 


Rheinfelden 


12 


48 N 


8E 


Ripoli 


44 


42 N 


2E 


Rheinfels 


12 


50 N 


8E 


Ripon 


36 


54 N 


2W 


Rheinwald ... 


30 


46 US 


9E 


Risle, R 


118 


49 N 


IE 


Rhenish Knights ... 


12 


46 N 


4E 


Riu-kiu Is. 


138 


20»r 


120E 


Rhin Bas 


103 


48 rr 


4 E 


Riva 


30 


46 N 


9E 


Rhine, Confed. of the 


97 






Rivaulx Ab. 


16 


54 N 


1 W 


Rhine Provinces ... 


118 






Riverina District ... 


128 


40S 


140 


Rhine, R 


30 


46 17 


91! 


Riviera, Genoese ... 


83 


44 N 


8 E 


Rhin et Moselle ... 


94 


48 JS 


4 E 


Riviere du Loup ... 


126 


48 N 


69 W 


Rhin Haute 


103 


44 N 


4 E 


Rivoli (Italy) 


94 


46 N 


HE 



208 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Eivoli (Italy) 


. 104 


45 N 


8E 


Rosheim 


40 


48 N 


7E 


Bivolta 


. 4 Ins 


. 45 N 


10 E 


Roskilde 


17 


56 N 


12 E 


Koanne 


. 19 


46 N 


4E 


Roslau 


29 


52 N 


12 B 


Eoanoke I. 


. 74 


36 N 


76 W 


Rosmarkyn 


23 


56 N 


8 W 


Roanoke, R. 


. 68 


36 N 


78 W 


Rosmead June. 


133 


31 S 


25 E 


Robertsbridge Ab. 


16 


51 N 





Rosoy 


19 


49 N 


3E 


Robertsons ... 


. 23 


57 N 


4W 


Ross 


23 


56 N 


5 W 


Roccabruna 


. 103 


44 N 


7E 


Ross, New ... 


37 


52 N 


7 W 


Roccasecca ... 


4 


42 N 


14 E 


Rossano 


4 


40 N 


17 E 


Rochdale 


. 121 


54 N 


2W 


Rossbach 


57 


51 N 


12 E 


Roche Bernard 


. 19 


47 N 


2 W 


Rossbrunn ... 


117 


50 N 


10 E 


Rocheford 


. 79 


46 N 


IW 


Rosses 


23 


58 N 


4W 


Roche, Lord 


. 27 


52 N 


8W 


Rossitz 


12 


49 N 


16 E 


Rochester ... 


. 16 


51 N 





Rossland 


126 


49 N 


118 W 


Rochlitz 


. 14 


51 N 


13 E 


Rostock 


12 


54 N 


12 B 


Rockhampton 


. 128 


23 S 


151 E 


Rostoff (Russia) ... 


61 


57 N 


39 B 


Rocky Mts 


. 139 






Rostoff (Russia) ... 


108 


47 N 


40 E 


Rocroi (Rocroy) .. 


. 39 


50 N 


4E 


Rotenburg (Hesse)... 


62 


51 N 


10 E 


Rodach 


. 12 


50 N 


HE 


Rothenburg, Imp. 








Rodez 


. 79 


44 N 


3E 


Town 


62 


49 N 


10 E 


Rodosto 


. 105 


41 N 


28 E 


Rothenburg (Prus.) 


57 


52 N 


15 E 


Rodrigues I. 


. 100 


30 8 


60z: 


Rothenthurm 


90 


47 N 


9E 


Roebourne ... 


. 128 


21 S 


117 E 


Rother, R 


121 


51 N 


1 W 


Roebuck B. 


. 128 


18 S 


122 E 


Rother, R 


121 


51 N 


IB 


Roer 


. 94 


48 N 


4E 


Rothes 


23 


58 N 


3W 


Roer, R 


. 107 


51 N 


6E 


Rotterdam ... 


22 


52 N 


4E 


Roermonde 


. 12 


51 N 


6E 


Rottum I. 


109 


53 IT 


en 


Roeskilde 


. 53 


56 N 


12 E 


Rottweil 


12 


48 N 


9E 


Roggenburg 


13 


48 N 


10 E 


Roubaix 


103 


51 N 


3E 


Roggeveld Mts 


. 133 


32 S 


20 E 


Rouen 


8 


49 N 


IE 


Rohan 


79 


48 N 


3W 


Rouergue 


8 


44 If 


O 


Rohilkhand 


64 


24 rr 


72 E 


Roumania ... 


119 


44 N 


24 E 


Rohrbach 


. 97 


52 N 


13 E 


Roumelia {see Rumelia) 






Rokelle, R. 


. 130 


8N 


13 W 


Roumelia, Eastern 


119 


4oir 


24 W 


Rolica 


95 


39 N 


9W 


Roundaway Down 


36 


51 N 


2W 


Rolla 


74 


38 N 


92 W 


Roussillon ... 


7 


42 nr 


2 E 


Romagna 


4 


42 N 


121! 


Roussillon ... 


19 


45 N 


5E 


Romainville 


. 97 Ins. 




Route, The 


27 


55 N 


6 W 


Roman Republic .. 


86 






Roverbello 


83 


45 N 


HE 


Romans 


79 


45 N 


5E 


Roveredo (Austria) 


83 


46 N 


HE 


Rome 


4 


42 N 


12 E 


Roveredo (Venetia) 


104 


46 N 


13 E 


Romney Marsh 


121 


51 N 


IE 


Rovigo 


4 Ins 


. 45 N 


12 E 


Romny 


108 


51 N 


33 E 


Rovuma, R. 


130 


12 S 


38 E 


Romont 


15 


47 N 


7E 


Rowton Heath 


36 


53 N 


3 W 


Romorantin 


19 


47 N 


2E 


Roxburgh ... 


23 


55 N 


3W 


Roncal 


7 


43 N 


1 W 


Roxo, C. (Cape 








Roncesvalles 


95 


43 N 


1 W 


Breton I.) 


130 


12 N 


17 W 


Ronciglione 


26 


42 N 


12 E 


Roy ale, lie 


67 


46 N 


61 W 


Ronco 


83 


46 N 


12 E 


Royan 


19 


46 N 


1 W 


Ronco, R. ... 


4 


44 N 


12 £ 


Roye 


19 


50 N 


3E 


Roncourt 


. 118 Ins. 




Royston 


36 


52 N 





Ronda 


7 


37 N 


5 W 


Rozmital 


21 


SON 


14 E 


Ronnow 


57 


SON 


16 E 


Ruaha, R. ... 


130 


8S 


37 E 


Roosebeke 


6 


51 N 


3E 


Ruatan I. ... 


69 


16 N 


86 W 


Roper, R 


128 


15 S 


135 E 


Rub-el-Khali 


124 


20N 


50E 


Ropscha 


61 


60 N 


30 E 


Rubi, R 


132 


3N 


23 E 


Rorke's Drift 


133 


28 S 


30 E 


Rubicone, R. 


94 


44 NT 


12E 


Rosario 


135 


33 S 


61 W 


Rudnia 


96 


55 N 


31 E 


Rosas 


95 


42 N 


3E 


Rudolf, L 


132 


4N 


36 E 


Roscommon 


37 


54 N 


8W 


Rudolstadt 


107 


SIN 


HE 


Roseau 


69 


15 N 


61 W 


Rue 


19 


SON 


2E 


Rosenberg 


21 


49 N 


14 E 


Rueil 


79 


49 N 


2E 


Rosendal 


81 


51 N 


2E 


Ruffec 


19 


46 N 





Rosetta 


110 


31 N 


30 E 


Rufford Ab. 


16 


53 N 


IW 



Index to Maps, 



209 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long, 


Rufiji, R 


130 Ins. 




Saco, R 


•68 


43 N 


71 W 


Rugby 


121 


52 N 


1 w 


Sacramento 


■72 


39 N 


121 W 


Riigen 


12 


54 N 


i2i: 


Sacramento, R. .. 


72 


40 N 


122 W 


Riihr, R 


22 


51 N 


7 E 


Sadiya 


138 


28 N 


96 E 


Rullion Green 


"23 


56 N 


3W 


Sadowa 


117 Ins. 




Rumania (see 








Sadras 


64 


13 N 


80 E 


Roumania) 








Sadulapur 


124 


33 N 


74 E 


Rumbek 


132 


7N 


30 E 


Saffi 


131 


32 N 


9W 


Rumelia 


3 


40ir 


20i: 


Saffron Walden .. 


36 


52 N 





Rupert, R. ... 


-70 


50N 


BCW 


Safi 


140 


36 N 





Rupert's Land 


101 


soiar 


90 W 


Safid Koh Mts .. 


123 


33 N 


70 E 


Ruppin 


12 


53 N 


13 E 


Sagahadoc ... 


66 


44 N 


70 W 


Rupununi, R. 


135 


2N 


59 W 


Sagan 


12 


52 N 


15 E 


Ruremonde 


45 


51 N 


6E 


Sagar 


123 


24 N 


79 E 


Russbach ... 


93 Ins. 




Saghalin I 


137 


40sr 


140E 


Russia 


41 






Sagres 


7 


37 N 


9 W 


„ Great 


52 






Saguenay, R. 


70 


49 N 


71 W 


,, Little 


52 






Sagunto 


95 


40 N 





,, Red 


58 






Sahagun 


95 


42 N 


5W 


White 


58 






Saharanpur 


123 


30 N 


77 E 


Rustchuk ... 


108 


44 N 


26 E 


Saida 


110 


34 N 


35 E 


Ruthenia 


108 


40 N 


20 E 


Saigon 


125 


UN 


107 E 


Rutherglen 


•23 


56 N 


4 W 


Sailor's Cr. 


74 


37 N 


78 W 


Ruthin 


16 


53 N 


3W 


St Abb's Head .. 


121 


56 N 


2W 


Ruthven 


23 


57 N 


3W 


Sta Agueda 


95 


43 N 


3W 


Ruti 


15 


47 N 


9E 


St Albans 


16 


52 N 


1 W 


Rutland 


16 


52 17 


2 vr 


St Albans Ab. 


16 


52 N 


1 W 


Ruvo 


4 


41 N 


17 E 


St Albans Head .. 


16 


51 N 


2W 


Ruwenzori Mt 


130 





30 E 


St Amand ... 


81 


51 N 


5E 


Ry 


17 


56 N 


10 E 


St AmandoMontron 


i 19 


47 N 


3E 


Rye 


16 


51 N 


IE 


St Ambrose 


135 


26 S 


SOW 


Rye House 


121 


52 N 





St Andrews 


23 


66 N 


3W 


Ryojun 


137 


39 N 


121 E 


St Anne, C. 


65 


8N 


2 W 


Ryswy k 


22 


52 N 


4E 


St Anne's 


70 


46 N 


66 W 










St Antonin 


19 


44 N 


2E 


Saale, R. (R. Elbe) 


92 


51 N 


12 E 


St Arnoul ... 


19 


48 N 


IE 


Saale, R. (R. Rhine) 


92 


50 N 


10 E 


St Asaph 


16 


53 N 


3W 


Saalfeld 


33 


51 N 


HE 


St Aubin du Cormier 


8 


48 N 


1 W 


Saalkreis 


40 


52 N 


12 E 


St Augustine 


68 


30 N 


81 W 


Saane, R. ... 


90 


46 N 


7E 


St Avoid 


. 118 


49 N 


7E 


Saanen 


90 


46 N 


7 E 


St Bartholomew .. 


. 69 


18 N 


63 W 


Saar, R 


107 


49 N 


7E 


St Bernard, Gt .. 


90 


46 N 


7E 


Saar, Wadi 


131 


34 N 


3W 


St Bernard, Little 


88 


46 N 


7E 


Saarbourg ... 


45 


49 N 


7E 


St Bernard Pass .. 


. 83 


46 N 


7E 


Saarbriicken 


81 


49 N 


7E 


St Bias 


. 139 


22 N 


105 W 


Saargemiind (Saarguc 


3- 






St Bonifacio 


. 104 


45 N 


HE 


mines) 


103 


49 N 


7E 


St Brandon Group 


140 


17 S 


60 E 


Saarlouis ... 


107 


49 N 


7E 


St Brieuc 


. 103 


48 N 


3E 


Saarnen [see Sarnen) 








St Cannice ... 


47 


53 N 


7W 


Saarwerden 


62 


48 N 


4 E 


St Cast 


60 


48 N 


3 W 


Saba I. 


69 


18 N 


63 W 


St Catharine's I. .. 


106 


28 S 


48 W 


Sabara 


106 


20 S 


44 W 


St Catharine's Poin 


t 16 


51 N 


1 W 


Sabi, R 


133 


20 N 


31 E 


Ste Catherine 


. 25 


46 N 


6E 


Sabina 


26 


42 N 


13 E 


St Catherine, C. .. 


2 


2S 


9E 


Sabine, R 


72 


32 N 


94 W 


St Charles, R. 


67 


48 N 


72 W 


Sable, C 


67 


43 N 


66 W 


St Clair, L. 


70 


42 N 


84 W 


Sable I 


67 


44 N 


60 W 


St Cloud 


79 


49 N 


2E 


Sabugal 


95 


40 N 


7 W 


St Croix I. 


101 


O 


90 W 


Saburmutti, R. 


123 


20 N 


70 E 


StCroix,R. (Am. N. 


) 70 


45 N 


68 W 


Sachu 


138 


40 N 


94 E 


St Croix, R. (Am. N. 


) 66 


40 N 


100 W 


Sacile 


93 


46 N 


12 E 


Sta Cruz 


. 69 


18 N 


65 W 


Sacketts Har. 


70 


44 N 


76 W 


Sta Cruz de Mar 








Sackingen 


12 


48 N 


8E 


Pequena 


. 131 


29 N 


low 


Saco 


68 


43 N 


70 W 


St Cyr 


97 Ins. 





C. II. H. VOL. XIV. 



14 



210 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


St David's 


16 


52 N 


5 W 


St Julien 


25 


46 N 


6£ 


St Denis (France)... 


8 


49 N 


2B 


St Kitts 


69 


18 N 


62 W 


St Denis (Netherl.) 


45 


51 N 


4E 


St Lawrence 


126 


63 N 


106 W 


St Dixier 


19 


49 N 


5 E 


St Lawrence, G. of 


67 


48 N 


62 W 


St Donats ... 


16 


51 N 


4W 


St Lawrence, R. ... 


72 


40N 


SO^WT 


St Elias, Mt 


139 


60 N 


140 W 


St L6 


103 


49 N 


1 w 


St Etienne 


103 


45 N 


4E 


St Lorenzo 


106 


8N 


80 W 


St Eustatius 


69 


17 N 


63 W 


St Louis (Afr. W.) 


130 


16 N 


16 W 


St Fagan's 


36 


52 N 


3 W 


St Louis (Am. N.) 


72 


39 N 


90 W 


St Felix 


135 


26 S 


SOW 


St Lucia (Austr.) ... 


104 


45 N 


HE 


St Florent (Corsica) 


50 


43 N 


9E 


St Lucia (Wind'd Is.) 


69 


14 N 


61 W 


St Florent (France) 


82 


47 N 


IW 


St Lucia B. 


133 


28 S 


33 E 


St Foy (Am. N.) ... 


67 Ins. 




St Lucia, L. 


133 


28 S 


33 E 


St Foy (France) ... 


8 


45 N 





St Luis Potosi 


106 


22 N 


102 W 


St Francis ... 


70 


45 N 


75 W 


St Luziussteig 


30 


47 N 


10 E 


St Francis B. 


133 


34 S 


25 E 


St Maixent 


19 


46 N 





St Fulgent 


82 


47 N 


1 W 


St Malo 


79 


49 N 


2 W 


St Gall 


112 


47 N 


9E 


St Manuel, R. 


135 


20 8 


60Txr 


St Gall, Canton of 


113 


47 W 


9 z: 


St Marcos B. 


135 


2S 


44 W 


St George (Switz.) 


83 


46 N 


6E 


St Marcouf Is. 


87 


50 N 


1 W 


St George (Wind'd Is.) 


69 


12 N 


62 W 


St Marie aux Chenes 


118 Ins. 




St George B. 


135 


50 8 


70 W 


Ste Marie, C. 


130 


25 S 


45 B 


St George's Cay ... 


69 


18 N 


88 W 


Ste Marie I. 


65 


17 S 


50 E 


St George's Channel 


121 






St Marta 


106 


74 N 


low 


St George's Channel 








St Martin (I. de R6) 


79 


46 N 


IW 


(Danube) 


105 


45 N 


30 E 


St Martin (Leew'd Is.) 


69 


18 N 


63 W 


St Germain 


8 


49 N 


2E 


St Mary, C. 


65 


14 N 


16 W 


St Germains 


113 


50 N 


4W 


St Mary (Madagascar) 


140 


18 S 


50 E 


St Gilles (Indre et 








St Mary's 


68 


38 N 


76 W 


Loire) ... 


82 


47 N 





St Mary's I. (Afr. W.) 


101 


O 


30 W 


St Gilles (Vendue)... 


82 


47 N 


2 W 


St Mathieu Pt ... 


50 


48 N 


4 W 


St Giovanni 


4 


45 N 


HE 


St Maur (Belg.) ... 


103 


50 N 


3 E 


St Giovanni, Mt ... 


4 


40N 


14 E 


St Maur (France)... 


8 


49 N 


2E 


St Gothard 


48 


47 N 


16 E 


Sta Maura 


3 


39 N 


21 E 


St Gothard Pass ... 


112 


47 N 


9E 


St Maurice, R. 


126 


40 m 


80 W 


St Helena ... 


130 


16 S 


5 W 


St Mawes 


113 


50 N 


5 W 


St Helena B. 


133 


33 S 


18 E 


St Menehould 


79 


49 N 


5E 


St Helens 


50 


51 N 


1 W 


St Michael 


113 


50 N 


5W 


St Helen's Head ... 


27 


55 N 


9 W 


St Michael's I. {see 








St Hyacinthe 


126 


45 N 


73 W 


St Miguel) 








St Iguace ... 


67 


46 N 


85 W 


St Michel (France) 


83 


45 N 


6E 


St Ives 


113 


SON 


5 W 


St Michel (Russ.)... 


108 


62 N 


27 E 


St Jacob 


15 


48 N 


8E 


St Miguel 


2 


30N 


30 VT 


St Jean, Mont 


98 Ins. 




St Nazaire 


103 


47 N 


2 W 


St Jean d'Acre 


110 


33 N 


35 E 


St Neots 


36 


52 N 





St Jean d' Angely . . . 


19 


46 N 


1 W 


St Nicholas Mole... 


69 


20 N 


73 W 


St Jean de Losne... 


39 


47 N 


5E 


St Omer 


22 


51 N 


2E 


St Jean de Luz ... 


95 


43 N 


2 W 


St Ouen 


19 Ins. 




St Jean de Maurienne 


83 


45 N 


6 E 


St Patrick's Purgatory 


27 


55 N 


8 W 


St Jean, I. de 


67 


46 N 


63 W 


St Paul (France) ... 


19 


44 N 


2 E 


St Jean Pied de Port 


7 


43 N 


1 W 


St Paul (U.S.A.) 


72 


45 N 


93 W 


St John (Leew'd Is.) 


69 


18 N 


65 W 


St Paul de Loanda 


65 


9S 


13 E 


St John (New Bruns.) 


70 


45 N 


66 W 


St Peter, L. 


70 


46 N 


73 W 


St John, E. (Am. N.) 


2 


aoN 


dcw 


St Petersburg 


61 


60 N 


30 E 


St John, R. (Am. N.) 


70 


47 N 


68 W 


St Pierre (France) 


95 


43 N 


IW 


.St John, R. (Labrador 


70 


51 N 


64 W 


St Pierre (Valais) ... 


88 


46 N 


7E 


St John's (Canada) 


70 


45 N 


74 W 


St Pierre I. 


67 


47 N 


56 W 


-St John's (Newf'ndl'd) 


67 


48 N 


52 W 


St Pierre les Calais 


103 


51 N 


2E 


BtJohn's,E. (Afr. S.) 


133 


32 S 


30 E 


St Pol 


6 


SON 


2E 


,St Johnstown (Ire.) 


47 


55 N 


7W 


St Polten 


57 


48 N 


16 E 


St Johnstown (Ire.) 


47 


54 N 


8W 


St Privat 


118 


49 N 


6B 


iSt Joseph (Canada) 


67 


42 N 


86 W 


St Quentin... 


22 


50 N 


3E 


St Joseph (Trinidad) 


69 


UN 


61 W 


St Remy 


88 


46 N 


7E 


St Juan d'UUoa ... 


106 


20 N 


96 W 


St Roque, C. 


135 


5S 


35 W 



Index to Maps. 



211 



Map Lat. Long. 

Sta Rosa B. ... 135 O SO W 

St Salvador ... 106 13 N 90 W 

St Sauveur 67 44 N 68 W 

St Sebastian ... 7 43 N 2 W 

St Servan 50 48 N 2 W 

St Simon's I. ... 68 31 N 81 W 

Ste Terre 19 45 N 

St Thomas 69 18 N 65 W 

St Thome I. ... 130 7E 

St Trond 22 51 N 5E 

St Valery 6 50 N 2B 

St Venant 45 51 N 3E 

St Vincent 69 13 N 61 W 

St Vincent, C. ... 7 37 N 9 W 

St Vincente ... 106 24 S 46 W 

St Yrieix 19 45 N IE 

Saintes 8 46 N IW 

Saintonge 8 44 !» 4 "WT 

Sajama Pk ... 135 18 S 68 W 

Sakai 137 35 N 135 B 

Sakaria, R. ... 115 40 N 30 E 

Sakhar 124 28 N 69 E 

Salado, E 139 40 S SOW 

Salahiyeh 85 31 N 32 B 

Salamanca 7 41 N 6W 

Salbai (India) ... 99 26 N 78 E 

Salbai (India) ... 99 21 N 76 E 

Salcombe 16 50 N 4W 

Saldanha B. ... 133 33 S 18 E 

Salees 7 43 N 3B 

Salem (Mass.) ... 68 43 N 71 W 

Salem (New Jersey) 68 40 N 75 W 

Salem, E 68 43 N 71 W 

Salem^, E 130 13 N 12 W 

Salerno 26 40 N 15 E 

Salford 114 53 N 2W 

Salisbury (Eng.) ... 16 51 N 2W 

Salisbury (Rhodesia) 133 18 S 31 E 

Salm 62 48 N 7E 

Salmis 53 61 N 32 E 

Salm-Kyrbourg ... 89 52 N 7 E 

Salm-Salm 89 52 N 7E 

Salo 83 46 N HE 

Salona 105 39 N 22 E 

Salonika 3 41 N 23 E 

Salop 16 52 13" 4W 

Salsette 1 64 19 N 73 E 

Salta 106 24 N 65 W 

Saltanovka 96 54 N 30 E 

Saltash 113 50 N 4 W 

Saltees 27 52 N 7 W 

Saltillo 106 25 N 101 W 

Salt Lake City ... 72 41 N 112 W 

Saluzzo 4 45N 8E 

Salvatierra (Spain) 95 40 N 7 W 

Salvatierra (Spain) 95 43 N 2 W 

Salwin, E 138 18 N 97 E 

Salza, E 62 48 N 13 E 

Salzach, E. ... Ill 47 N 13 E 

Salzburg 12 48 N 13 E 

Salzwedel 33 53 N HE 

Samaden 30 47 N 10 E 

Samana Mts ... 125 Ins. 

Samar 139 O 120 E 



Map Lat. Long. 

Samara 108 53 N SOB 

Samarang 139 6S HIE 

Samarkand 124 40 N 67 B 

Sambalpur 99 21 N 84 E 

Samber 125 13 N 106 E 

Sambre et Meuse... 94 48 ST 4B 

Sambre, E. ... 22 50 N 4 E 

Samland 55 64 W 20 E 

Samoa Is 139 20 S ISO 

Samogitia 55 54 N 20 E 

Samos 1 3 35 MT 25 E 

Samothrace ... 3 40 N 25 E 

Samoyedes ... ... 61 60 N 50 E 

Sanaga, E ^ 130 5N 12 B 

San Antonio, C. ... 75 20 N 90 IXT 

San Antonio, E. ... 106 28 N 98 W 
San Carlos de la 

Eapita 95 41 N IB 

Sancerre 19 47 N 2 E 

San Christoval ... 139 20 S 140 E 

San Clements ... 7 39 N 2W 

Sandakan 139 O 120E 

Sandepu 137 42 N 123 E 

Sandgate Castle ... 16 51 N IE 

San Diego 106 33 N 117 W 

Sandlewood I. ... 139 10 S 120 E 

San Domingo (W. I.) 69 19 N 72 W 

San Domingo (W. I.) 134 18 N 70 W 

Sandomir 58 51 N 22 E 

Sandoway 125 18 N 94 E 

Sandwich 16 51 N IE 

Sandwich Is. ... 139 20 N 156 W 

Sandy, C 128 25 S 153 E 

Sandy Hook ... 70 40 N 74 W 

San Elmo 44 41 N 14 E 

SanFernando(Am.S.) 106 4N 68 W 

San Fernando (Spain) 95 36 N 6 W 

San Francisco (U.S.A.) 72 38 N 122 W 
San Francisco, E. 

(America, N.) 
San Francisco, E. 

(Brazil) ... 106 20 S eo VT 

San Germano ... 4 42 N 14 E 

San Geronimo ... 7 38 N 5 W 

Sangha 130 2N 17 E 

San Giacomo ... 81 44 N 8E 

Sanguesa 7 43 N 1 W 

San Ildefonso ... 95 41 N 4W 

San Jacinto ... 71 30 N 95 W 

San Jacinto, E. ... 71 30 N 95 W 

San Jorge da Mina 2 4 N 4 W 

San Jos6 (Califor.) 134 23 N 110 W 

San Jose (Costa Eica) 139 ION 83 W 

San Juan (Amer. S.) 106 31 S 69 W 

San Juan (Porto Eico) 134 18 N 66 W 

San Juan (U.S.A.) 126 48 N 123 W 

San Juan Bautista 134 18 N 95 W 
San Juan de Fuca, 

Strs of ... 126 48 N 125 W 

San Juan d'Ulloa 69 20 N 96 W 

San Juan Hts ... 75 20 W SO W 

San Juan, E. ... 106 12 N 84 W 

San Lucar 7 37 N 6W 

San Lucas, C. ... 139 22 N HOW 



101 36 N 122 W 



14—2 



212 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


San Luis 


135 


34 S 


66 W 


Sasawa, R. 


57 


50 N 


15 E 


San Marino 


26 


44 N 


13 E 


Sasbach 


45 


49 N 


8E 


San Matias B. 


1^5 


41 S 


65 W 


Sas de Ghent (Sas- 








Sanmen 


138 


29 N 


121 E 


van-Gent) 


22 


51 N 


4E 


Sannah's Post 


133 


29 S 


26 E 


Sasebo 


137 


33 N 


130 E 


San Patricio 


71 


28 N 


98 W 


Saseno I. ... 


119 


40 N 


19 E 


San Paulo 


106 


24 S 


47 W 


Saskatchewan 


126 


SON 


iioTxr 


San Paulo, Province of 106 


40 8 


60 W 


Saskatchewan, R. ... 


126 


SON 


now 


San Pedro 


24 


30 N 


low 


Saskatchewan, R., 








Sanpo, R. (Sanpu) 


136 


20 sr 


SOE 


N. &S. 


126 


SON 


120 w 


Sanquhar 


23 


55 N 


4W 


Saskatoon 


126 


52 N 


106 W 


San Eemo 


104 


44 N 


8E 


Sassari 


104 


41 N 


9E 


Sansanding 


130 


14 N 


6W 


Satalia 


3 


37 N 


31 E 


Sanssouci 


107 


52 N 


13 E 


Satara 


64 


17 N 


74 B 


San Stefano (Italy) 


26 


42 N 


12 E 


Satpura Hills 


99 


16 N 


72 E 


San Stefano (Turkey) 


105 


41 N 


29 E 


Satschan, L. 


92 Ins. 




Santa Catharina ... 


106 


40 8 


60W 


Satsuma 


137 


32 N 


131 E 


Santa Cruz ^Am. S.) 


135 


48 8 


70 W 


Sauer, R. ... 


118 


50 N 


6E 


Santa Cruz (Califor.) 


72 


37 N 


122 W 


Sauer, R 


118 


49 N 


8E 


Santa Cruz de la 








Sault Ste Marie ... 


67 


46 N 


84 W 


Sierra ... 


106 


18 S 


62 W 


Saumurois ... 


79 


47 N 





Santa Cruz I. 


69 


17 N 


65 W 


Saura, Wadi 


131 


29 N 


1 w 


Santa Cruz Is. 


139 


20S 


160E 


Sauroren 


95 


43 N 


2W 


Santa Fe (Am. S.) 


106 


31 S 


61 W 


Sauveterre 


19 


43 N 


1 w 


Santa Fe (U.S.A.) 


72 


36 N 


106 W 


Savages 


27 


54 N 


6W 


Santa Maria 


30 


47 N 


10 E 


Savaii 


139 


20 s 


180 


Santander ... 


7 


43 N 


4 W 


Savannah ... 


72 


32 N 


81 W 


Santarem ... 


95 


39 N 


9 W 


Savannah, R. 


•72 


34 N 


82 W 


Santa Rosa I. 


74 


30 N 


87 W 


Savanore 


64 


15 N 


75 B 


Santee, R. ... 


72 


33 N 


81 W 


Save, R. 


21 


44 N 


16 E 


Santhia 


25 


45 N 


8E 


Save, R. (Sabi, R.)... 


133 


21 S 


34 E 


Santiago de Chile... 


106 


34 S 


71 W 


Savenay 


82 


47 N 


2W 


Santiago de Compostela 7 


43 N 


9W 


Saverne 


81 


49 N 


7E 


Santiago de Cuba... 


69 


20 N 


76 W 


Savigliano ... 


25 


45 N 


8B 


Santiago del Estero 


106 


28 S 


64 W 


Savoie 


103 


44 N 


4 E 


Santiago I. ... 


24 


ION 


30W 


Savoie Haute 


103 


44 N 


4E 


Santi Quaranta 


120 


40 N 


20 E 


Savona 


4 


44 N 


8E 


Santona 


95 


43 N 


3 W 


Savoy 


25 






Santos 


135 


24 S 


47 W 


Sawley 


16 


54 N 


2W 


Santo Stefano ... 


104 


38 N 


14 E 


Saxony 


12 


SON 


12 E 


Sanzee, R 


45 


50 N 


3E 


Say 


130 


13 N 


2 E 


Saone et Loire 


103 


44 sr 


4B 


Scanderoon 


65 


37 N 


36 E 


Saone Haute 


103 


44 N 


4E 


Scandiano 


4 


45 N 


HE 


Saone, R 


8 


44 17 


41: 


Scanfs 


30 


47 N 


10 E 


Saorgio 


81 


44N 


8E 


Scania 


54 


56 N 


14 B 


Sapienza 


3 


37 N 


22 E 


Scarborough 


16 


54 N 





Saragossa 


■•7 


42 N 


IW 


Scarce, R. ... 


18 


50 N 


3E 


Sarakhs 


124 


37 N 


61 E 


Scariffhollis 


37 


58 N 


8W 


Saratoff 


108 


52 N 


46 E 


Scarpe, R 


45 


50 N 


3E 


Saratoga 


70 


43 N 


74 W 


Scaw Fell 


121 


54 N 


3B 


Sarawak 


125 


2N 


110 E 


Sceaux 


79 


49 N 


2E 


Sard 


104 


45 N 


8E 


Schaffhausen 


12 


48 N 


9E 


Sardinia 


4 






Schanfig 


30 


46 N 


9E 


Sardinia, Kingdom of 


89 






Scharding ... 


57 


48 N 


13 E 


Sari-Su 


138 


40 N 


60 E 


Schassburg 


111 


46 N 


25 E 


Sarnen 


90 


47 N 


8E 


Schatzlar Pass 


57 


51 N 


16 E 


Sarnico 


104 


46 N 


10 E 


Schauenberg 


12 


SON 


8E 


Saroch 


21 


48 N 


201: 


Schaumburg-Lippe 


107 


52 N 


9E 


Saros 


58 


49 N 


21 E 


Schawli 


92 


56 N 


23 B 


Sarras 


132 


22 N 


31 E 


Scheldt, E. & W. .. 


87 Ins. 




Sarre 


^94 


4817 


41: 


Scheldt, R. 


118 


50 N 


3E 


Sarthe 


103 


48 N 





Schelling 


42 


53 N 


5E 


Sarthe, R 


-19 


48 N 





Schenectady 


68 


43 N 


74 W 


Sarzana 


4 


44 N 


10 E 


Schenk 


39 


52 N 


6B 



Index to Maps, 



213 



Map 

Scheppmansdorp ... 133 

Scheveningen . . . 109 

Schiedam ... ... 22 

Schiedlow 57 

Schiermonnikoog ... 1Q9 

Schippenbeil ... 92 

Schlachter's Nek ... 133 

Schladming ... 13 

Schlakau 12 

Schlapina Pass ... 30 

Schlawe 62 

Schleiz 107 

Schleswig 12 

Schlettstadt ... 12 

Schliisselburg ... 61 

Schraalkalden ... 12 

Schmottseifen ... 57 

Schonbrunn ... Ill 

Schonefeld 97 

Schonhoven (Schoon- 

hoven) 22 

Schonwalde ... 62 

Schoonveldt , . . 42 

Schouwen ... ... 22 

Schulioi, K. ... 115 

Schupfheim . . . 112 

Schutt 1 48 

Schwabach ... 12 
Schwarzach(Franconia) 14 
Schwarzach (Salzburg) 62 



Schwarzawa 

Schwarzburg 

Schwarzenburg 

Schwechat ... 

Schwedt 

Schweidnitz (Aus.) 

Schweidnitz (Silesia) 

Schweinfurt 

Schwerin . 

Schwiebus . 

Schwyz 

Schyn, B. . 

Scilly Is. . 

Scio ... 

Scodra 

Scolnok 

Scone 

Scone Ab. . 

Scotland 

Scots, The . 

Scrivia 

Scutari [see Skutari) 

Scylla 

Sea Cow R 

Seaford 

Seattle 

Sebu, W. 

Secundra 

Sedan 

Sedgmoor 

Seelaud I. {see Zea 

land, Den.) 
Seez 
Sefid Koh 



92 
62 
15 

111 
33 

,97 

12 

12 

12 

62 

15 

30 

50 

61 

3 

3 

36 

23 

1 

27 



87 
133 
113 

72 
131 

99 

79 
121 



Lat, 
23 S 

52 N 
52 N 
51 N 

59 N 

54 N 
32 S 
47 N 

50 N 

47 N 

54 N 

51 N 

55 N 

48 N 

60 N 
51 N 

51 N 
48 N 

Ins. 

52 N 
52 N 

51 N 

52 N 
Ins. 

47 N 

48 N 

49 N 

50 N 
47 N 

Ins. 

51 N 

47 N 

48 N 

53 N 

49 N 

51 N 

50 N 

54 N 

52 N 
47 N 

46Sr 
SON 
38 N 
42 N 

47 N 

56 N 
56 N 

55 N 

44 N 

38 N 
31 S 

51 N 

48 N 
34 N 
28 N 

50 N 

51 N 



79 
124 



49 N 
34 N 



Long. 

15 E 
4E 
4E 

18 E 

6i: 

21 E 
26 E 
14 E 
18 E 
10 E 
17 E 
12 E 
10 E 
7E 
31 E 
10 E 

16 E 
16 E 



5E 

13 E 

3 E 

4E 

8E 
18 E 
HE 
10 E 

13 E 

HE 

7E 

16 E 

14 E 

15 E 

16 E 
10 E 
HE 

15 E 
9E 
91: 
6W 

26 E 
20 E 
20 E 
3 W 
3 W 

6W 

8E 

16 E 
25 E 


122 W 
6W 
78 E 
5E 
3W 




64 E 



Segeberg 

Segesvar 

Segovia 

Segovia, R. 

Segre, R. ... 

Segura, R. ... 

Seille, R. ... 

Seine 

Seine et Marne 

Seine Inf. ... 

Seine, R. ... 

Seistan 

Sekondi 

Selangor 

Selby 

SelbyAb. ... 

Selef keh 

Selenga 

Selim^ 0. 

Selkirk (Am. N.) 

Selkirk (Scot.) 

Selz (Bohemia) 

Selz (France) 

Semendra 

Semeni Deval 

Semenov 

Semenovskoie 

Semigallia ... 

Seminara ... 

Semipalatinsk 

Semirechensk 

Semliki, R. 

Semlin 

Semmering Pass 

Sempach 

Sendai 

Sendai B. ... 

Sende Rud 

Seneff 

Senegal 

Senegal, R. 

Senlis 

Sennar 

Senne, R. ... 

Sennheim . . . 

Senno 

Senof^ 

Sens 

Sens^e, R. ... 

Seoul 

Seraing 

Serajevo 

Serampur . . . 

Serena 

Seres 

Sereth, R. ... 

Sergipe del Rey 

Seringapatam 

Serio 

Sernovo 

Serra de Bormio 

Serra de Pilar 

Serres 

Serrey 



Map 

12 

111 

7 

134 



Lat. 
54 N 
46 N 
41N 
ION 

40iar 

3817 



118 Ins. 



103 
103 
103 
8 
124 



48 N 
4817 
48N 

48 N 
30I7 



65 Ins. 



125 

16 

16 

110 

138 

130 

101 

23 

57 

88 

3 

119 

108 

96 

20 

4 

138 

136 

130 

3 

.92 

15 

137 

137 

124 

45 

130 

130 

8 

132 

98 

39 

96 

130 

8 

81 

137 

109 

111 

64 

106 

120 

111 

106 

64 

94 

119 

30 

95 

19 

59 



O 

54 N 

54 N 
36 N 
50 N 
21 N 

48 N 

56 N 

50 N 

49 N 
45 N 
41 N 

57 N 

55 N 
57 N 
38 N 

50 N 

40iar 


45 N 

48 N 

47 N 

38 N 

3617 

30I7 

51 N 
O 

17 N 

49 N 

14 N 

51 N 

48 N 
55 N 

15 N 
48 N 
SON 
38 N 
51 N 
44 N 
23 N 
29 N 
41 N 

44 17 

20S 

12 N 

44 N 
41 N 

4617 
41 N 

45 N 
54 N 



Long. 

10 E 

25 E 

4W 

90 W 

O 

2 W 

O 
O 
O 



eoE 

lOOE 

1 w 
1 w 

34 E 
104 E 

29 E 
96 W 

3 W 
14 E 

8E 
21 E 
20 E 
45 E 
36 E 
25 E 
16 E 
80 E 
70E 

30 E 
20 E 
16 E 

8E 

141 E 

140E 

aoE 

4E 
20 W 

14 W 

3 E 

34 E 

4E 

7E 

30 E 

39 E 

3E 

3E 

127 E 

5E 

18 E 

88 E 

71 W 

24 E 

24 £ 

6o\xr 

77 E 

8E 

24 E 

lOE 

9 W 
6 E 
24 E 



214 



Index to Maps, 



Map Lat. Long. 

Servia 3 

Sesia 94 44 W 8E 

Sesia, R 25 44 N 8E 

Sessa 104 41 N 14 E 

Setagin 140 4S 118 E 

Setif 131 36 N 5E 

Seton Castle ... 66 56 N 3W 

Setubal 95 39 N 9 W 

Seurre 19 47 N 5E 

Sevastopol 115 44 N 34 E 

Sevenoaks 121 51 N 

Severia 54 50 N 30 E 

Severn, E. (Canada) 70 55 N 90 W 

Severn, R. (England) 36 52 N 2W 

Seville 7 37 N 6W 

Seville, Province of 95 36 BT 8 W 

Sevre Nantaise ... 82 46 11 2E 

Sevre Niortaise ... 82 46 N 2X2 

Sevres 79 49 N 2E 

Sevres (Deux) ... 103 44 N 4W 

Seychelle Is. ... 130 20 S 40 E 

Sfax 131 35 N 10 E 

Shabluka 132 16 N 33 E 

Shad wan, I. of ... 85 28 N 34 E 

Shaftesbury ... 113 51 N 2W 

Shahjahanpur ... 123 28 N 80 E 

Sha Ho 137 41 N 123 E 

Shahopu 137 42 N 123 E 

Shahpur 124 32 N 73 E 

Shanghai 138 31 N 121 E 

Shan-hai-kwan ... 138 40 N 120 E 

Shannon, R. ... 37 62 N lO W 

Shansi 138 SON llOE 

Shan States ... 125 20 N 98 E 

Shan-tung 138 30K" llOE 

Shapuri 1 125 21 N 92 E 

Shari, R 130 12 N 15 E 

Shark Bay 128 SOS llOE 

Sharud 124 36 N 55 E 

Shashi, R 133 22 S 28 E 

Shashih 138 30 N 112 E 

Shawia 131 33 N 8W 

Shawnees 70 43 N 82 W 

Shayok, R. ... 124 35 N 77 E 

Sheb 130 22 N 30 E 

Sheelin, L. ... 27 54 N 8 W 

Sheen 16 51 N 

Sheep Haven ... 27 55 N 8W 

Sheerness 121 51 N IE 

Sheffield 16 53 N 1 W 

Shekahabad ... 99 28 N 78 E 

Shelby ville 74 36 N 86 W 

Shemakha (Shemak) 108 41 N 49 E 

Shenandoah, R. ... 74 39 N 78 W 

Shendi 132 17 N 33 E 

Shengana, R. ... 133 24 S 34 E 

Shensi 138 30 2? lOOE 

Shepardstown ... 74 39 N 77 W 

Sheppy, I. of ... 121 51 N IE 

Sherborne Castle ... 36 51 N 2W 

Sherbro, R. ... 65 9N 13 W 

Sherbrooke 126 45 N 72 W 

Sheriffmuir ... 56 56 N 4W 

Shetland Is. ... 24 60 If lO'W 



Map Lat. 

Shiel, L 56 57 N 

Shields, S 114 55 N 

Shigatse 138 29 N 

Shikarpur 124 28 N 

Shikoku 137 32 N 

Shilka, R 138 50 N 

Shillanage 27 53 N 

Shiloh 74 35 N 

Shimoda 137 35 N 

Shimonoseki ... 137 34 N 

Shimoshiri 137 Ins. 

Shinano, R. ... 137 36 N 

Shinshui 137 36 N 

Shipka 119 43 N 

Shiraz 124 30 N 

Shire, R 130 17 S 

Shirvan ... ... 52 40 N 

Shirwa, L 130 15 S 

Shitomir 108 50 N 

Shoa 130 ION 

Sholapur 122 18 N 

Sholingar 64 13 N 

Shott el Jerid ... 131 34 N 

Shott esh Chergui 131 34 N 

Shousha 108 40 N 

Shrewsbury ... 16 53 N 

Shrewsbury Ab. ... 16 53 N 

Shui Ho 137 35 N 

Shumla 61 43 N 

Shurab 124 30 N 

Siam 125 

Siam, Gulf of ... 125 ION 

Siam, Lower ... 125 9N 

Si-an-fu 138 34 N 

Siang, R 138 20N 

Siberia ... ... 136. 

Sibi 122 30 N 

Sibir 136 57 N 

Sibir, R 52 70 N 

Sibuko B 140 

Sich 61 46 N 

Sicilies, The Two... 104 

Sicily 4 

Sickingen 6 48 N 

Siddan 27 54 N 

Sieciech 20 51 N 

Siedlce 108 52 N 

Siegen 107 51 N 

Siem-reap 125 13 N 

Siena 4 43 N 

Sieradz 58 52 N 

Sierck 39 49 N 

Sierock 108 52 N 

Sierra de Albarracin 7 401? 

Bermeja ... 7 36 N 

de Estrelha 7 40N 

„ de Gata ... 7 40N 

,, de Gredos ... 7 40N 

„ de Guadalupe 7 3811 

,, deGuadarrama 7 40M 

„ deStaCatalina 95 41 N 

„ de Toledo ... 7 38 N 

„ Leone ... 130 8N 

„ Leone, C. ... 2 8 N 



Long. 
6 W 
1 W 
89 E 
69 E 
132 E 
110 E 
8W 
88 W 
139 E 
131 E 

136E 

136 E 
25 E 
53 E 
35 E 
48 E 
35 E 
28 E 
39 E 
76 E 
80 E 

8E 


47 E 

3 W 

3 W 

119 E 
27 E 
55 E 

lOOE 

100 E 

109 E 

llOE 

68 E 
68 E 
55 E 

120 E 
32 E 



8E 

7 W 
22 E 
22 E 

8E 
104 E 

11 E 
19 E 

6E 
45 E 
2 VT 
6E 

8 W 
8^ 
eV7 
6 W 
4'W 
8 W 

6ixr 

12 W 
12 W 



Index to Maps, 



215 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Sierra Madre 


. 134 


20ir 


new 


Sittard 


11 


51 N 


6E 


,, Morena 


7 


38 N 


6W 


Sitten 


.. 112 


46 N 


7E 


,, Nevada 


7 


36 N 


4 W 


Siwa (Siwah) 


.. 110 


29 N 


26 E 


,, Nevada 


139 


40 N 


120 W 


Siwas 


.. 110 


40 N 


37 E 


Sieversbausen 


14 


52 N 


10 E 


Siyut 


.. 132 


27 N 


13 E 


Sievierz 


20 


52 N 


33 E 


Sizanne 


.. 97 


49 N 


4E 


Sigmaringen 


62 


48 N 


9E 


Skaane 


17 


55 IT 


lOB 


Signakh 


108 


42 N 


46 E 


Skager Eak 


.. 141 


58 N 


10 E 


Siguenza 


7 


41 N 


3 W 


Skagway 


.. 126 


58 N 


135 W 


Sikaiidar Bagh 


123 


28 N 


78 E 


Skaleni 


.. 105 


47 N 


28 E 


Sikh Confederacy ,. 


64 






Skanderborg 


17 


56 N 


10 E 


Si-kiang (West K.) 


138 


23 N 


110 E 


Skara 


.. 17 


58 N 


13 E 


Sikkah, W. 


131 


34 N 


2W 


Skeena 


.. 126 


54 N 


129 W 


Sikkim 


99 


24 If 


88 B 


Skenninge ... 


.. 17 


58 N 


15 E 


Sikoti Alin Mts .. 


137 


44 17 


132 E 


Skepperbolm 


.. 53 


59 N 


18 E 


Siku 


138 Ins. 




Skiernewicze 


.. 107 


52 N 


20 E 


Sil, E 


7 


42 17 


8 W 


Skipwith Moor 


.. 116 


54 SS 


1 W 


Silesia 


12 


50?r 


16 E 


Skog 


.. 17 


61 N 


17 E 


Silistria 


61 


44 N 


27 E 


Skovshoved 


.. 17 


56 N 


13 E 


Silla 


130 


14 N 


5W 


Skutari (Albania) 


.. 105 


42 N 


20 E 


Siller, R 


123 


18 N 


82 E 


Skutari (Turkey) 


.. 119 


41 N 


29 E 


Silvaplana ... 


30 


46 N 


10 E 


Skutari, L. 


.. 119 


42 N 


19 E 


Silver Hill 


27 


55 N 


8W 


Skye 


.. 23 


57 N 


6W 


Silverton 


128 


32 S 


141 E 


Skyros I 


3 


35 N 


20E 


Simancas ... 


7 


42 N 


5 W 


Slaak 


.. 39 


52 N 


4E 


Simbach 


57 


48 N 


13 E 


Slancamen ... 


3 


45 N 


20 E 


Simbirsk 


108 


54 N 


48 E 


Slaney, E. 


.. 27 


52 M* 


8 W 


Simcoe, L. 


67 


44 N 


79 W 


Slave Coast 


.. 130 


O 


O 


Simferopol ... 


108 


45 N 


34 E 


Slavonia 


.. 21 


44 N 


16 1! 


Simla 


122 


31 N 


77 E 


Slievemargy 


.. 27 


53 N 


7W 


Simme, E 


90 


46 N 


7E 


Sligo 


.. 37 


54 N 


8 W 


Simmern ... 


12 


50 N 


8E 


Sligo Bay .... 


.. 47 


54 N 


9 W 


Simonstown 


133 


34 S 


19 E 


Sliven 


.. 119 


43 N 


26 E 


Simphorien I., S. .. 


118 Ins. 




Slivnitsa 


.. 120 


43 N 


23 E 


Simplon 


90 


46 N 


8E 


Slobodzeia ... 


.. 108 


45 N 


28 E 


Simplon Pass 


83 


46 N 


8E 


Sluys 


.. 22 


51 N 


3E 


Sinai 


132 


28 N 


34 E 


Smaland 


.. 17 


55 W 


lOE 


Sinclair s 


23 


58 17 


4 V7 


Smerwick . . . 


.. 37 


52 N 


low 


Sind 


122 


20ir 


60E 


Smith Sound 


.. 126 


70Mr 


80 W 


Sind, E 


123 


26 N 


78 E 


Smithland ... 


.. 74 


37 N 


88 W 


Sindelfingen 


13 


49 N 


9 E 


Smolensk ... 


.. 20 


55 N 


32 E 


Singapore 


125 


IN 


104 E 


Smorgoni (Smorgo 


nie) 96 


54 N 


26 E 


Sinigaglia 


4 


44 N 


13 E 


Smyrna 


3 


38 N 


27 E 


Siniugf u 


138 


36 N 


102 E 


Snake, E. ... 


.. 139 


40ir 


120 W 


Sinope 


3 


42 N 


35 E 


Sneck 


6 


53 N 


6E 


Sinsheim 


45 


49 N 


9E 


Snowdon ... 


.. 121 


53 N 


4 W 


Sion (England) .. 


16 


51 N 





Snowy, E. ... 


.. 128 


37 S 


149 E 


Sion (Switz.) 


15 


46 N 


7E 


Soa Pan 


... 133 


21 S 


26 E 


Sion Ab. 


16 


51 N 





Sobat 


.. 132 


9N 


32 B 


Siponto 


4 


42 N 


16 E 


Sobat, E. ... 


.. 132 


9N 


33 E 


Sir Daria [see Syr 








Sobraon 


.. 124 


31 N 


75 E 


Daria) 








Society Is, ... 


.. 139 


20 8 


160TXr 


Sir Ed. Pellew's Gp 


128 


16 S 


137 E 


Socorro 


.. 106 


6N 


73 W 


Siradia 


20 


52 N 


19 E 


Socotra 


.. 130 


O 


40i: 


Sirbind 


64 


31 N 


76 E 


Soderkoping 


... 17 


58 N 


16 E 


Sis, Wadi 


131 


32 N 


4W 


Sodermanland 


... 17 


65 IT 


15 S 


Sisophon 


125 


14 N 


103 E 


Soest 


... 12 


52 N 


8E 


Sissek 


26 


45 N 


16 E 


Sofala 


... 133 


20 S 


35 E 


Sistova 


. 105 


44 N 


25 E 


Sofia 


3 


42 N 


23 E 


Sitabaldi Mts 


122 


21 N 


79 E 


Sohr 


.. 57 


50 N 


16 R 


Sitapur 


. 123 


27 N 


81 E 


Soignes, Forest oj 


I 98 


Ins. 




Sitia 


. 120 


35 N 


26 E 


Soissons 


8 


49 N 


3B 


Sitka 


. 139 


56 N 


135 W 


Sokolnitz ... 


.. 92 Ins. 




Si Tlemcen 


. 131 


35 N 


IW 


Sokoto 


.. 130 


13 N 


5E 



216 



Index to Maps. 



Map 

Solent, The ... 16 

Solferino 104 

Solikamsk ... ... 61 

Solomon Is. ... 128 

Solothurn 15 

Solovetski ... ... 52 

Solway Firth ... 121 

Solway Moss ... 16 

Solway, The ... 23 

Somaliland (French) 130 

Somaliland (Italian) 130 

Somaliland Protec. 130 

Sombreffe ... ... 98 

Sombrero ... ... 106 

Somerset (Afr. S.) 133 

Somerset (Afr. S.) 133 

Somerset (Eng.) ... 16 

Somme 103 

Somme, E. ... 79 

Sommelsdijk ... 22 

Sommi^res ... ... 19 

Somosierra ... 95 

Son, K 122 

Sonar, K 123 

Soncino ... ... 4 Ins. 

Sondalo 30 

Sonderborg ... 17 

Sondershausen . . . 107 

Sondrio ... ... 15 

Song-ching ... 137 

Songko, E. ... 138 

Sonnino 104 

Sonora Sinaloa ... 134 

Sontai 125 

Sontheim ... ... 14 

Sonthofen 13 

Soochow 138 

Sopron Gyor ... 21 

Sorata Mt ... 135 

Sorel 126 

Soren Norby ... 17 

Soria ... ... 7 

Sorrento ... ... 4 

Soukhoum Kale ... 108 

Sound, The ... 17 

Sousa 131 

South African Rep. 

(Transvaal) ... 133 

Southampton ... 16 

Southampton I. ... 139 

South Cape (N.Z.) 129 

South Cape (Tasm.) 128 

South Taranaki Bay 129 

Southwark 16 

Southwell 16 

Southwold 68 

Southwold Bay ... 42 

Sovana ... ... 26 

Sozh, E 61 

Spa 12 

Spain ... ... 1 

Spalatro 94 

Spalding Ab. ... 16 

Spandau 33 



Lat. 

50 IS 

45N 

60 N 

10 9 

47 N 
65 N 
55 N 
55 N 
55 N 

O 
O 

o 

Ins. 
9N 
32 S 
34 S 
50N 

48 17 

50 N 
52 N 
44 N 
41 N 

20 ST 
25 N 
46 N 
46 N 
55 N 

51 N 
46 N 
41 N 

20 nr 

41 N 
20 17 

21 N 
48 N 
48 N 
31 N 
44 IS 
16 8 
46 N 
58 N 

42 N 
41 N 

43 N 
55 TX 
36 N 



51 N 
60iar 

47 S 
44 S 

40 S 
51 N 
53 N 

41 N 
52 rr 

43 N 
53 N 
50 N 

44 N 
53 N 
53 N 



Long. 

2 W 
HE 
57 E 

150 E 
7 E 
36 E 
3W 

3 W 
4W 

40E 

40z: 

40E 

67 W 
25 E 
19 E 

4 vr 
o 

2E 

4E 

4E 

4 W 

80 E 

80 E 

10 E 

10 E 

10 E 

HE 

10 E 

129 E 

lOOE 

13 E 

iio-w 

105 E 
10 E 
10 E 

120 E 
16 E 

68 W 
73 W 
18 E 

3 W 

14 E 
41 E 

lO E 
40 E 



1 W 
loo vr 

168 E 
147 E 
173 E 



1 W 
72 W 

O 

12 E 
31 E 

6E 

16 E 


13 E 



Spanish Town 
Sparta 

Spartel, C 

Speckfeld 

Speenhamland 

Speier 

Speier, Bishopric of 

Speierbach, E. 

Spencer, C 

Spencer's Gulf 

Spetsai 

Spey, E 

Speyer {see Speier) 
Spezia 

Spicheren 

Spinalonga 
Spion Kop ... 
Spithead 
Spitzbergen 

Spizza 

Spliigen 

Spliigen Pass 

Spoleto 

Spotsylvania Ct. Ho. 

Spree, E. ... 

Spremberg ... 

Springfield (111.) ... 

Springfield (Mass.) 

Springf ontein 

Spring Hill 

Spuz 

Spynie 

Srinagar 

Stabroek 

Stade 

Stadtlohn 

Stafford 
Stalluponen 
Stamford ... 
Stammersdorf 
Stammheim 
Stampalia I. 
Standerton 
Stangebro ... 
Stanley Falls 
Stanley Harb. 
Stanley Pool 
Stanleyville 
Stanovoi Mts 
Stanx 

Staraya Eussa 
Stara Zagora 
Starbuck I. 

Star Fort 

Stargard 
Stary Borissoff 
Staten I. (Am. N.) 
Staten I. (Am. S.) 
States of the Church 
Stato degli Presidi 
Staudenz ... 
Staunton ... 
Stavanger ... 
Stavelot 



69 
3 

87 

59 

121 

12 

12 

45 

126 

128 

105 

23 

4 

118 

120 

133 

50 

140 

119 

30 

30 

4 

74 

107 

62 

74 

70 

133 

74 

119 

23 

99 

69 

12 

29 

16 

57 

16 

93 

15 

3 

133 

17 

132 

140 

130 

132 

138 

15 

61 

119 

139 

115 

33 

96 

70 

106 

51 

26 

57 

74 

17 

22 



Lat. 

18 N 
37 N 

36 N 

50 N 

51 N 
49 N 

46 nr 

49 N 

58 N 

40S 

37 N 

57 N 

44 N 
49 N 

35 N 

29 S 

51 N 
60N 

42 N 

47 N 
46 JX 

43 N 

38 N 

52 N 
52 N 
40 N 

42 N 

30 S 

36 N 

43 N 

58 N 
34 N 

8 N 
54 N 

52 N 

53 N 
Ins. 

53 N 
Ins. 

48 N 
35 N* 
27 S 

59 N 


51 S 
5S 




47 N 

58 N 
42 N 

20 8 

Ins. 

53 N 

54 N 

41 N 

55 S 
40 N 

42 N 
50 N 
38 N 

59 N 
50 N 



Long. 

77 W 

23 E 
6W 

10 E 
1 W 
8E 
8E 
8B 
136 W 
140E 

23 B 
4 W 

10 E 
7E 

26 E 

30 E 
IE 

O 

19 E 
9E 
9 E 

13 E 
77 W 

14 E 

14 E 
90 W 

73 W 
26 E 
87 W 
19 E 

3 W 
75 E 
59 W 
9E 
7E 
2W 



9E 
25 E 

29 E 

16 E 
25 E 
58 W 

17 E 

25 E 

8E 
32 E 

26 E 
160D7 

15 E 
28 E 

74 W 
64 W 
10 E 
10 E 

16 E 
79 W 

6E 
6E 



Index to Maps, 



217 



Map Lat. Long, 

Stavoren 109 53 N 5E 

Stavropol (Russia) 61 54 N 49 E 

Stavropol (Russia) 108 45 N 42 E 

Stavuchanak ... 61 48 N 27 E 

Steczyc 20 51 N 22 E 

Steenwyk 22 53 N 6E 

Stefanie, L. ... 132 5 N 37 E 

Stegeborg 17 58 N 17 E 

Stein 15 48 N 9B 

Steinau (Silesia) ... 33 52 N 16 E 

Steinau (Silesia) ... 57 51 N 16 E 

Steinkirke 45 51 N 4 E 

Steinsiedel . . . ... 97 Ins. 

Stellaland 133 27 S 24 E 

Stellenbosch ... 133 34 S 19 E 

Stelvio Pass ... 112 47 N 10 E 

Stenay 33 49 N 5E 

Stendal 62 53 N 12 E 

Sternberg 12 52 N 15 E 

Steterburg 14 52 N HE 

Stettin 12 53 N 15 E 

Stewart 1 129 47 S 168 E 

Stewart, R. ... 139 60 W 140 W 

Stewarts ... ... 23 57 N 3W 

Stewarts 23 57 N 4W 

Stewarts 23 57 N 6W 

Steyer 88 48 N 14 E 

Steyereck 13 48 N 14 E 

Steyning 121 51 N 

Stirling 23 56 N 4W 

Stockach 88 48 N 9E 

Stockbridge ... 113 51 N IW 

Stockholm 17 59 N 18 E 

Stockport 121 53 N 2 W 

Stockton 121 55 N IW 

Stoczek 108 52 N 22 E 

Stoke-on-Trent ... 16 53 N 2W 

Stolberg 12 52 N HE 

Stolbova 61 60 N 33 E 

Stolhofen 45 49 N 8E 

Stolpen 57 51 N 14 E 

Stony Pt 70 41 N 74 W 

Stony Tunguska ... 138 60 N 90 E 

Stor 116 54 N 10 E 

Stor Aa 116 56 N 9E 

Storkow 55 52 N 14 E 

Storkyro 54 63 N 22 E 

Stormberg 133 31 S 26 E 

Stormberg Range... 133 32 S 27 E 

Stornoway 56 58 N 6W 

Stotteritz 97 Ins. 

Stour, R. (Eng.) ... 121 51 N 2W 

Stour, R. (Eng.) ... 121 52 N IE 

Stour, R. (Eng.) ... 121 51 N IE 

Stow on the Wold 36 52 N 2 W 

Strabane 37 55 N 7W 

Stradella 83 45 N 9E 

Straits Settlements 125 O lOO E 

Stralsund 12 54 N 13 E 

Strangford 27 54 N 6W 

Strangford, L. ... 37 54 N 6 VT 

Strassburg 12 49 N 8E 

Strata Florida Ab. 16 52 N 4 W 

Strata Marcella Ab. 16 53 N 3 W 



Map Lat. Long. 

Stratford-on-Avon... 16 52 N 2W 

Strathalmond ... 23 56 N 4W 

Strathearn 23 56 N 4W 

Strathfillan ... 56 56 N 5W 

Strathmore ... 23 5.7, N 3W 

Strathnaver ... 23 58 W 6 "W 

Stratton 36 51 N 4W 

Straubing .33 49 N 13 E 

Strelitz 12 53 N 13 E 

Strengnaes .17 59 N 17 E 

Stretensk 136 52 N 118 E 

Stromboli 50 39 N 15 E 

Stroud 114 52 N 2W 

Struma, R. ... 105 42 N 23 E 

Stuart 23 56 N 5W 

Stuart Range ... 128 30 S 136 E 

Studianka 96 54 N 28 E 

Stiihlingen 13 48 N 8E 

Stuhlweissenburg ... 21 47 N 18 E 

Stuhm 32 54 N 19 E 

Stuhmsdorf ... 53 54 N 19 E 

Stunz 97 Ins. 

Stura, R 104 44 N 7E 

Sture 94 44 Mr 4E 

Sturt Creek ... 128 19 S 128 E 

Stuttgart ,12 49 N 9E 

Styria 12 4$,N 12 E 

Styrian Alps ... 83 47 N 15 E 

Suabian Knights ... 12 46 M* 8E 

Suakin 132 19 N 37 E 

Subanrika, R. ... 123 20 N 85 E 

Subiaco 4 42 N 13 E 

Su-chau 136 40 N 98 E 

Suchow 138 40 N 98 E 

Sucre (Chuquisaca) 135 19 S 65 W 

Suczawa 3 47 N 26 E 

Suda Bay 105 36 N 24 E 

Sudan, Anglo-Egyptian 130 O 20 E 

Sudbury (Canada) 126 46 N 81 W 

Sudbury (England) 121 52 N IE 

Sudetes 117 Ins. 

Sudzha 108 51 N 35 E 

Sue, R 132 7 N 28 E 

Suez 110 30 N 32 E 

Suez Canal ... 132 Ins. 

Suez, G. of ... 132 29 N 33 E 

Suez, 1st. of ... 85 30N 32 E 

Suffolk 16 52 N O 

Sugota, L 132 2 N 36 E 

Suippe, R 81 49 N 4E 

Suir, R 37 52 BT 8 W 

Sulaiman Mts ... 99 24 N 70 E 

Sule 139 20 8 120 E 

Sulina Channel ... 105 45 N 30 E 

Sulkadr 3 35 N 35 E 

Sullivan's I. ... 70 33 N 80 W 

Sully 19 48 N 2E 

Sultanieh 120 40 N 26 E 

Sulu Sea 75 Ins. 

Sulz 118 49 N 8E 

Sulzbach 12 49 N 12 E 

Sumatra 139 100 E 

Sumbawa 139 20 8 lOO E 

Summerside ... 140 46 N 62 W 



218 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long, 


Sunda 


99 


15 N 


75 E 


Sz^kes Fej^rvar .. 


21 


47 N 


18 E 


Sunda Str. 


139 


20 a 


lOOS 


Szent Tomasch .. 


111 


46 N 


20 E 


Sunday R. 


133 


33 S 


25 E 


Szerencs 


. 21 


48 N 


21 E 


Sunderland 


114 


55 N 


IW 


Szigeth 


. 21 


48 N 


24 E 


Sundgau 


12 


46 17 


4 E 


Szigetvar ... 


21 


46 N 


18 E 


Sungari R. 


138 


46 N 


130 B 


Szolnok 


. 21 


47 N 


20 E 


Sunkuru 


130 


3S 


23 B 


Szony 


. Ill 


48 N 


18 E 


Sunot, Wadi 


132 


14 N 


22 B 


Szoreg 


. Ill 


46 N 


20 E 


Suok 


138 


49 N 


88 E 










Superior, L. 


72 


40N' 


90W 


Taasinge 


. 53 


55 N 


10 E 


Surat 


64 


21 N 


73 E 


Tabasco 


. 106 


O 


lOO'W 


Suresnes 


19 Ins. 




Table B 


. 65 


34 S 


18 E 


Surhud 


124 


28 N 


60 E 


Table Mt 


. 133 


34 S 


18 B 


Surinam 


91 


6N 


56 W 


Tabor 


. 33 


49 N 


15 E 


Surinam R. 


106 


6N 


56 W 


Tabor, Mt 


. 85 


33 N 


35 E 


Surji Arjangaon ... 


99 


21 N 


77 E 


Tabriz 


110 


38 N 


46 E 


Surrey 


16 


50N 


2 W 


Tachau 


. 93 


50 N 


13 E 


Sus, Wadi 


131 


30 N 


9W 


Tachienlu ... 


. 138 


30 N 


102 E 


Susa (Italy) 


4 


45 N 


7E 


Tacoma 


. 140 


46 N 


121 W 


Susa (Persia) 


110 


32 N 


48 E 


Tadcaster 


. 16 


54 N 


1 W 


Susquehanna, R. ... 


74 


40 N 


76 W 


Tadoussac ... 


67 


48 N 


70 W 


Siissenbrunn 


93 Ins. 




Taff, R 


. 121 


52 N 


3 W 


Sussex 


16 


50N 


2 W 


Tafra, Wadi 


. 131 


35 N 


2W 


Sutherland 


23 


58 N 


4 W 


Taganrog ... 


. 61 


47 N 


39 E 


Sutherlands 


23 


58 N 


4W 


Taghmon 


. 47 


52 N 


7W 


Sutlej, R 


64 


30 N 


74 E 


Tagliamento 


. 94 


44 N 


12 E 


Suttorina ... 


104 


40ir 


16 E 


Tagliamento, R. .. 


4 


46 N 


12 E 


Suva 


139 


18 S 


178 E 


Tagus, R 


7 


38 N 


lO'W 


Suwa, L. ... 


137 


36 N 


136 E 


Tahiti 


. 139 


20S 


160W 


Suwalki 


108 


54 N 


23 E 


Tahlub, R. 


. 124 


28 N 


62 E 


Suwaroff Is. 


139 


20 8 


ISO 


Taieri, R 


. 129 


46 S 


170 E 


Suyesti Krest 


61 


43 N 


47 E 


Taillebourg 


. 19 


46 N 


1 W 


Suzdal 


61 


56 N 


40 E 


Taimur, R. 


. 136 


75 N 


100 E 


Sveaborg ... 


61 


60 N 


25 E 


Taiping 


. 138 


23 N 


107 E 


Svealand ... 


17 


60N 


lOE 


Tai-tzu-Ho 


. 137 


41 N 


123 E 


Svenskund 


61 


60 N 


26 E 


Tajura 


. 130 


12 N 


43 E 


Sventzianj' ... 


96 


55 N 


26 E 


Taku 


. 138 Ins. 




Swakop, R. 


133 


23 8 


16 E 


Takushan 


. 137 


44 N 


124 E 


Swale, R 


121 


54 N 


2 W 


TalanaHill 


. 133 


28 S 


30 E 


Swallow Is. 


139 


20S 


160I: 


Talavera 


. 95 


40 N 


5 W 


Swally 


64 


21 N 


73 E 


Talcahuano 


. 106 


37 S 


73 W 


Swan, R 


128 


32 S 


116 E 


Talienwan 


. 138 


39 N 


122 E 


Swansea 


16 


52 N 


4 W 


Talifu 


. 138 


26 N 


100 E 


Swat, R 


124 


35 N 


73 E 


Ta-ling Ho 


. 137 


40N 


120E 


Swaziland ... 


133 


30 8 


aoB 


Talish 


. 124 


38 N 


48 E 


Sweden 


17 






Tallagh (Ireland) . 


. 27 


53 N 


6 W 


Swedish Pomerania 


62 


54 N 


13 E 


Tallagh (Ireland) . 


47 


52 N 


8 W 


Sweetheart Ab. 


23 


55 N 


4 W 


Tallahassee 


. 134 


30 N 


84 W 


Swellendam 


133 


34 S 


20 E 


Tallard 


. 19 


44 N 


6 E 


Swilly, Lough 


37 


54 N 


8 W 


Talmont 


. 19 


46 N 


2 W 


Swords 


27 


53 N 


6W 


Talsy 


. 19 


48 N 


IE 


Sydney (Austral.) 


128 


34 S 


151 E 


Taltal, Pt ... 


. 140 


25 S 


70 W 


Sydney (Canada) ... 


126 


46 N 


60 W 


Tamai 


. 132 


19 N 


36 E 


Syracuse 


87 


37 N 


15 E 


Tamajon 


. 95 


41 N 


3 W 


Syr Daria 


138 


40^ 


60E 


Tamames ... 


. 95 


41 N 


6W 


Syria 


3 






Taman 


. 108 


45 N 


37 E 


Syrmia 


21 


44 N 


16 E 


Tamar, R. (Eng.) . 


. 121 


51 N 


4W 


Syrokorenie 


96 


54 N 


31 E 


Tamar, R. (Tasmania) 128 


42 S 


147 W 


Szabacs 


3 


45 N 


20 E 


Tamatave ... 


.. 130 


18 S 


50 E 


Szalankamen 


48 


45 N 


20 E 


Tamaulipas 


. 134 


20N 


lOO w 


Szaszvaros ... 


21 


46 N 


23 E 


Tamboff ... 


.. 108 


53 N 


42 E 


Szatmar 


21 


48 N 


23 E 


Tampa 


. 140 


28 N 


82 W 


Szechwan ... 


138 


SON 


lOOE 


Tampesi, R. 


. 134 


23 N 


08 W 


Szegedin 


3 


46 N 


20 E 


Tampico 


. 106 


22 N 


98 W 



Index to Maps. 



219 



Map Lat. Long. 

Tamsui 140 25 N 122 B 

Tamworth 36 53 N 2W 

Tana 3 47 N 39 E 

Tana, L. (Egypt) ... 132 12 N 37 E 

Tana, R. (Africa, E.) 132 39 E 

Tana, R. (Norway) 141 70 N 26 E 

Tanaro, R 104 44 N 8E 

Tanb 124 26 N 55 E 

Tanezruft 130 24 N IE 

Tanganyika, L. ... 130 5S 30 E 

Tangariro, Mt ... 129 39 S 176 E 

Taugermunde ... 55 53 N 12 E 

Tangier 95 36 N 6W 

Tan Ho 137 41 N 123 E 

Tanjore 64 UN 79 E 

Tannenberg ... 55 54 N 20 E 

Tannu Mts ... 138 SON 90E 

Tantallon 23 56 N 3W 

Taormina 104 38 N 15 E 

Tapajos, R. ... 135 lO S 60 W 

Tapti, R 64 22 N 76 E 

Taranaki 129 40 S 172 E 

TaranakiB., N. ... 129 39 S 174 E 

Taranaki B., S. ... 129 40 S 174 E 

Tarantaise 25 44 N 6E 

Taranto 4 40 N 17 E 

Tarapaca 135 20 S 70 W 

Tarare 103 46 N 4E 

Tarascon 19 43 N 2E 

Tarbagatai Mts ... 138 40N 80E 

Tarbert 37 53 N 9W 

Tarbes 103 43 N 

Tarbet 23 56 N 6W 

Tarborough ... 72 36 N 77 W 

Targowicz 58 49 N 31 E 

Tarifa 95 36 N 6W 

Tarim 138 40 N 80 E 

Tarma 106 US 75 W 

Tarn 103 44 N 2E 

Tarn, R 103 44 N 2E 

Tarn et Garonne ... 103 44 MT O 

Tarnoff 108 50 N 21 E 

Tarnopol 108 SON 26 E 

Tare 94 44 N 8E 

Taro, R 4 Ins. 45 N 10 E 

Tarragona 7 41 N IE 

Tarsus 3 37 N 35 E 

Tartar Pazardzik... 119 42 N 24 E 

Tartary, G. of ... 138 40 W 140 E 

Tartas 19 44 N IW 

Tarudant 131 30 N 9W 

Tarutino 96 55 N 37 E 

Tarvis 93 46 N 14 E 

Ta-sbih-chiao ... 137 41 N 122 E 

Tashkend 124 43 N 69 E 

TasmanB 129 41 S 173 E 

Tasman's Benin. ... 128 44 S USE 

Tasman Sea ... 139 40 S 160 E 

Tata 10 48 N 18 E 

Tatamone 26 42 N HE 

Tati 133 21 S 28 E 

Tatta, L 3 36 N 30 E 

Tauber, R. ... 13 48 N 8 E 

Taucha 97 Ins, 



Map Lat. 

Taunton 16 51 N 

Taupo, L 129 39 S 

Tauranga 129 38 S 

Taurida 108 40N 

Tauroggen 59 55 N 

Taurus Mts ... 110 37 N 

Tavastehus ... 108 61 N 

Tavira 95 37 N 

Tavistock 113 51 N 

Tawe, R 121 51 N 

Tay, R 23 56 KT 

Taygetus, Mt ... 3 35 N 

Tayn Ab 23 58 N 

Tcherkesses ... 108 40N 

Tchesm6 61 38 N 

Tchetchnia ... 108 40W 

Te Anau, L. ... 129 45 S 

Teano 104 41 N 

Tech, R 95 43 N 

Tecklenburg ... 12 50 3Sr 

Tees, R 36 55 N 

Tegerrie 130 24 N 

Teglio 30 46 N 

Teheran 124 36 N 

Tehuacan 106 18 N 

Tehuantepec ... 139 13 N 

Tehuantepec, B. of 134 16 N 

Teifi, R 121 52 N 

Teignmouth ... 50 51 N 

Teith, R 23 56 N 

Tekke Turcomans ... 136 BON 

Telaf 108 42 N 

Tel-el-Kebir ... 132 1ns. 

Telgte 12 52 N 

Telissu 137 40 N 

Tell, R 123 20 N 

Tellnitz 92 Ins. 

Teme, R 121 52 N 

Temes, R Ill 45 N 

Temesvar 3 46 N 

Temesvar Vilayet ... 21 44 ST 

Tenasserim ... 125 ION" 

Tenda 25 44 N 

TendraB 115 46 N 

Tenedos 3 40 N 

Tenedos, B. of ... 110 40 N 

Teneriffe 130 28 N 

Tennessee ... ... 72 30r3r 

Tennessee, R. ... 72 34 N 

Tenos 3 38 N 

Tenriu, R 137 35 N 

Tensift, Wadi ... 131 32 N 

Tepic 134 20rr 

Teplitz 29 51 N 

Ter, R 95 42 N 

Terai, The 123 25 N 

Terceira 1 24 39 N 

Terdoppio, R. ... 83 45 N 

Terdshan 3 36 N 

Terek, R 61 43 N 

Tergoes 22 52 N 

Termonbarry ... 38 54 N 
Termonde (see Dender- 
monde) 



Long. 

3 W 
176 E 
176 E 
30E 

22 B 
32 E 

24 E 

8 W 

4 W 
4W 
4117 

20E 
4 W 
30E 
26 E 
40E 
168 E 

14 E 
3E 
4E 
2W 

15 B 
10 E 
51 E 
97 W 
95 W 
95 W 

4W 

3 W 

4W 

50 E 

46 E 

8E 

122 E 

83 E 

3W 
21 E 
21 B 
20E 
90E 
8E 
32 E 
26 E 

26 E 
17 W 

QO'W 
87 W 

25 E 
138 E 

9 W 
IIOIV 

14 E 

3E 

80E 

27 E 
9E 

40E 

46 B 

5E 

8W 



220 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long 


Ternate 


43 Ins. 




Thusis 


30 


47 N 


9E 


Term 


86 


43 N 


13 E 


Tianshan Mts 


138 


40 17 


70E 


T^rouanne ... 


22 


51 N 


2E 


Tiber, E 


104 


42 N 


12 E 


Terracina 


.2.6 


42 N 


13 E 


Tibesti 


130 


20 N 


20 E 


Terra di Lavoro ... 


4 


40I7 


12 S 


Tibesti Mts 


130 


20 N 


20 E 


Terra Firma 


2 


O 


sew ' 


Tibet 


138 






Terranova (Sardinia) 


26 


40 N 


10 E 


Tibet, Little 


124 


35 N 


76 E 


Terranova (Sicily) 


104 


37 N 


14 E 


Tichvin 


32 


60 N 


33 E 


Terschelling 


109 


53 N 


5 E 


Ticino 


15 


46 N 


8E 


Teschen 


12 


50 N 


19 E 


Ticino, E 


104 


45 N 


9E 


Test, E 


121 


51 N 


1 W 


Ticonderoga Har. ... 


70 


44 N 


73 W 


Tet, K 


95 


43 N 


3 E 


Tidikelt 


131 


28 N 


2E 


Tete 


130 


X6S 


33 E 


Tidone, E 


88 


45 N 


10 E 


Tetuan 


131 


36 N 


5W 


Tidor 


139 


IN 


128 E 


Teusin 


32 


59 N 


28 E 


Tieling 


137 


42 N 


124 E 


Teviot, E 


121 


55 N 


3W 


Tientsin 


138 


39 N 


117 E 


Teviotdale 


23 


55 N 


3 W 


Tierra del Fuego ... 


106 


54 S 


69 W 


Tewkesbury- 


16 


52 N 


2W 


Tiete, E 


135 


20 S 


50 W 


Texas 


72 


30N 


wovr 


Tiffauges 


82 


47 N 


1 W 


Texcuco 


2 


19 N 


99 W 


Tiflis 


.61 


42 N 


45 E 


Texel 


22 


53 N 


5E 


Tiger B 


133 


16 S 


12 B 


Thaba, E 


130 


13 N 


12 E 


Tigri 


130 


15 N 


38 E 


Thabanchu 


133 


29 S 


27 E 


Tigris, E 


3 


35 m 


40E 


Thala 


131 


36 N 


9E 


Tilburg 


109 


52 N 


5E 


Thame, E 


121 


52 N 


1 W 


Tilbury 


16 


51 N 





Thames, R. (Canada) 


70 


43 N 


82 W 


Till, E 


16 


54 JX 


4 W 


Thames, E. (England) 


36 


52 N 





Tilsit 


58 


55 N 


22 E 


Thames, E. (N.Z.) 


129 


38 S 


176 E 


Timak, E 


120 


44 N 


22 E 


Thana 


122 


19 N 


73 E 


Timaru 


129 


44 S 


171 E 


Thasos I 


3 


40N 


20E 


Timbuctu 


130 


17 N 


3 W 


Theiss, E 


3 


45 N 


2oz: 


Timok 


119 


44 N 


22 E 


Theiss, E., Circle of 








Timok, E 


119 


44 N 


22 E 


the Lower 


111 


44 at 


20 E 


Timor 


128 


10 8 


120E 


Theiss, E., Circle of 








Timor Laut Is. 


128 


lO s 


130E 


the Upper .« 


111 


48 N 


20E 


Timor Sea ... 


128 


20 S 


120E 


Thermisi 


3 


37 N 


23 E 


Tinnevelly 


64 


9N 


78 E 


Therouanne {see T6- 








Tinos {see Tenos) 








rouanne) 








Tinta 


106 


14 S 


72 W 


Thessaly 


105 


36 N 


20 E 


Tintern Ab. 


16 


52 N 


3 W 


Thetford Ab. 


16 


52 N 


IE 


Tippecanoe, E. 


72 


41 N 


86 W 


Thiancom-t 


118 


49 N 


6E 


Tipperah 


125 


20N 


90E 


Thionville 


103 


49 N 


6E 


Tipperary 


27 


52 N 


8 W 


Thirsk 


113 


51 N 


IW 


Tippermuir . . . 


23 


56 N 


4W 


Tholen 


22 


52 N 


4E 


Tirah 


124 


34 N 


71 E 


Thomar 


7 


40 N 


8W 


Tirano 


30 


46 N 


10 E 


Thomond ... 


27 


53 N 


9 W 


Tirawley 


27 


54 m 


low 


Thomson, E. 


128 


24 S 


144 E 


Tirce " 


23 


56 N 


7W 


Thorn 


62 


53 N 


19 E 


Tiris... 


130 


23 N 


15 W 


Thouars 


79 


47 N 





Tirlemont ... 


22 


51 N 


5E 


Thouet, E 


19 


47 N 





Tirnovo 


119 


42 N 


26 E 


Thoulouse 


22 


51 N 


4E 


Tirreagh 


27 


54 N 


9W 


Thrace 


119 


40IV 


24 E 


Tisza, E. {see 








Three Kings I. 


129 


36 S 


172 E 


Theiss, E.) 








Three Points, C. ... 


65 


5N 


2 W 


Titalya 


123 


26 N 


89 E 


Three Eivers 


70 


46 N 


73 W 


Titicaca, L. 


106 


16 S 


69 W 


Thun 


90 


47 N 


8E 


Tinmen 


136 


57 N 


66 E 


Thun, L 


90 


47 N 


8E 


Tiverton 


121 


51 N 


4W 


Thur Desert, The... 


99 


24 r? 


70 E 


Tiverton Castle ... 


36 


51 N 


4W 


Thur, E 


90 


48 N 


9E 


Tivoli 


104 


42 N 


13 E 


Thurgau 


12 


46 NT 


8 E 


Tizin 


124 


34 N 


70 E 


Thuringia 


14 


46 N 


8 E 


Tlaxcala (Tlaxcallan] 


106 


19 N 


98 W 


Thuringian Forest 


97 


48 "SS 


8E 


Tlemcen 


7 Ins. 




Thursday I. 


140 


20S 


120E 


Tobago 


69 


UN 


61 W 


Thurso 


23 


59 N 


4W 


Tobitschau ... 


117 


49 N 


17 E 



Index to Maps. 



221 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Tobol, R 


138 


SON 


GOB 


Touat ■ 


131 


28 N 


IE 


Tobolsk 


136 


59 N 


68 E 


Tougourt 


131 


33 N 


6E 


Tobolsk, Govt of ... 


136 


60 3ff 


60x: 


Toul 


12 


49 N 


6E 


Tocantins, R. 


135 


10 s 


48 W 


Toulon 


8 


43 N 


6E 


Toce, R 


90 


46 N 


8E 


Toulouse 


8 


44 N 


IE 


Tochi, R 


124 


33 N 


70 E 


Touraine 


8 


44 XT 


O 


Tocopilla ... 


140 


22 S 


69 W 


Tourane 


140 


16 N 


119 E 


Toda B 


137 


35 N 


139 E 


Tour Charbonniere 


19 


44 N 


4E 


Toggenburg 


15 


46 N 


8E 


Tournai (Tournay) 


109 


51 N 


3E 


Togo 


140 


8N 





Tournebut 


82 


49 N 





Togoland 


130 


8N 


IE 


Tourn^sis 


22 


SON 


2E 


Tokar 


132 


19 N 


38 E 


Tournon (France),.. 


19 


44 N 


IE 


Tokat 


3 


40 N 


37 E 


Tournon (France).,. 


19 


45 N 


5E 


Tokay 


3 


48 N 


21 E 


Tours 


8 


47 N 


IE 


Tokelau or Union I. 


140 


20 8 


180 


Toury 


118 


48 N 


2E 


Tokio (Yedo) 


137 


36 N 


140 E 


Toury, R 


121 


52 N 


4 W 


Toledo 


7 


40 N 


4W 


Tower Hamlets ... 


114 


51 N 





Toledo, Sa de 


7 


38 17 


6 W 


Townsville ... 


128 


19 S 


147 E 


Tolentino ... 


104 


43 N 


13 E 


Toybrien 


27 


53 N 


9W 


Tolna 


3 


46 N 


19 E 


Traarbach (seeTrarbach) 






Tolosa 


95 


43 N 


2W 


Trachenberg 


12 


51 N 


17 E 


Tomsk 


138 


56 N 


84 E 


Tracton 


37 


52 N 


8W 


Tone, R 


121 


51 N 


3 W 


Trafalgar B. 


87 


36 N 


6W 


Tonegawa, R, 


137 


36 N 


140 W 


Trafalgar, C. 


95 


36 N 


6W 


Tonga I 


139 


40S 


ISO 


Trahona 


30 


46 N 


10 E 


Tongaland 


133 


27 S 


32 E 


Traietto 


4 


41 N 


14 E 


Tongland Ab. 


23 


55 N 


4W 


Tralee 


47 


52 N 


low 


Toni, R 


132 


7N 


28 E 


Tranent 


56 


56 N 


3W 


Tonk 


122 


26 rr 


76 E 


Trani 


4 


41 N 


16 E 


Tonkin 


138 


20 N 


100 E 


Trannes 


97 


48 N 


5E 


Tonkin, G. of 


138 


19 N 


106 E 


Tranquebar 


64 


UN 


80 E 


Tonnay Charente . . . 


19 


46 N 


1 W 


Trans-Baikal 


136 


SON 


llOE 


Tonning 


116 


54 N 


9E 


Trans-Caspian Prov. 


124 






Tonsberg ... 


17 


59 N 


10 E 


Trans-Caucasia 


124 


41 N 


48 E 


Toome 


27 


55 N 


6W 


Transvaal ... 


133 


30S 


20E 


Toorsheez ... 


124 


35 N 


58 E 


Transylvania 


.3 


4S N 


20E 


Topeka 


72 


39 N 


96 W 


Trapani 


4 


38 N 


12 E 


Tor 


132 


28 N 


34 E 


Traquair 


23 


56 N 


3W 


Tor Bay 


50 


50 N 


3W 


Trarbaeh ... 


45 


SON 


7E 


Torcello 


4 


45 N 


12 E 


Trasimene ... 


94 


40 10' 


12 E 


Tordesillas ... 


7 


41 N 


5W 


Trasimeno, L. 


4 


42 sr 


12 E 


Torfou 


82 


47 N 


1 W 


Traun, R 


88 


48 N 


14 E 


Torgau 


12 


52 N 


13 E 


Traunsviertel 


13 


48 N 


ME 


Tormes, R 


95 


40ir 


8 TXT 


Trautenau ... 


117 Ins. 




Torna 


21 


48 N 


20E 


Travaneore 


64 


8N 


77 E 


Tornea 


108 


66 N 


24 E 


Trave, R 


12 


S4 JX 


8E 


Tornea, R, ... 


141 


66 N 


24 E 


Traventhal 


54 


54 N 


10 E 


Toro 


7 


42 N 


5W 


Traz-os-Montes ... 


7 


40Iff 


8 W 


Toronto 


70 


44 N 


79 W 


Trebbia, R. 


88 


46 17 


8 E 


Torrelobaton 


7 


42 N 


5W 


Trebizond 


3 


41 N 


40 E 


Torrens, L.... 


128 


31 S 


138 E 


Trecate 


4 Ins 


. 45 N 


9E 


Torres St 


128 


lis 


143 E 


Treene, R. ... 


116 


55 N 


9E 


Torres Vedras 


95 


39 N 


9W 


Tregony 


113 


50 N 


5W 


Torrington 


36 


52 N 


4W 


Tr^laze 


103 


47 N 





Tortola I 


69 


18 N 


65 W 


Trengganu ... 


125 


O 


lOOE 


Tortona 


4 


45 N 


9E 


Trengs6n 


21 


48 M 


16 E 


Tortosa 


7 


41 N 


IE 


Trent 


14 


46 N 


11 E 


Tortuga I 


69 


21 N 


73 W 


Trent, Bishopric of 


12 


46 N 


8E 


Tory I 


37 


54 N 


low 


Trent, R 


16 


S2 JSt 


2 IXT 


Tosa 


137 


32 IT 


132 E 


Trentino 


111 


44 N 


8E 


Toski 


132 


23 N 


32 E 


Trenton 


70 


40 N 


75 W 


Toss 


15 


47 N 


9E 


Treptow (Pomerania 


E.)12 


54 N 


15 E 


Totnes 


113 


50 N 


4W 


Treptow ( , , 


W.)62 


54 N 


13 E 


Touaregs 


130 


20 N 


5E 


Trescorre 


104 


46 N 


10 E 



222 



Index to Maps. 



Treuenbrietzen 

Treves 

Treviglio 

Treviso 

Tr^voux 

Triana 

Trianon 

Trichinopoly 

Triebel 

Trient {see Trent) 

Trier 

Trieste 

Trim 

Trincomali ... 

Trinidad 

Trinity Bay 

Trinomali ... 

Tripalda 

Triploe Heath 

Tripoli (Africa) 

Tripoli, Province of 

Tripoli (Syria) 

Tripolitza ... 

Tristan da Cunha 

Trocadero ... 

Troezen 

Troia 

Troki 

Trombetas, E. 
Trondhjem ... 

Tronto 

Troppau 

Troyes 

Trujillo (Am. Cent.) 

Trujillo (Am. S.) ... 

Truro (Canada) 

Truro (England) ... 

Truxillo [see Trujillo) 

Tsana 

Tsarskoe Selo 

Tschetang ... 

Tschetatea Alba ... 

Tsinan Fu ... 

Tsingtao 

Tsugaru St. 

Tsushima I. 

Tuam 

Tuamotu 

Tiibingen ... 

Tucquen 

Tucson 

Tucuman ... 

Tudela (Spain) 

Tudela (Spain) 

Tugela, B 

Tula 

Tulbagh 

Tulczyn 

Tuli 

Tulle 

Tuln 

Tulsk 

Tumen 

Tummel, R. 



Map 
57 

97 

4 

88 

79 

7 



Lat. 
52 N 
50 N 

46 N 
46 N 
46 N 
37 N 



97 Ins. 
64 11 N 
33 50 N 



33 

86 

37 

64 

69 

126 

64 

4 

36 

130 

130 

110 

105 

65 

95 

105 

4 

58 

135 

17 

94 

12 

8 

134 

106 

126 

36 

130 

61 
138 
3 
138 
138 
137 
137 

37 
139 

12 

132 

134 

106 

7 

95 
133 
108 
133 
108 
133 
103 

48 

37 
137 

23 



SON 
46 N 

54 N 
9N 

ION 

40N 

12 N 

41 N 

52 N 

33 N 
20N 

34 N 
37 N 

40 S 
37 N 
37 N 
41 N 

55 N 
IS 

63 N 
43 N 
SON 

48 N 
16 N 

8S 

45 N 
SON 

12 N 
60 N 
29 N 

46 N 
37 N 
36 N 

41 N 
32 9T 

53 N 
20 S 

49 N 
2 N 

32 N 
26 S 

42 N 
42 N 
29 S 

54 N 

33 S 
49 N 
22 S 
45 N 
48 N 
54 N 
42 N 
57 N 



Long. 

13 E 

7B 

10 E 

12 E 
SE 

6 W 

79 E 

13 E 

7E 

14 E 

7 W 
81 E 
62 W 

60 IV 
79 E 

15 E 


13 B 
O 

36 E 

22 B 
SOW 

6W 

23 E 
ISE 
25 B 
67 W 
10 B 
13 E 

18 E 
4E 

86 W 

79 W 

61 W 

5 W 

37 E 
30 E 
91 E 

30 E 
117 E 
120 E 
140 E 

128 S 

9 W 

140 W 

9E 

35 E 

111 W 

64 W 

2 W 

5 W 

31 E 

38 E 

19 E 
29 E 
29 E 

2E 

16 E 
8W 

129 E 
4W 



Map 

Tundza, R. ... 119 

Tungabhadra, R. ... 64 

Tungchow ... ... 138 Ins. 

Tunguska, R., 

Lower, Middle 136 

Tunguska, R., Up. 136 

Tunis 131 

Tunis, G. of ... 131 

Tuong, R 132 

Tura, R 136 

Turbigo 104 

Tiirckheim [see Tiirk- 

heim) 

Turcoing ... ... 81 

Turenne ... ... 8 

Turfan 138 

Turgai 136 

Turin ... ... 4 

Turkestan 138 

Turkestan, Eastern 136 

Turkestan (Hazrat) 136 

Turkestan, Western 136 

Tiirkheim ... ... 40 

Turkmanchay ... 108 

Turks Is 69 

Turnagain, C. ... 129 

Turnau 57 

Turnham Green ... 36 

Turnhout 22 

Turocz 21 

Turshiz {see Toorsheez) 



Lat. 
42 N 
16 N 



Tuscany 
Tuscaroras ... 
Tuscumbia ... 
Tushino 
Tutbury ... 
Tuttlingen ... 
Tutuila 
Tver 

Tweed, R. ... 
Tweeddale ... 
Twizel Bridge 
Tyne, R. ... 
Tynemouth 
Tyrconnell ... 



26 

68 

74 

52 

16 

39 

139 

108 

16 

23 

16 

36 

114 

27 



Tyrnau(NagySzombat) 21 

Tyrol 12 

Tyrolese Alps ... 83 

Tyrone 37 

Tyrrells 27 

Tzarevozaimische ... 96 

Tzechi 138 

Ubanghi 130 

Ubangi,R.(Ubanghi) 132 

Uberlingen ... ... 12 

Ucayali, R. ... 106 

Uckermark (Ukermark) 12 

Uda B 138 

Udaipur ... ... 64 

Uddevally 53 

Udine ... ... 4 

Udinsk 136 

Udong 125 



SON 
60 27 

37 N 
37 N 
6N 
SON 
46 N 



SIN 
44 N 

43 N 
50 N 

45 N 
40 N 
40IV 

44 N 
42 N 
48 N 
37 N 
21 N 
40 S 
SIN 

52 N 
SIN 

48 N 

42 N 
35 If 

35 N 

56 N 
S3N 
48 N 

20S 

57 N 
54 N 
56 N 
56 N 
55 N 

55 N 
54 N 

48 N 
46 It 

46 N 
54 IT 

53 N 

56 N 
30 N 

5N 

4N 

48 N 

6S 

50ir 

50 N 

25 N 

58 N 
46 N 
52 N 
12 N 



Long. 
27 E 
76 E 



90x: 

90E 

10 E 

10 B 

30 E 

60 S 

9E 



3E 
O 

89 E 

64 E 

8B 

80i: 

80E 

68 E 

70 E 
7E 

47 E 

71 W 
177 E 

ISE 



5 E 
16 E 

loi: 

80 W 

88 W 
37 E 

2 W 
9E 

180 
36 E 
4 TV 

3 W 
2 W 
2 W 
1 W 

lO w 

16 E 
8S 

10 E 
8 W 
8 W 

35 E 
121 E 

21 E 
21 E 
9E 
74 W 
12 E 
130 E 
74 E 

12 E 

13 E 
108 E 
105 E 



Index to Maps. 



223 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Ufa 


61 


55 N 


56 E 


Usora 


3 


45 N 


18 E 


Ugab 


133 


21 S 


15 B 


Ussa, E. 


141 


67 N 


60 E 


Ugine 


104 


46 N 


7B 


Ussuri, E 


138 


46 N 


134 E 


Uglich 


52 


58 N 


38 B 


Uster 


112 


47 N 


9E 


Uist, N. and S. ... 


56 


66 N 


8 V9 


Ust Urt 


136 


40 N 


50 E 


Uitenhage 


133 


34 S 


25 E 


Utah 


72 


aONT 


120 IXT 


Uj Becse ... 


111 


46 N 


20 E 


Utica 


72 


43 N 


75 W 


Ujjain 


99 


23 N 


76 E 


Utitza 


96 


55 N 


36 E 


Ukraine 


61 


40N 


SOE 


Utrecht (Afr. S.) ... 


133 


28 S 


30 E 


Uleaborg ... 


108 


65 N 


26 B 


Utrecht (Netherlands) 12 


52 N 


5E 


Uliassutai ... 


138 


48 N 


97 E 


Uttoxeter ... 


36 


53 N 


2 W 


Uliungur ... 


138 


47 N 


87 E 


Uvatz 


111 


44 N 


19 E 


Ulm 


12 


48 N 


10 E 


Uwajima 


137 


33 N 


133 E 


Ulster 


27 






Uxbridge ... 


36 


52 N 





Ultra puertos 


7 


42 N 


2vr 


Uyeno 


137 


36 N 


140 E 


Ulundi 


133 


28 S 


32 E 


Uz^s 


79 


44 N 


4E 


Ulya, E 


136 


SON 


140E 










Umbria 


104 


43 N 


12 E 


Vaal, E. (Afr. S.) ... 


133 


27 S 


26 E 


Umkomanzi, E. ... 


133 


30 S 


31 E 


Vaal, E. (Neth.) ... 


62 


52 N 


5 E 


Umtata 


133 


32 S 


29 E 


Vaal Kranz .« 


133 


29 S 


29 E 


Umzimkulu 


133 


SOS 


30 E 


Vaarde Aa . . . 


116 


56 N 


9E 


Umzimkulu, E. ... 


133 


31 S 


30 E 


Vado 


83 


44 N 


8E 


Una, E. 


26 


45 N 


16 E 


Vadstena 


17 


58 N 


15 E 


Unalashka I. 


140 


40I7 


180 


Vaduz 


30 


47 N 


10 E 


Unga I 


140 


40N 


180 


Vajutza, E. 


119 


40 1^ 


20E 


Ungava 


126 


50N 


80 W 


Vakhsh, E. 


124 


38 N 


69 E 


Ungava B 


126 


58 N 


68 W 


Valais 


15 


46 N 


6 E 


Union Is. ... 


139 


20 8 


180 


Val de Travers 


112 


47 N 


7E 


Union of S. Africa 


130 






Val di Chiana 


4 


42 17 


lO E 


United Provinces 








Valdivia 


106 


40 S 


73 W 


(Canada) 


127 






Valdore 


64 


12 N 


79 E 


United Provinces(Ind. ) 122 


20 N 


70E 


Valeggio 


83 


45 N 


HE 


United Provinces of 








Valenpay 


103 


47 N 


2E 


the Netherlands 


22 






Valence 


8 


45 N 


5E 


Unstrut, E. 


92 


51 N 


HE 


Valencia 


7 


39 N 





Unterwalden 


15 


47 N 


8E 


Valencia de Alcantara 


95 


39 N 


7W 


Upper Ossory 


27 


53 N 


8W 


Valenciennes 


22 


50 N 


4E 


Upsala 


17 


60 N 


18 E 


Valencz 


111 


47 N 


19 E 


Uraga 


137 


36 N 


140 E 


Valendas ... 


30 


47 N 


9E 


Ural 


108 


51 N 


51 E 


Valengin ... 


107 


47 N 


7E 


Ural, Govt of 


136 


40N 


SOB 


Valenza 


4 Ins. 


45 N 


9E 


Ural Mts 


108 






Valerien, Mt 


103 


49 N 


2E 


Ural, E 


108 


sour 


SOS 


Valetta 


86 


36 N 


14 E 


Uralsk [see Ural) 








Valladolid (Am. Cent. 


) 106 


20 N 


101 W 


Urana 


3 


44 N 


16 E 


Valladolid(Am.Cent. 


) 106 


21 N 


88 W 


Uranja 


119 


43 N 


22 E 


Valladolid (Spain) 


7 


42 N 


5W 


Urbana 


74 


38 N 


77 W 


Vallecas 


95 


40 N 


4W 


Urbino 


4 


44 N 


13 E 


Valle Crucis Ab. ... 


16 


53 N 


3 W 


Ure, E 


121 


54 N 


2W 


Valine des Dappes 


90 


46 N 


6 E 


Urga 


138 


48 N 


107 E 


Val-Leventina 


15 


46 N 


8E 


Uri 


15 


46 N 


8E 


Valley Forge 


70 


40 N 


75 W 


Ursprung 


45 


49 N 


10 E 


Vallombrosa 


4 


44 N 


HE 


Uruguay 


135 


40 8 


60 W 


Vallon 


19 


44 N 


4E 


Uruguay, E. 


106 


28 S 


56 W 


Vallona 


105 


40 N 


19 E 


Urumtsi 


138 


44 N 


88 E 


Vails 


95 


41 N 


IE 


Urup 


137 


[ns. 




Val-Maggia 


15 


46 N 


8E 


Usbegs 


136 


40 N 


66 E 


Valmy 


81 


49 N 


5E 


Usboi, E 


125 


40 N 


56 E 


Valognes ... 


19 


49 N 


2W 


Usedom 


33 


54 N 


14 E 


Valois 


8 


48 17 


O 


Ushant 


79 


48 N 


5W 


Valparaiso 


106 


33 N 


72 W 


Usingen 


62 


50 N 


8E 


Valromey ... 


25 


46 N 


6E 


Usk, E 


121 


52 N 


3 W 


Valsh, E 


133 


28 S 


27 E 


Uskoko 


26 


44 N 


14 E 


Valtelline ... 


4 


46 N 


8B 


Uskub 


120 


42 N 


21 B 


Valutina-Gora 


96 


55 N 


32 E 



224 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Vamsadhara, B. ... 


123 


19 N 


84 E 


Van 


110 


38 N 


43 E 


Van, L 


3 


35 m 


40E 


Vancouver 


139 


49 N 


124 W 


Vancouver I. 


72 


49 N 


124 W 


Van Diemen's Land 


43 


60S 


i40z: 


Vannes 


8 


48 N 


3W 


Vanua Levu 


139 


20S 


160X: 


Var 


103 


43 N 


6E 


Var, K 


104 


44 N 


7E 


Varad 


21 


47 N 


22 E 


Varala 


61 


61 N 


28 E 


Varanger Fiord ... 


108 


70 N 


30 E 


Varasd 


21 


46 N 


16 E 


Varberg 


17 


57 N 


12 E 


Vardar, R — 


105 


42 N 


22 E 


Varennes 


79 


49 N 


4E 


Varilhes 


19 


43 N 


2E 


Varna 


3 


43 N 


28 E 


Varzin 


107 


54 N 


17 E 


Vas 


26 


47 N 


17 E 


Vasa 


108 


63 N 


22 E 


Vassy 


19 


48 N 


5E 


Vasvar 


48 


47 N 


17 E 


Vasylkoff 


108 


50 N 


30 E 


Vatan 


19 


47 N 


2 E 


Vaucelles 


22 


50 N 


3E 


Vauchamp 


97 


49 N 


4E 


Vaucluse 


94 


44 rr 


4 E 


Vaud (Pays de) ... 


15 


46 JX 


6x: 


Vaux 


81 


50 N 


5E 


Vazerol 


30 


47 N 


IDE 


Vechte, R 


109 


52 HJ 


6 E 


Veere 


22 


52 N 


4E 


Velasco 


71 


29 N 


95 W 


Velestino ... 


120 


39 N 


23 E 


Velichevo 


96 


55 N 


35 E 


Velikie Luki 


61 


56 N 


30 E 


Velletri 


4 


42 N 


13 E 


Vellore 


64 


13 N 


79 E 


Veluwe 


22 


52 N 


4E 


Velya 


54 


50 N 


20 E 


Venaissin ... 


8 


44 -N 


4 B 


Vendee 


103 


44 N- 


4 E 


Venden 


32 


57 N 


25 E 


Vendome ... 


79 


48 N 


IE 


Vendome, County of 


8 


44 rr 


O 


Venetia 


104 


44 N 


12 E 


Venezuela ... 


135 


O 


70 W 


Venezuela, G. of ... 


135 


12 N 


71 W 


Venice 


4 


45 N 


12 E 


Venice, G. of 


117 


44 N 


12 E 


Venloo 


12 


51 N 


6E 


Venosa 


4 


41 N 


16 E 


Ventimiglia 


4 


44 N 


8 E 


Ventuari, R. 


135 


O 


70 W 


Vera Cruz ... 


69 


19 N 


96 W 


Veragua 


106 


8N 


81 W 


Vera Paz ... 


106 


17 N 


89 W 


Vercelli 


4 


45 N 


8E 


Verchni 


136 


51 N 


108 E 


Verde, C 


2 


15 N 


18 W 


Verden 


54 


53 N 


9E 


Verden, Bishopric of 


12 


50-N 


8E 



Map Lat. 

Verdun, Bishopric of 12 49 N 

Verdun (France) ... 12 49 N 

Verdun (France) ... 19 44 N 

Vereeniging 133 27 S 

Vergara 95 43 N 

Vermejo 135 25 S 

Vermeland ... ... 17 65 N 

Vermont 72 40 W 

Verneuil 82 49 N 

Verni 136 43 N 

Vernon 79 49 N 

Verny ... ... 118 Ins. 

Verona ... ... 4 45 N 

Versailles 79 49 N 

Versoix 90 46 N 

Vertus 103 49 N 

Vertus, County of... 8 48 IT 

Verviers 109 51 N 

Vervins 19 50 N 

Vesoul 103 48 N 

Vesselovo 96 54 N 

Vesteras 17 60 N 

Vesuvius 26 40 N 

Veszpr6m 21 47 N 

Vet, R 133 28 S 

Vevay (Vevey) ... 25 46 N 

Vezins 19 47 N 

Viana 95 42 N 

Vianen 22 52 N 

Viatka 108 58 N 

Viatka, R 141 50 N 

Viazma ... ... 96 55 N 

Viborg (Denmark)... 17 57 N 

Viborg (Russia) ... 108 61 N 

Vicalvaro 95 40 N 

Vicenza 4 46 N 

Vich 95 42 N 

Vichy 19 46 N 

Vicosoprano ... 30 46 N 

Victoria (Afr. S.) ... 133 20 S 

Victoria (Brit. Col.) 139 48 N 

Victoria Desert ... 128 30 S 

Victoria Falls ... 133 18 S 

Victoria, L. ... 136 30 N 

Victoria Land ... 126 70 W 

Victoria (Mex.) ... 134 24 N 

Victoria Nyanza ... 130 2S 

Victoria, R. ... 128 16 S 

Vielings ... ... 87 Ins. 

Vienna 12 48 N 

Vienne (& Haute V.) 103 44 JH 

Vienne 8 45 N 

Vienne, R 8 44 N 

Viervoet 133 29 S 

Vierzehnheiligen ... 92 51 N 

Vigevano ... ... 4 Ins. 

Vignale 104 45 N 

Vigo 95 42 N 

Vihiers 82 47 N 

Vilagos Ill 46 N 

Vilaine, R 8 44 N 

Vilcabamba 106 13 S 

Viliia, R 96 55 N 

Viliui, R 139 65 N 



Long. 
5E 
5E 
IE 

28 E 
2W 

61 W 
lOE 
80 VT 
IE 

77 E 
IE 

11 E 
2E 
6E 
4E 
O 

6E 
4E 
6E 

28 E 

17 E 
14 E 

18 E 
26 E 

7E 

1 W 

7W 

5E 

50 E 

50E 

34 E 

9E 

29 E 
4 W 

12 E 
2E 

3 E 
10 E 

31 E 
122 W 
120 E 

26 E 
70E 

no "Mr 

99 W 

32 E 
130 E 

16 E 
O 

5E 
O 

27 E 
HE 

9E 
9W 
1 W 
22 E 

4 ixr 
72 W 
26 E 

120 E 



Index to Maps. 



225 



Map Lat. Long. 

Villach 62 47 N 14 E 

Villa de Conde ... 95 41 N 9 W 

Villa de S. Mojada 134 28 N 104 W 

Villafranca (Italy)... 4 Ins. 45 N HE 

Villafranca (Nice)... 25 44 N 7E 

Villafranca (Spain) 95 42 N 7 W 

Villa Gandolfo ... 104 42 N 13 E 

Villalar 7 42 N 5W 

Villanova d'Asti ... 25 45 N 8E 

Villanueva 7 42 N 1 W 

Villanuova 11 45 N BE 

Villapando 7 42 N 5 W 

Villarejo de Sal vanes 95 40 N 3 W 

Villastellona ... 104 45 N 8E 

Villavelha 95 40 N 8W 

Villaviciosa 95 41 N 3W 

Villa Vi9osa ... 7 39 N 7 W 

Villena 95 39 N 1 W 

Villeneuve (France) 8 44 N IE 

Villeneuve (France) 19 44 N 4 E 

Villeneuve St Georges 79 49 N 3 E 

Villersexel 118 48 N 6E 

Villiers 118 49 N 3E 

Villingen 45 48 N 8E 

Vilmanstrand ... 61 61 N 28 E 

Vilmergen 15 47 N 8E 

Vilna 108 55 N 25 E 

Vilosnes 81 49 N 5E 

Vilvoorde 22 51 N 4E 

Vimiero 95 39 N 9W 

Vincennes (France) 79 49 N 3 E 

Vincennes (U.S.A.) 72 39 N 87 W 

Vindhya Hills ... 64 16 N 72 E 

Vinegar Hill ... 47 53 N 6 W 

Vinkovo 96 55 N 37 E 

Vintschgau 30 46 W lO E 

Vionville 118 49 N 6E 

Virbazar 120 42 N 19 E 

Virginia 72 30 N 80 W 

Virginia, W. ... 72 30 N 80 W 

Virgin Is 69 18 N 64 W 

Vistritza, E. ... 119 40 N 22 E 

Vistula, E 62 52 N 16 E 

Vitebsk 58 55 N 30 E 

Viterbo 4 42 N 12 E 

Viti Levu 139 20 S 160 E 

Vitim, E 138 SON HOE 

Vitre 19 48 N IW 

Vitry (France) ... 19 49 N 5E 

Vitry (France) ... 97 Ins. 

Vittoria 79 43 N 3W 

Vittsjo 53 56 N 14 E 

Vivarais 79 44 N 4 E 

Viviers 8 44 N 5 E 

Vivinskoi 140 58 N 164 E 

Vizagapatam ... 64 18 N 83 E 

Vizen 95 41 N 8W 

Vizille 79 45 N 6E 

Vjasma 61 55 N 34 E 

Vladikavkaz ... 61 43 N 45 E 

Vladimir 108 56 N 40 E 

Vladivostok 138 43 N 132 E 

Vlieland 109 53 W 4E 

Voigtland 14 60 N 12 E 



105 

96 

12 

30 

61 

54 

103 

118 

110 

118 

120 

133 

133 



Voivodina ... 
Vola (Poland) 
Vola (Thessaly) ... 

Volga, E 

Volbynia 
Volkovisk ... 

Volo 

Vologda 

Volokolamksk 

Volta 

Volterra 

Voltri 

Volturno, E. 
Volynia [see Volhynia) 
Vonitza 

Vop, E 

Vorarlberg ... 
Vorder Ebein Thai 
Voronezh ... 

Vorstkla 

Vosges 
Vosges Mts 
Vourla, B. of 
Vouziers 

Vratza 

Vryburg 
Vryheid 

Waag, E 

Waal, E 

Wabash, E. 
Wachau 

Wadai 130 

Wadi Haifa ... 132 

Waesland 22 

Wageningen ... 22 

Wagga Wagga ... 128 

Waghausel 107 

Wagram ... ... 94 

Waha 140 

Wahabi 132 

Wahabis 110 

Waiau, E. (N. Z.) ... 129 

Waiau, E. (N. Z.) ... 129 

Waidhaus 29 

Waigaats ... ... 52 

Waikato 129 

Waikato, E. ... 129 

Waimakariri, E. ... 129 

Wairau, E. ... 129 

Waitangi 129 

Waitara 129 

Waitzen (Vacz) ... 26 

Wakatipu, L. ... 129 

Wakefield 16 

Wakkerstroom ... 133 

Waleheren I. ... 22 

Waldburg 12 

Waldeck 12 

Waldkirch 13 

Waldmiinchen ... 57 

Waldsee 13 

Waldshut 12 

Wales 34 



Map Lat. 
Ill 46 N 
108 Ins. 
105 39 N 

61 

53 

96 
119 
108 

96 

130 

4 

83 
104 



48 N 
53 N 
39 N 
59 N 
56 N 
8N 

43 N 

44 N 
41 N 

39 N 

55 N 

46 N 

47 N 
52 N 
SON 

48 N 

48 N 
39 N 

49 N 
43 N 

27 8 

28 S 



111 48 nr 

22 52 N 

72 38 N 

97 Ins. 

12 N 
22 N 
SIN 
52 N 
35 8 
49 N 
48 N 
30 N 
25 N 
sols' 
43 8 
46 S 
SON 
70 N 

37 8 

38 8 
43 8 
42 8 
45 8 

39 8 
48 N 
45 8 
54 N 
27 8 
51 N 
48 N 
SON 

48 N 

49 N 
48 N 
48 N 



Long. 

20 E 

23 E 

24 E 
24 E 

23 E 
40 E 
36 E 


HE 

9E 
14 B 

21 E 
33 E 

8 E 
9E 

39 E 
35 E 

4 E 
7E 

27 E 
5E 

24 E 

25 E 
31 E 

16 E 

6E 

88 W 

17 E 
31 E 

4E 
6E 

147 E 

8E 

17 E 

118 E 

40 E 
40N 
173 E 

168 E 
13 E 
60 E 

175 E 
175 E 

172 E 

173 E 
171 E 

174 E 
19 E 

169 E 
1 W 

30 E 
4E 

10 B 
8E 
8E 

13 E 

10 B 
8E 



C. M. H. VOL. XIV. 



16 



226 



Index to Maps. 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Walfisch Bay 


133 


23 S 


14 E 


Wei-hai-wei 


138 


37 N 


123 E 


Walhain 


98 


51 N 


5E 


Wei-ho 


138 


SO 17 


lOOB 


Walkenried 


40 


52 N 


11 E 


Weil 


12 


49 N 


9B 


Wallachia ... 


3 


45 N 


25 E 


Weilburg ... 


12 


50 N 


8B 


Wallenstadt, L. of 


15 


47 N 


9B 


Weimar 


12 


51 N 


HE 


Wallhof 


32 


57 N 


25 E 


Weinf elden 


15 


48 N 


9E 


Wallingford 


113 


52 N 


1 W 


Weingarten 


89 


48 N 


10 E 


Wallingford Ho. ... 


121 


52 N 


1 W 


Wein-gunga, R. ... 


123 


20 N 


80 E 


Walmer 


16 


51 N 


IE 


Weinsberg 


28 


49 N 


9B 


Walsal 


114 


53 N 


2 W 


Weissenburg (Alsace) 


81 


49 N 


8E 


Walshes 


27 


53 N 


6 W 


Weissenburg (Germany) 12 


49 N 


11 E 


Walsingham Ab. ... 


16 


53 N 


IE 


Weissenburg (Transyl.) 21 


46 N 


24 E 


Waltham Ab. 


16 


52 N 


1 W 


Weissenfels 


33 


51 N 


12 E 


Warn, R 


130 


7S 


37 E 


Weissenhorn 


13 


48 N 


10 B 


Wana 


124 


32 N 


70 E 


Weissen stein 


32 


59 N 


26 E 


Waiiaka, L. 


129 


45 S 


169 E 


Weldon 


74 


36 N 


77 W 


Wandiwash 


64 


12 N 


80 E 


Welland, R. 


121 


53 N 





Wangen 


12 


48 N 


10 E 


Welle, R 


132 


3N 


25 E 


Wangting ... 


138 


24 N 


97 E 


Wellesley Islands . . . 


128 


16 S 


140 B 


Wara 


130 


14 N 


21 E 


Wellesley Province 


125 


5N 


101 E 


Wardha 


122 


20 N 


79 E 


Wellington ... 


129 


41 S 


175 E 


Wardour Castle ... 


36 


51 N 


2 W 


Wellington I. 


135 


SOS 


75 W 


Ware 


36 


52 N 





Wells 


16 


51 N 


3 W 


Wareham ... 


113 


51 N 


2W 


Weils, L 


128 


27 S 


123 E 


Warendorf ... 


12 


52 N 


8E 


Wels 


12 


48 N 


14 E 


Wargaon (India) ... 


64 


21 N 


78 E 


Welshpool ... 


16 


53 N 


3 W 


Wargaon (India) ... 


99 


19 N 


74 E 


Wemyss 


23 


56 N 


3 W 


Wark 


16 


55 N 


2 W 


Wenchow ... 


138 


28 N 


121 E 


Warkworth 


16 


55 N 


2 W 


Wener, L. ... 


141 


SON 


10 B 


Warnemuude 


54 


54 N 


12 E 


Wenlock 


113 


53 N 


2W 


Warneton ... 


51 


51 N 


3E 


Weobley 


113 


52 N 


3 W 


Warnsfeld 


22 


52 N 


6E 


Weraroa 


129 


40 S 


175 E 


Warrego, B. 


128 


28 S 


146 E 


Werb 


62 


52 N 


8B 


Warrington 


36 


53 N 


3 W 


Werben 


33 


53 N 


12 B 


Warrisfcon ... 


23 


56 N 


3W 


Werdenberg 


15 


47 N 


9E 


Warsaw 


62 


52 N 


21 E 


Werfen 


62 


47 N 


13 B 


Warsaw, Grand 








Wernigerode 


55 


52 N 


11 E 


Duchy of 


97 






Werra, R 


39 


51 N 


10 B 


Warta, R. [see 








Wertheim ... 


12 


46 DT 


8 E 


Warthe, R.) 








Wertingen ... 


92 


49 N 


HE 


Wartburg 


12 


51 N 


10 E 


Wesel 


12 


52 N 


7E 


Wartenberg 


12 


51 N 


18 E 


Wesen 


15 


47 N 


9B 


Wartenburg 


97 


52 N 


13 E 


Wesenberg ... 


54 


59 N 


26 E 


Warthe, R. 


33 


52II 


16E 


Weser, R 


97 


52 N 


9E 


Warwick 


16 


52 N 


2W 


Wessprim (see Veszpr^ 


^m) 






Wash, The 


121 


5277 


O 


West Brenny 


27 


54X7 


B'W 


Washington 


72 


39 N 


77 W 


Westbury ... 


113 


SIN 


2W 


Washington State 


72 


40 1^ 


130W 


West Cape ... 


129 


46 S 


167 E 


Waterford ... 


37 


52 N 


7 W 


Western Pt 


128 


38 S 


145 B 


Waterloo 


98 


51 N 


4W 


West Fiord 


108 


68 N 


15 E 


Wattignies ... 


81 


50 N 


4E 


West Indies 


140 


20IT 


QO-W 


Wan 


132 


8N 


28 E 


Westland ... 


129 


44 S 


less 


Waveney, R. 


121 


52 N 


IE 


Westland Bay 


129 


44 S 


168 E 


Waverley Ab. 


16 


51 N 


1 W 


Westmeath 


37 


52 Ear 


8 "^ 


Wavre 


98 


51 N 


5 E 


Westminster 


113 


52 N 





Waxhaws ... 


70 


35 N 


81 W 


Westmorland 


16 


54 18- 


4 "W 


Weald, The 


121 


51 N 





Westphalia ... 


12 


50JJ 


8E 


Wear, R 


. 121 


55 N 


1 W 


West Point 


74 


38 N 


77 W 


Weaver 


. 121 


53 N 


2W 


West Point 


70 


41 N 


74 W 


Webi, R 


. 130 


5N 


45 E 


Westport 


129 


42 S 


172 E 


Weert 


22 


51 N 


6E 


West, R 


138 


23 N 


108 E 


Wehlau 


. 59 


55 N 


21 E 


Westwoldingerland 


22 


53 N 


7E 


Weichselmiinde 


. 58 


54 N 


19 E 


Wetter I 


139 


20S 


120E 


Weiden 


. 33 


50 N 


12 E 


Wetter, L. 


141 


50ir 


lOE 



Index to Maps, 



227 



Map Lat. Long. 

Wetter, R 118 SON 9E 

Wetterau 29 50 N 9E 

Wetzlar 12 51 N 8E 

Wexford 37 52 N 6W 

Wexio 53 57 N 15 E 

Wey, R 121 51 N 1 W 

Weymouth 37 51 N 2W 

Whaingaroa Harb. 129 38 S 175 E 

Whalley 16 54 N 2W 

Whampoa 138 23 N 112 E 

Whanganui ... 129 40 N 175 E 

Whanganui, R. ... 129 40 N 175 E 

Whangarei 129 36 S 174 E 

Wharfe, R. ... 36 54 N 2 W 

Wheeling 72 40 N 81 W 

Whitby 114 54 N IW 

Whitchurch ... 113 51 N 1 W 

White Bay 27 55 N 6W 

Whitehaven ... 114 55 N 4W 

White Hill 29 50 N 14 E 

Whitehorse 126 61 N 135 W 

White Lake ... 52 60 N 38 E 

Whites 27 54 N 6W 

Whitesand Bay ... 16 SON 6 "W 

White Sea 61 COW 30 E 

Whithorn Ab. ... 23 55 N 4W 

Whitland Ab. ... 16 52 N 5W 

Whydah 130 7N 2E 

Wick 23 58 N 3W 

Wicklow 37 53 N 6W 

Widdin 3 44 N 23 E 

Wielicz 20 56 N 31 E 

Wieliczka 58 50 N 20 E 

Wieliugs {see Vielings) 

Wielun 58 51 N 19 E 

Wiener Neustadt ... 12 48 N 16 E 

Wiener Wald ... 48 48 N 16 E 

Wiesbaden 107 50 N 8E 

Wiese 112 48 N 8E 

Wiesensteig ... 62 49 N 10 E 

Wiesloch 29 49 N 9E 

Wigan 36 54 N 2W 

Wight, Isle of ... 16 50 M" 2 "^T 

Wigtown 23 56 N 5W 

Wiju 137 40 N 125 E 

Wilde, R 117 1ns. 

Wilderness, The ... 74 38 N 77 W 

Wildhaus 15 47 N 9E 

Wilhelms Land, K. 140 20S 120Z: 

Wilhelmstahl ... 57 51 N 9 E 

Wilhelmstein ... 94 53 N 13 E 
Wiliczka {see Wieliczka) 
Willach {see Villach) 

Willebroek 22 51 N 4E 

Willenberg 92 53 N 21 E 

William, Fort ... 64 23 N 88 E 

William I. ... 126 60N lOO "W 

Williamsburg (Can.) 70 45 N 75 W 

Williamsburg (U.S.A.) 74 37 N 77 W 

Wlllowmore ... 133 33 S 23 E 

Wilmanstrand ... 53 61 N 28 E 

Wilmington (Del.) 68 40 N 75 W 

Wilmington (N. C.) 74 34 N 78 W 
Wilna {see Vilna) 



Cr. 



R. 



Coast 
Is. 



Wilson's 

Wilton 

Wiltshire 

Wimereux, 

Wimpfen 

Winburg 

Winceb}' 

Winchelsea 

Winchester (Eng.) 
Winchester (U.S.A.) 
Windau 
Windesem ... 
Windhoek ... 
Windsheim... 
Windsor (Canada) 
Windsor (England) 
Windsor, New 
Windward Channel 
Windward 
Windward 
Winnebah ... 
Winnington Bridge 
Winnipeg ... 
Winnipeg, L. 
Winnipegosis, L. ... 

Winterthur 

Wisbech 
Wisby 
Wischau 
Wischegrad 
Wisconsin ... 
Wisconsin, R. 
Wismar 
Wissengen ... 

Witebsk 

Witham Ab. 
Witham, R. 

Wittau 

Wittenberg 
Wittenweier 

Wittstock 

Witu 

Witwatersrand 

Wkra, R 

Wladimir ... 

Woburn 

Woerden 

Wohlau 

Woippy 

Wokokan I. 

Wolfenbiittel 

Wolfe's Camp (Quebec) 

Wolgast 

Wollin 

Wolmar 
Wolmirstedt 
Wolverhampton ... 
Wongrowa ... 
Woods, L. of the... 
Woodstock ... 
Woodstock, New ... 
Wooler 
Woolwich ... 
Woosung, R. & Tn. 



Map 
74 
16 
16 
87 
12 

133 
36 
16 
16 
74 
58 
6 

130 
12 

126 
16 

114 

134 
65 
69 
65 

121 

126 
70 

126 
15 
16 
17 
92 
21 
72 
72 
29 
12 
20 
16 

121 
93 
12 
39 
33 

130 

133 
92 
20 
16 
45 
12 

118 
66 
62 
67 
12 
62 
32 
33 

121 
58 
72 
16 

114 
56 
42 

138 



Lat. 
40 N 
51 N 
50I7 
Ins. 
49 N 
28 S 
53 N 
51 N 

51 N 
39 N 

57 N 

52 N 
23 S 

49 N 

42 N 
51 N 

51 N 
20 N 

o 
losr 

Ins. 

53 N 

50 N 
50I7 

52 N 

47 N 

53 N 

58 N 
49 N 

48 N 
40 97 

43 N 

54 N 

52 N 

55 N 

51 N 

53 N 
Ins. 

52 N 

48 N 

53 N 
3S 

26 S 

53 N 

51 N 

52 N 
52 N 

51 N 
Ins. 

35 N 

52 N 
Ins. 

54 N 

54 N 
58 N 
62 N 

53 N 

55 N 

49 N 
52 N 
52 N 

56 N 
51 N 
31 N 



Long. 
90 W 

2 W 
4 W 

9E 
27 E 



IE 

1 W 
78 W 
22 E 

6E 

17 E 
10 E 
83 W 

1 W 

1 W 
74 W 

20 "W 
70 "W 

3 W 
98 W 

lOO VT 

100 W 
9E 


18 E 
17 E 

19 E 
lOO "W 

90 W 

HE 

8E 

30 E 

2 W 


13 E 
8E 

12 E 
40 E 
27 B 

20 E 
2E 

1 W 
5E 

17 E 

76 W 
10 E 

14 E 
14 E 
25 E 
12 E 

2 W 
17 E 
95 W 

1 W 

1 W 

2 W 


121 E 



228 



Index to Maps, 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Wootton Bassett .. 


113 


52 N 


2W 


Yeu, I. de ... 


. 50 


47 N 


9W 


Worcester ... 


16 


52 N 


2W 


Yezd 


. 124 


32 N 


54 E 


Worcester (Am. N. 


70 


42 N 


72 W 


Yezo 


. 137 


4orr 


140I: 


Worms 


12 


SON 


8E 


Yilgarn 


. 128 


31 S 


119 E 


Worskla, K. 


58 


48 N 


32 E 


Ying chow ... 


. 138 


32 N 


116 B 


Worth 


81 


49 N 


8E 


Yingkow 


. 138 


41 N 


122 B 


Wrangel I. 


139 


eoN 


180 


Ymuiden 


. 109 


52 N 


5B 


Wrexham ... 


121 


53 N 


3W 


Yokohama ... 


. 137 


35 N 


140 B 


Wrotham Heath .. 


16 


51 N 





Yola 


. 130 


9 N 


13 E 


Wuchang 


138 


31 N 


114 E 


Yonne 


. 103 


48 N 


4E 


Wuhu 


138 


31 N 


118 E 


Yonne, E 


8 


48 N 





Wiirgen 


54 


56 N 


23 E 


York (Canada) 


. 70 


44 N 


80 W 


Wiirtemberg 


12 


46 N 


SB 


York (England) . 


. 16 


54 N 


1 W 


Wurzach 


13 


48 N 


10 E 


York (Maine) 


. 68 


43 N 


71 W 


Wurzburg ... 


12 


50 N 


10 E 


York, C 


. 128 


lis 


143 E 


Wurzen 


12 


51 N 


13 E 


York Factory 


. 126 


57 N 


92 W 


Wusterhausen 


62 


52 N 


14 E 


York Peninsula 


. 128 


20 s 


140I: 


Wutach, B. 


90 


47 N" 


8S 


York, E 


. 74 


37 N 


77 W 


Wycombe ... 


. 121 


52 N 


IW 


Yorkshire ... 


. 16 


54 K 


2'W 


Wyendael 


. 45 


51 N 


3E 


Yorkshire, N., W. c 


fe 






Wyoming ... 


. 72 


40 17 


no-w 


E. Eidings 


. 16 






Wyoming Val. 


. 70 


42 N 


76 W 


Youghal 


. 37 


52 N 


8W 


Wy token 


. 15 


47 N 


9E 


Youri 


. 130 


12 N 


6E 










Ypres 


.. 22 


51 N 


3E 


Xanten 


12 


52 N 


6E 


Yser 


.. 81 


51 N 


3E 


Xeres 


. 95 


37 N 


6W 


Yssel 


. 94 


52 rr 


4 z: 


XingU', E 


. 106 


20S 


60 W 


Yssel, E 


. 22 


52 N 


6E 


Xucar, K 


. 95 


39 N 





Ystad 


. 53 


55 N 


14 E 










Ythan, E 


. 23 


57 N 


2 W 


Yablonoi Mts 


. 138 






Yucatan 


. 69 


20 N 


90 W 


Yadkin, E. 


74 


35 N 


SOW 


Yucatan Str. 


. 134 


20 N 


90 W 


Yakutsk 


. 136 


62 N 


130 E 


Yukon 


.. 126 


60N 


140 W 


Yalomitsa, E. 


. 119 


44 N 


24 E 


Yukon Mts 


.. 139 


6orr 


160 W 


Yalta 


. 115 


44 N 


34 E 


Yukon, E 


.. 139 


60N 


160 W 


Yalu, E 


. 137 


40i)r 


124 12 


Yule, E 


. 128 


20 s 


118 E 


Yamaguchi 


. 137 


34 N 


131 E 


Yunnan 


. 138 


20 N 


100 E 


Yamassees ... 


. 68 


SON 


85 vir 


Yunnanfu ... 


.. 138 


26 N 


102 E 


Yana, E. ... 


. 136 


eoN 


130E 


Yuste 


7 


40 N 


6 W 


Yanaon 


. 64 


17 N 


82 E 


Yverdun 


. 90 


47 N 


7E 


Yandabu 


. 125 


22 N 


96 E 


Yvetot 


. 19 


50 N 


IE 


Yangtsun ... 


138 


[ns. 












Yang-tsze-kiang, E. 


138 


30 N 


110 E 


Zaan, E 


.. 22 


52 N 


5E 


Yapura, E. 


. 135 


IS 


70 W 


Zaandam ... 


. 22 


52 N 


5E 


Yare, E 


121 


53 N 


IE 


Zabern 


.. 12 


49 N 


7E 


Yarkand (India) .. 


124 


38 N 


77 E 


Zablat 


. 29 


49 N 


14 E 


Yarmouth (Canada^ 


126 


44 N 


66 W 


Zabljak 


3 


42 N 


19 E 


Yarmouth (Eng.) .. 


121 


53 N 


2E 


Zacatecas ... 


. 71 


22 N 


102 W 


Yarmouth (I. of W., 


113 


51 N 


2 W 


Zacatecas, Province 


of 71 


22 N 


102 W 


Yary, E 


135 





53 W 


Zagazig 


.. 132 Ins. 




Yasin 


124 


36 N 


73 E 


Zagrab 


21 


44 N 


12 S 


Yass Canberra 


. 128 


35 S 


149 E 


Zaidam 


. 138 


30 N 


90 11 


Yazoo, E. ... 


74 


33 N 


90 W 


Zaisan, L 


. 138 


48 N 


84 E 


Yecla 


95 


39 N 


1 W - 


Zajecar 


. 119 


44 N 


22 E 


Yellow E 


138 


30M 


no i: 


Zak, E 


. 133 


31 S 


21 E 


Yellow Sea... 


. 188 


3orr 


1201: 


Zala... 


. 26 


44 N 


16 B 


Yellowstone E. 


72 


4onr 


110 w 


Zambesi, E. 


. 130 


20 s 


20 E 


Yembo 


132 


24 N 


38 E 


Zambolim ... 


. 99 


15 N 


74 E 


Yenikale 


61 


46 N 


36 E 


Zamora (Am. Cent 


) 106 


20 N 


102 W 


Yenisei, E. 


136 


eoN 


80z: 


Zamora (Am. S.) . 


. 106 


4S 


79 W 


Yeniseisk ... 


136 


57 N 


92 E 


Zamora (Spain) . 


7 


42 N 


6W 


Yenishehr ... 


3 


40 N 


30 E 


Zamosz 


. 93 


51 N 


23 E 


Yeo, E 


36 


51 N 


3 W 


Zand, E 


. 133 


24 S 


30 E 


Yeovil 


36 


51 N 


3 W 


Zand Eiver Mts .. 


. 133 


24 S 


28 E 


Yeterop 


139 


40ir 


140E 


Zanivki 


. 96 


54 N 


28 E 



Index to Maps, 



229 





Map 


Lat. 


Long. 




Map 


Lat. 


Long. 


Zante I 


3 


35 N 


20i: 


Zittau 


.. 57 


51 N 


15 E 


Zanzibar I. 


. 130 


6S 


39 E 


Zizers 


.. 30 


47 N 


10 E 


Zapoli 


. 20 


58 N 


30 E 


Znaim (Znaym) 


.. 33 


49 N 


16 E 


Zaporogia ... 


. 61 


40N 


3x: 


Zolliken 


.. 15 


47 N 


9E 


Zara 


3 


44 N 


15 E 


Zolyom 


.. 26 


48 nr 


16 £ 


Zarnovicz ... 


. 93 


50 N 


20 E 


Zonhoven ... 


.. 109 


51 N 


5E 


Zealand (Denmark] 


116 


54 sr 


lOE 


Zorndorf 


.. 57 


53 N 


15 E 


Zealand (Holl.) {se 


e 






Zornoza 


.. 95 


43 N 


3 W 


Zeeland) 








Zossen 


.. 12 


52 N 


13 E 


Zebu 


2 


o 


120W 


Zoutpans Mts 


.. 133 


23 S 


30 E 


Zeeland 


. 22 


5onr 


21! 


Zubtzoff ... 


.. 96 


56 N 


35 E 


Zehdenick ... 


. 92 


53 N 


13 E 


Zug 


.. 15 


47 N 


9E 


Zehngerichte 


. 30 


46 rr 


9z: 


Zug, Canton of 


.. 15 


46 IT 


8x: 


Zeia, R 


. 136 


5onr 


i20i: 


Zug, L. of ... 


.. 112 


47 N 


9E 


Zeitz 


.. 62 


51 N 


12 E 


Zulfikar 


.. 124 


36 N 


61 E 


Zell (Germany) 


. 62 


48 N 


8 E 


Zullichau ... 


.. 57 


52 N 


16 E 


Zell (Tyrol)... 


.. 13 


47 N 


12 E 


Zululand ... 


.. 133 


28 S 


32 E 


Zembin 


.. 96 


54 N 


28 E 


Zumbo 


.. 130 


15 S 


30 E 


Zemplen 


. 26 


48 zr 


20z: 


Zurawna 


.. 48 


49 N 


24 E 


Zemsia, R 


. 108 


50 N 


19 E 


Zurich 


.. 15 


47 N 


9E 


Zenta 


.. 48 


46 N 


20 E 


Zurich, L. ... 


.. 90 


47 N 


SB 


Zer Afshan, R. 


. 124 


40 N 


66 E 


Zusmarshausen 


.. 39 


48 N 


11 E 


Zerbst 


.. 12 


52 N 


12 E 


Zutphen 


... 22 


52 N 


6E 


Zernez 


. 30 


47 N 


10 E 


Zuyder Zee 


... 22 


52 nr 


4 E 


Zeta, R 


.. 119 


43 N 


19 E 


Zweibriicken 


.. 12 


46 N 


4 E 


Zeugg 


.. 26 


44 N 


15 E 


Zwenigorod 


.. 96 


56 N 


37 E 


Zevenbergen 


.. 22 


52 N 


5E 


Zwettel 


.. 29 


49 N 


15 E 


Zevio 


.. 83 


45 N 


HE 


Zwickau 


.. 12 


51 N 


12 E 


Zhob, R 


.. 123 


31 N 


69 E 


Zwittawa, R. 


92 Ins. 




Zierickzee ... 


.. 22 


52 N 


4E 


Zwolle 


.. 22 


53 N 


6E 


Zips 


.. 26 


48 N 


20 E 


Zwyn 


6 


52 N 


6E 


Zitacuaro ... 


. 106 


19 N 


100 W 


Zype 


.. 87 Ins. 





CAMBRIDGE : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



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